A First Course in Mechanics

Author: Mary Lunn

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198534334

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 8222

This textbook provides a simple introduction to mechanics for students coming to the subject for the first time. The text is based on courses given to first and second year undergraduates and has been written with this audience in mind. Prerequisites are only a basic familiarity with vectors, matrices, and elementary calculus. The author's aim is to provide an understanding of Newtonian mechanics using the tools of modern algebra. The text is illustrated throughout with many worked examples, and numerous exercises (some with solutions) are provided.

Elementary Geometry

Author: John Roe

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780198534563

Category: Mathematics

Page: 307

View: 2733

This text is a careful introduction to geometry. While developing geometry for its own sake, the book also emphasizes the links between geometry and other branches of pure and applied mathematics.

Statistical Mechanics of Phase Transitions

Author: J. M. Yeomans

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191589705


Page: 164

View: 6851

The book provides an introduction to the physics which underlies phase transitions and to the theoretical techniques currently at our disposal for understanding them. It will be useful for advanced undergraduates, for post-graduate students undertaking research in related fields, and for established researchers in experimental physics, chemistry, and metallurgy as an exposition of current theoretical understanding. - ;Recent developments have led to a good understanding of universality; why phase transitions in systems as diverse as magnets, fluids, liquid crystals, and superconductors can be brought under the same theoretical umbrella and well described by simple models. This book describes the physics underlying universality and then lays out the theoretical approaches now available for studying phase transitions. Traditional techniques, mean-field theory, series expansions, and the transfer matrix, are described; the Monte Carlo method is covered, and two chapters are devoted to the renormalization group, which led to a break-through in the field. The book will be useful as a textbook for a course in `Phase Transitions', as an introduction for graduate students undertaking research in related fields, and as an overview for scientists in other disciplines who work with phase transitions but who are not aware of the current tools in the armoury of the theoretical physicist. - ;Introduction; Statistical mechanics and thermodynamics; Models; Mean-field theories; The transfer matrix; Series expansions; Monte Carlo simulations; The renormalization group; Implementations of the renormalization group. -

Physical Fluid Dynamics

Author: D. J. Tritton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400999925

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 8957

To classify a book as 'experimental' rather than 'theoretical' or as 'pure' rather than 'applied' is liable to imply umeal distinctions. Nevertheless, some Classification is necessary to teIl the potential reader whether the book is for him. In this spirit, this book may be said to treat fluid dynamies as a branch of physics, rather than as a branch of applied mathematics or of engineering. I have often heard expressions of the need for such a book, and certainly I have feIt it in my own teaching. I have written it primariIy for students of physics and of physics-based applied science, aIthough I hope others may find it useful. The book differs from existing 'fundamental' books in placing much greater emphasis on what we know through laboratory experiments and their physical interpretation and less on the mathe matieal formalism. It differs from existing 'applied' books in that the choice of topics has been made for the insight they give into the behaviour of fluids in motion rather than for their practical importance. There are differences also from many existing books on fluid dynamics in the branches treated, reflecting to some extent shifts of interest in reeent years. In particular, geophysical and astrophysical applications have prompted important fundamental developments in topics such as conveetion, stratified flow, and the dynamics of rotating fluids. These developments have hitherto been reflected in the contents of textbooks only to a limited extent.

The Quantum Theory of Light

Author: Rodney Loudon

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191589782


Page: 448

View: 7992

This third edition, like its two predecessors, provides a detailed account of the basic theory needed to understand the properties of light and its interactions with atoms, in particular the many nonclassical effects that have now been observed in quantum-optical experiments. The earlier chapters describe the quantum mechanics of various optical processes, leading from the classical representation of the electromagnetic field to the quantum theory of light. The later chapters develop the theoretical descriptions of some of the key experiments in quantum optics. Over half of the material in this third edition is new. It includes topics that have come into prominence over the last two decades, such as the beamsplitter theory, squeezed light, two-photon interference, balanced homodyne detection, travelling-wave attenuation and amplification, quantum jumps, and the ranges of nonliner optical processes important in the generation of nonclassical light. The book is written as a textbook, with the treatment as a whole appropriate for graduate or postgraduate students, while earlier chapters are also suitable for final- year undergraduates. Over 100 problems help to intensify the understanding of the material presented.

Basic thermodynamics

Author: Gerald Carrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 385

View: 7364

It is well known that thermodynamics presents students with particular difficulties. They find the concepts evasive and the methods obscure. These problems arise because it is traditional to emphasize at the outset how general thermodynamics is. Unfortunately, when ideas are introduced in an unspecific context they fail to make contact with the student's experience - such ideas do not become part of the physical intuition of the student. In this introductory text the subject is developed in stages beginning with the basic notions, which are illustrated using an ideal gas as a model system. The generalization of these concepts is achieved first using the classical laws of thermodynamics and second using the formalism of Gibbs to provide a systematic introduction to the thermodynamic potentials. Work processes on polarizable media subject to electric and magnetic fields are discussed and transformations of matter, including phase change processes and chemical reactions, are treated in detail. The book contains many worked examples, and approximately 250 questions, which are keyed to the text. The questions include traditional and applied topics, and longer questions have been programmed to guide the student.

