A Course in Metric Geometry

Author: Dmitri Burago,I͡Uriĭ Dmitrievich Burago,Sergeĭ Ivanov

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821821296

Category: Mathematics

Page: 415

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``Metric geometry'' is an approach to geometry based on the notion of length on a topological space. This approach experienced a very fast development in the last few decades and penetrated into many other mathematical disciplines, such as group theory, dynamical systems, and partial differential equations. The objective of this graduate textbook is twofold: to give a detailed exposition of basic notions and techniques used in the theory of length spaces, and, more generally, to offer an elementary introduction into a broad variety of geometrical topics related to the notion of distance, including Riemannian and Carnot-Caratheodory metrics, the hyperbolic plane, distance-volume inequalities, asymptotic geometry (large scale, coarse), Gromov hyperbolic spaces, convergence of metric spaces, and Alexandrov spaces (non-positively and non-negatively curved spaces). The authors tend to work with ``easy-to-touch'' mathematical objects using ``easy-to-visualize'' methods. The authors set a challenging goal of making the core parts of the book accessible to first-year graduate students. Most new concepts and methods are introduced and illustrated using simplest cases and avoiding technicalities. The book contains many exercises, which form a vital part of the exposition.

A Course in Minimal Surfaces

Author: Tobias H. Colding,William P. Minicozzi

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821853236

Category: Mathematics

Page: 313

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Minimal surfaces date back to Euler and Lagrange and the beginning of the calculus of variations. Many of the techniques developed have played key roles in geometry and partial differential equations. Examples include monotonicity and tangent cone analysis originating in the regularity theory for minimal surfaces, estimates for nonlinear equations based on the maximum principle arising in Bernstein's classical work, and even Lebesgue's definition of the integral that he developed in his thesis on the Plateau problem for minimal surfaces. This book starts with the classical theory of minimal surfaces and ends up with current research topics. Of the various ways of approaching minimal surfaces (from complex analysis, PDE, or geometric measure theory), the authors have chosen to focus on the PDE aspects of the theory. The book also contains some of the applications of minimal surfaces to other fields including low dimensional topology, general relativity, and materials science. The only prerequisites needed for this book are a basic knowledge of Riemannian geometry and some familiarity with the maximum principle.

Manifolds and Differential Geometry

Author: Jeffrey Marc Lee

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848151

Category: Mathematics

Page: 671

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Differential geometry began as the study of curves and surfaces using the methods of calculus. In time, the notions of curve and surface were generalized along with associated notions such as length, volume, and curvature. At the same time the topic has become closely allied with developments in topology. The basic object is a smooth manifold, to which some extra structure has been attached, such as a Riemannian metric, a symplectic form, a distinguished group of symmetries, or a connection on the tangent bundle. This book is a graduate-level introduction to the tools and structures of modern differential geometry. Included are the topics usually found in a course on differentiable manifolds, such as vector bundles, tensors, differential forms, de Rham cohomology, the Frobenius theorem and basic Lie group theory. The book also contains material on the general theory of connections on vector bundles and an in-depth chapter on semi-Riemannian geometry that covers basic material about Riemannian manifolds and Lorentz manifolds. An unusual feature of the book is the inclusion of an early chapter on the differential geometry of hyper-surfaces in Euclidean space. There is also a section that derives the exterior calculus version of Maxwell's equations. The first chapters of the book are suitable for a one-semester course on manifolds. There is more than enough material for a year-long course on manifolds and geometry.

A First Course in Sobolev Spaces: Second Edition

Author: Giovanni Leoni

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470429217

Category: Sobolev spaces

Page: 734

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This book is about differentiation of functions. It is divided into two parts, which can be used as different textbooks, one for an advanced undergraduate course in functions of one variable and one for a graduate course on Sobolev functions. The first part develops the theory of monotone, absolutely continuous, and bounded variation functions of one variable and their relationship with Lebesgue–Stieltjes measures and Sobolev functions. It also studies decreasing rearrangement and curves. The second edition includes a chapter on functions mapping time into Banach spaces. The second part of the book studies functions of several variables. It begins with an overview of classical results such as Rademacher's and Stepanoff's differentiability theorems, Whitney's extension theorem, Brouwer's fixed point theorem, and the divergence theorem for Lipschitz domains. It then moves to distributions, Fourier transforms and tempered distributions. The remaining chapters are a treatise on Sobolev functions. The second edition focuses more on higher order derivatives and it includes the interpolation theorems of Gagliardo and Nirenberg. It studies embedding theorems, extension domains, chain rule, superposition, Poincaré's inequalities and traces. A major change compared to the first edition is the chapter on Besov spaces, which are now treated using interpolation theory.