Elementary Fluid Dynamics

Author: D. J. Acheson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198596790

Category: Mathematics

Page: 397

View: 2891

This textbook provides a clear and concise introduction to both theory and application of fluid dynamics, suitable for all undergraduates coming to the subject for the first time. It has a wide scope, with frequent references to experiments, and numerous exercises illustrating the main ideas.

A First Course in Loop Quantum Gravity

Author: Rodolfo Gambini,Jorge Pullin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191003239

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 7959

This book provides an accessible introduction to loop quantum gravity and some of its applications, at a level suitable for undergraduate students and others with only a minimal knowledge of college level physics. In particular it is not assumed that the reader is familiar with general relativity and only minimally familiar with quantum mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics. Most chapters end with problems that elaborate on the text, and aid learning. Applications such as loop quantum cosmology, black hole entropy and spin foams are briefly covered. The text is ideally suited for an undergraduate course in the senior year of a physics major. It can also be used to introduce undergraduates to general relativity and quantum field theory as part of a 'special topics' type of course.

Quantum concepts in space and time

Author: Roger Penrose,C. J. Isham

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Philosophy

Page: 358

View: 4124

Recent developments in quantum theory have focused attention on fundamental questions, in particular on whether it might be necessary to modify quantum mechanics to reconcile quantum gravity and general relativity. This book is based on a conference held in Oxford in the spring of 1984 to discuss quantum gravity. It brings together contributors who examine different aspects of the problem, including the experimental support for quantum mechanics, its strange and apparently paradoxical features, its underlying philosophy, and possible modifications to the theory.

Plasma Dynamics

Author: R. O. Dendy

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198520412

Category: Philosophy

Page: 161

View: 6634

This text examines the distinctive physics of plasmas--the form in which most visible matter in the universe is found. The book provides an introduction to plasma particle dynamics, plasma waves, magnetohydrodynamics, plasma kinetic theory, two-fluid theory, and non-linear plasma physics. Rather than emphasizing mathematical considerations, this concise volume concentrates on underlying physical principles. The most advanced background knowledge required consists of Maxwell's equations, and these are reviewed in the introduction. The text will be useful to undergraduates in physics as well as graduates studying astrophysics, nuclear physics, and plasma physics.

The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics

Author: Nicholas J. Higham

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400874475

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1016

View: 4108

This is the most authoritative and accessible single-volume reference book on applied mathematics. Featuring numerous entries by leading experts and organized thematically, it introduces readers to applied mathematics and its uses; explains key concepts; describes important equations, laws, and functions; looks at exciting areas of research; covers modeling and simulation; explores areas of application; and more. Modeled on the popular Princeton Companion to Mathematics, this volume is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in other disciplines seeking a user-friendly reference book on applied mathematics. Features nearly 200 entries organized thematically and written by an international team of distinguished contributors Presents the major ideas and branches of applied mathematics in a clear and accessible way Explains important mathematical concepts, methods, equations, and applications Introduces the language of applied mathematics and the goals of applied mathematical research Gives a wide range of examples of mathematical modeling Covers continuum mechanics, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, discrete and combinatorial mathematics, mathematical physics, and much more Explores the connections between applied mathematics and other disciplines Includes suggestions for further reading, cross-references, and a comprehensive index

Under Ancient Skies

Ancient Astronomy and Terrestrial Catastrophism

Author: Paul Dunbavin

Publisher: Third Millennium Publishing

ISBN: 0952502925

Category: Nature

Page: 287

View: 5564

In all of the world’s myths and religions we find traditions of a Great Flood. There are stories too of a Golden Age: the antediluvian paradise that it destroyed. Might these be real memories of the ancient world? And how can we analyze the subject scientifically? The key to unlock these ancient myths lies in astronomy. Under Ancient Skies will examine the astronomical evidence for a prehistoric cataclysm and in the process will explore a number of related anomalies in prehistory, including: • Was there a single great flood in human prehistory, or have there been many? • Could the workings of ancient calendars and the records of ancient eclipses give us clues about the Flood and the antediluvian world? • Did the Celtic Druids use a calendar based on the orbit of Saturn; and is this the same antediluvian calendar that is described in Plato’s myth of Atlantis? • Do Hindu, Chinese and Mayan cosmology myths recall the years after the Flood when our world wobbled on its axis? • Did these same events trigger the building of astronomically aligned monuments such as Stonehenge and the pyramids? • Was the Atenist religion of the heretic Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten inspired by a series of eclipses during his lifetime? • Do the seven good years and the seven bad years of the Joseph story recall a time when a comet struck the Earth? • Did the British Druids use astronomy to calculate the size of the Earth; and could they have used this knowledge to navigate to America? • Why were the ancient Celts so afraid that the sky would one day fall on their heads? • Are comets and asteroids the only danger lurking in the cosmos – or could there be other dangers as yet unknown to science? In 1994 we watched as a comet struck the giant planet Jupiter. Geologists have recently discovered the crater in Yucatan, where an asteroid impact destroyed the world of the dinosaurs. Scientists and astronomers have stopped dismissing the theory that asteroids and comets could have struck the Earth during prehistory – but any suggestion that a comet impact just a few thousand years ago might have caused the Biblical Flood, remains the last taboo. It is time for this prejudice too, to be washed away. The reader is promised 'a real book: a fully referenced textbook with original content in every chapter and a bibliography of over 300 sources, If you have read Paul Dunbavin's other books then you will know what to expect. First published in 2005 and for a long time out of print, this new edition will make the author's unique research available again to anyone who is interested in mythology, astronomy and ancient mysteries. Now also available in Kindle hard and soft editions.