Metric Structures in Differential Geometry

Author: Gerard Walschap

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387218262

Category: Mathematics

Page: 229

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This book offers an introduction to the theory of differentiable manifolds and fiber bundles. It examines bundles from the point of view of metric differential geometry: Euclidean bundles, Riemannian connections, curvature, and Chern-Weil theory are discussed, including the Pontrjagin, Euler, and Chern characteristic classes of a vector bundle. These concepts are illustrated in detail for bundles over spheres.

A Companion to Analysis

A Second First and First Second Course in Analysis

Author: Thomas William Körner

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821834479

Category: Mathematics

Page: 590

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This book not only provides a lot of solid information about real analysis, it also answers those questions which students want to ask but cannot figure how to formulate. To read this book is to spend time with one of the modern masters in the subject. --Steven G. Krantz, Washington University, St. Louis One of the major assets of the book is Korner's very personal writing style. By keeping his own engagement with the material continually in view, he invites the reader to a similarly high level of involvement. And the witty and erudite asides that are sprinkled throughout the book are a real pleasure. --Gerald Folland, University of Washingtion, Seattle Many students acquire knowledge of a large number of theorems and methods of calculus without being able to say how they hang together. This book provides such students with the coherent account that they need. A Companion to Analysis explains the problems which must be resolved in order to obtain a rigorous development of the calculus and shows the student how those problems are dealt with. Starting with the real line, it moves on to finite dimensional spaces and then to metric spaces. Readers who work through this text will be ready for such courses as measure theory, functional analysis, complex analysis and differential geometry. Moreover, they will be well on the road which leads from mathematics student to mathematician. Able and hard working students can use this book for independent study, or it can be used as the basis for an advanced undergraduate or elementary graduate course. An appendix contains a large number of accessible but non-routine problems to improve knowledge and technique.

Metric Structures for Riemannian and Non-Riemannian Spaces

Author: Mikhail Gromov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817645837

Category: Mathematics

Page: 586

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This book is an English translation of the famous "Green Book" by Lafontaine and Pansu (1979). It has been enriched and expanded with new material to reflect recent progress. Additionally, four appendices, by Gromov on Levy's inequality, by Pansu on "quasiconvex" domains, by Katz on systoles of Riemannian manifolds, and by Semmes overviewing analysis on metric spaces with measures, as well as an extensive bibliography and index round out this unique and beautiful book.

Topics in Geometric Group Theory

Author: Pierre de la Harpe

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226317199

Category: Mathematics

Page: 310

View: 1918

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In this book, Pierre de la Harpe provides a concise and engaging introduction to geometric group theory, a new method for studying infinite groups via their intrinsic geometry that has played a major role in mathematics over the past two decades. A recognized expert in the field, de la Harpe adopts a hands-on approach, illustrating key concepts with numerous concrete examples. The first five chapters present basic combinatorial and geometric group theory in a unique and refreshing way, with an emphasis on finitely generated versus finitely presented groups. In the final three chapters, de la Harpe discusses new material on the growth of groups, including a detailed treatment of the "Grigorchuk group." Most sections are followed by exercises and a list of problems and complements, enhancing the book's value for students; problems range from slightly more difficult exercises to open research problems in the field. An extensive list of references directs readers to more advanced results as well as connections with other fields.

A Course in Differential Geometry

Author: Thierry Aubin

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821872147

Category: Mathematics

Page: 184

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This textbook for second-year graduate students is an introduction to differential geometry with principal emphasis on Riemannian geometry. The author is well-known for his significant contributions to the field of geometry and PDEs - particularly for his work on the Yamabe problem - and for his expository accounts on the subject. The text contains many problems and solutions, permitting the reader to apply the theorems and to see concrete developments of the abstract theory.

Worlds Out of Nothing

A Course in the History of Geometry in the 19th Century

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857290601

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

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Based on the latest historical research, Worlds Out of Nothing is the first book to provide a course on the history of geometry in the 19th century. Topics covered in the first part of the book are projective geometry, especially the concept of duality, and non-Euclidean geometry. The book then moves on to the study of the singular points of algebraic curves (Plücker’s equations) and their role in resolving a paradox in the theory of duality; to Riemann’s work on differential geometry; and to Beltrami’s role in successfully establishing non-Euclidean geometry as a rigorous mathematical subject. The final part of the book considers how projective geometry rose to prominence, and looks at Poincaré’s ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and their physical and philosophical significance. Three chapters are devoted to writing and assessing work in the history of mathematics, with examples of sample questions in the subject, advice on how to write essays, and comments on what instructors should be looking for.

A Course in p-adic Analysis

Author: Alain Robert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387986692

Category: Mathematics

Page: 437

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Kurt Hensel (1861-1941) discovered the p-adic numbers around the turn of the century. These exotic numbers (or so they appeared at first) are now well-established in the mathematical world and used more and more by physicists as well. This book offers a self-contained presentation of basic p-adic analysis. The author is especially interested in the analytical topics in this field. Some of the features which are not treated in other introductory p-adic analysis texts are topological models of p-adic spaces inside Euclidean space, a construction of spherically complete fields, a p-adic mean value theorem and some consequences, a special case of Hazewinkel's functional equation lemma, a remainder formula for the Mahler expansion, and most importantly a treatment of analytic elements.

Functional Analysis

An Introduction

Author: Yuli Eidelman,Vitali D. Milman,Antonis Tsolomitis

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821836463

Category: Mathematics

Page: 322

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The goal of this textbook is to provide an introduction to the methods and language of functional analysis, including Hilbert spaces, Fredholm theory for compact operators, and spectral theory of self-adjoint operators. It also presents the basic theorems and methods of abstract functional analysis and a few applications of these methods to Banach algebras and the theory of unbounded self-adjoint operators. The text corresponds to material for two semester courses (Part I and Part II, respectively), and it is as self-contained as possible. The only prerequisites for the first part are minimal amounts of linear algebra and calculus. However, for the second course (Part II), it is useful to have some knowledge of topology and measure theory. Each chapter is followed by numerous exercises, whose solutions are given at the end of the book.

Differential Geometry

Bundles, Connections, Metrics and Curvature

Author: Clifford Henry Taubes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199605882

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

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Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the lingua franca of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. Supplying graduate students in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects, this book would suit a one-semester course on the subject of bundles and the associated geometry.

Modern Geometric Structures and Fields

Author: Сергей Петрович Новиков,Искандер Асанович Тайманов

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821839292

Category: Mathematics

Page: 633

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The book presents the basics of Riemannian geometry in its modern form as geometry of differentiable manifolds and the most important structures on them. The authors' approach is that the source of all constructions in Riemannian geometry is a manifold that allows one to compute scalar products of tangent vectors. With this approach, the authors show that Riemannian geometry has a great influence to several fundamental areas of modern mathematics and its applications. In particular, Geometry is a bridge between pure mathematics and natural sciences, first of all physics. Fundamental laws of nature are formulated as relations between geometric fields describing various physical quantities. The study of global properties of geometric objects leads to the far-reaching development of topology, including topology and geometry of fiber bundles. Geometric theory of Hamiltonian systems, which describe many physical phenomena, led to the development of symplectic and Poisson geometry. Field theory and the multidimensional calculus of variations, presented in the book, unify mathematics with theoretical physics. Geometry of complex and algebraic manifolds unifies Riemannian geometry with modern complex analysis, as well as with algebra and number theory. Prerequisites for using the book include several basic undergraduate courses, such as advanced calculus, linear algebra, ordinary differential equations, and elements of topology.

Hamilton's Ricci Flow

Author: Bennett Chow,Peng Lu,Lei Ni

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821883990

Category: Mathematics

Page: 608

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Ricci flow is a powerful analytic method for studying the geometry and topology of manifolds. This book is an introduction to Ricci flow for graduate students and mathematicians interested in working in the subject. To this end, the first chapter is a review of the relevant basics of Riemannian geometry. For the benefit of the student, the text includes a number of exercises of varying difficulty. The book also provides brief introductions to some general methods of geometric analysis and other geometric flows. Comparisons are made between the Ricci flow and the linear heat equation, mean curvature flow, and other geometric evolution equations whenever possible. Several topics of Hamilton's program are covered, such as short time existence, Harnack inequalities, Ricci solitons, Perelman's no local collapsing theorem, singularity analysis, and ancient solutions. A major direction in Ricci flow, via Hamilton's and Perelman's works, is the use of Ricci flow as an approach to solving the Poincare conjecture and Thurston's geometrization conjecture.