Statistical Data Analysis

Author: Glen Cowan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198501560

Category: Mathematics

Page: 197

View: 7792

This book is a guide to the practical application of statistics in data analysis as typically encountered in the physical sciences. It is primarily addressed at students and professionals who need to draw quantitative conclusions from experimental data. Although most of the examples are taken from particle physics, the material is presented in a sufficiently general way as to be useful to people from most branches of the physical sciences. The first part of the book describes the basic tools of data analysis: concepts of probability and random variables, Monte Carlo techniques, statistical tests, and methods of parameter estimation. The last three chapters are somewhat more specialized than those preceding, covering interval estimation, characteristic functions, and the problem of correcting distributions for the effects of measurement errors (unfolding).

Classical equilibrium statistical mechanics

Author: Colin J. Thompson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198519843

Category: Science

Page: 213

View: 9807

This comprehensive work provides a rigorous introduction to statistical mechanics, which aims to relate microscopic properties of matter to observed macroscopic, or bulk, behavior of physical systems. The foundations of statistical mechanics, laid down by Gibbs, are presented in detail along with an introductory chapter on thermodynamics. Other topics covered include model systems and the thermodynamic limit; theories of phase transitions; fluctuations and correlations; exactly solved models; scaling theory; and the renormalization group. An important feature of the book is many problems and worked solutions which provide a timely demonstration of current research activity in the field.

Finite Element Procedures for Contact-impact Problems

Author: Zhi-Hua Zhong

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198563839

Category: Law

Page: 371

View: 1481

The resolution of contact-impact problems, once computationally difficult, has been made easier and more accurate with the finite element method. This new book explains finite-element procedures for solving both static and dynamic contact-impact problems. It provides comprehensive discussions on the formulation, linearization, and discretization of such problems. Lagrangian formulation is introduced, and explicit and implicit solutions are presented. Friction phenomena and the behavior of shell structures upon impact are described. The book also includes numerical algorithms used to simulate industrial applications such as metal-forming processes and crashworthiness analysis of automobiles. Engineers, researchers, and students in solid and applied mechanics will require access to this valuable resource.

Fluid Mechanics

A Geometrical Point of View

Author: S. G. Rajeev

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192527215

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 6248

Fluid Mechanics: A Geometrical Point of View emphasizes general principles of physics illustrated by simple examples in fluid mechanics. Advanced mathematics (e.g., Riemannian geometry and Lie groups) commonly used in other parts of theoretical physics (e.g. General Relativity or High Energy Physics) are explained and applied to fluid mechanics. This follows on from the author's book Advanced Mechanics (Oxford University Press, 2013). After introducing the fundamental equations (Euler and Navier-Stokes), the book provides particular cases: ideal and viscous flows, shocks, boundary layers, instabilities, and transients. A restrained look at integrable systems (KdV) leads into a formulation of an ideal fluid as a hamiltonian system. Arnold's deep idea, that the instability of a fluid can be understood using the curvature of the diffeomorphism group, will be explained. Leray's work on regularity of Navier-Stokes solutions, and the modern developments arising from it, will be explained in language for physicists. Although this is a book on theoretical physics, readers will learn basic numerical methods: spectral and finite difference methods, geometric integrators for ordinary differential equations. Readers will take a deep dive into chaotic dynamics, using the Smale horse shoe as an example. Aref's work on chaotic advection is explained. The book concludes with a self-contained introduction to renormalization, an idea from high energy physics which is expected to be useful in developing a theory of turbulence.

Free and Moving Boundary Problems

Author: John Crank

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198533702

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 425

View: 4049

A broad but detailed account of the modelling of free and moving boundary problems, which are of interest across a wide variety of scientific subjects.

Physical Hydrodynamics

Author: Etienne Guyon,Jean-Pierre Hulin,Catalin D. Mitescu,Luc Petit

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198702442

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 8062

This second edition of Physical Hydrodynamics is a deeply enriched version of a classical textbook on fluid dynamics. It retains the same pedagogical spirit, based on the authors' experience of teaching university students in the physical sciences, and emphasizes an experimental (inductive) approach rather than the more formal approach found in many textbooks in the field. Today the field is more widely open to other experimental sciences: materials,environmental, life, and earth sciences, as well as the engineering sciences. Representative examples from these fields have been included where possible, while retaining a general presentation in each case.