Metrical and Dynamical Aspects in Complex Analysis

Author: Léa Blanc-Centi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319658379

Category: Mathematics

Page: 173

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The central theme of this reference book is the metric geometry of complex analysis in several variables. Bridging a gap in the current literature, the text focuses on the fine behavior of the Kobayashi metric of complex manifolds and its relationships to dynamical systems, hyperbolicity in the sense of Gromov and operator theory, all very active areas of research. The modern points of view expressed in these notes, collected here for the first time, will be of interest to academics working in the fields of several complex variables and metric geometry. The different topics are treated coherently and include expository presentations of the relevant tools, techniques and objects, which will be particularly useful for graduate and PhD students specializing in the area.

Topics in Optimal Transportation

Author: Cédric Villani

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082183312X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 370

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Cedric Villani's book is a lucid and very readable documentation of the tremendous recent analytic progress in ``optimal mass transportation'' theory and of its diverse and unexpected applications in optimization, nonlinear PDE, geometry, and mathematical physics. --Lawrence C. Evans, University of California at Berkeley In 1781, Gaspard Monge defined the problem of ``optimal transportation'', or the transferring of mass with the least possible amount of work, with applications to engineering in mind. In 1942, Leonid Kantorovich applied the newborn machinery of linear programming to Monge's problem, with applications to economics in mind. In 1987, Yann Brenier used optimal transportation to prove a new projection theorem on the set of measure preserving maps, with applications to fluid mechanics in mind. Each of these contributions marked the beginning of a whole mathematical theory, with many unexpected ramifications. Nowadays, the Monge-Kantorovich problem is used and studied by researchers from extremely diverse horizons, including probability theory, functional analysis, isoperimetry, partial differential equations, and even meteorology. Originating from a graduate course, the present volume is at once an introduction to the field of optimal transportation and a survey of the research on the topic over the last 15 years. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers, and it covers both theory and applications. Readers are only assumed to be familiar with the basics of measure theory and functional analysis.

Measure, Topology, and Fractal Geometry

Author: Gerald Edgar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387747494

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

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Based on a course given to talented high-school students at Ohio University in 1988, this book is essentially an advanced undergraduate textbook about the mathematics of fractal geometry. It nicely bridges the gap between traditional books on topology/analysis and more specialized treatises on fractal geometry. The book treats such topics as metric spaces, measure theory, dimension theory, and even some algebraic topology. It takes into account developments in the subject matter since 1990. Sections are clear and focused. The book contains plenty of examples, exercises, and good illustrations of fractals, including 16 color plates.

Heat Kernels and Analysis on Manifolds, Graphs, and Metric Spaces

Lecture Notes from a Quarter Program on Heat Kernels, Random Walks, and Analysis on Manifolds and Graphs : April 16-July 13, 2002, Emile Borel Centre of the Henri Poincaré Institute, Paris, France

Author: Pascal Auscher,T. Coulhon,Alexander Grigoryan

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821833839

Category: Mathematics

Page: 423

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This volume contains the expanded lecture notes of courses taught at the Emile Borel Centre of the Henri Poincare Institute (Paris) on heat kernels, random walks, and analysis on manifolds and graphs. In the book, leading experts introduce recent research in their fields. The unifying theme is the study of heat kernels in various situations using related geometric and analytic tools. Topics include analysis of complex-coefficient elliptic operators, diffusions on fractals and on infinite-dimensional groups, heat kernel and isoperimetry on Riemannian manifolds, heat kernels and infinite dimensional analysis, diffusions and Sobolev-type spaces on metric spaces, quasi-regular mappings and $p$-Laplace operators, heat kernel and spherical inversion on $SL_2(C)$, random walks and spectral geometry on crystal lattices, isoperimetric and isocapacitary inequalities, and generating function techniques for random walks on graphs. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in random processes and analysis on manifolds.