A Mission to Civilize

The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895-1930

Author: Alice L. Conklin

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804729999

Category: Political Science

Page: 367

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" Conklin brilliantly traces the interconnections and linkages between the three critical sites of political, cultural, and ideological interchange in France' s civilizing mission in Africa: the imperial center, the colonial edifice sur place in West Africa, and the Africans themselves. This is scholarship that will eventually provoke a significant change in the way modern French history is conceived, researched, and written." — Julia Clancy-Smith, University of Arizona

A Mission to Civilize

The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895-1930

Author: Alice L. Conklin

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780804740128

Category: History

Page: 367

View: 2952

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This book addresses a central but often ignored question in the history of modern France and modern colonialism: How did the Third Republic, highly regarded for its professed democratic values, allow itself to be seduced by the insidious and persistent appeal of a “civilizing” ideology with distinct racist overtones? By focusing on a particular group of colonial officials in a specific setting—the governors general of French West Africa from 1895 to 1930—the author argues that the ideal of a special civilizing mission had a decisive impact on colonial policymaking and on the evolution of modern French republicanism generally. French ideas of civilization—simultaneously republican, racist, and modern—encouraged the governors general in the 1890’s to attack such “feudal” African institutions as aristocratic rule and slavery in ways that referred back to France’s own experience of revolutionary change. Ironically, local administrators in the 1920’s also invoked these same ideas to justify such reactionary policies as the reintroduction of forced labor, arguing that coercion, which inculcated a work ethic in the “lazy” African, legitimized his loss of freedom. By constantly invoking the ideas of “civilization,” colonial policy makers in Dakar and Paris managed to obscure the fundamental contradictions between “the rights of man” guaranteed in a republican democracy and the forcible acquisition of an empire that violates those rights. In probing the “republican” dimension of French colonization in West Africa, this book also sheds new light on the evolution of the Third Republic between 1895 and 1930. One of the author’s principal arguments is that the idea of a civilized mission underwent dramatic changes, due to ideological, political, and economic transformations occurring simultaneously in France and its colonies. For example, revolts in West Africa as well as a more conservative climate in the metropole after World War I produced in the governors general a new respect for “feudal” chiefs, whom the French once despised but now reinstated as a means of control. This discovery of an African “tradition” in turn reinforced a reassertion of traditional values in France as the Third Republic struggled to recapture the world it had “lost” at Verdun.

Native Sons

West African Veterans and France in the Twentieth Century

Author: Gregory Mann

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822387816

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 3715

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For much of the twentieth century, France recruited colonial subjects from sub-Saharan Africa to serve in its military, sending West African soldiers to fight its battles in Europe, Southeast Asia, and North Africa. In this exemplary contribution to the “new imperial history,” Gregory Mann argues that this shared military experience between France and Africa was fundamental not only to their colonial relationship but also to the reconfiguration of that relationship in the postcolonial era. Mann explains that in the early twenty-first century, among Africans in France and Africa, and particularly in Mali—where Mann conducted his research—the belief that France has not adequately recognized and compensated the African veterans of its wars is widely held and frequently invoked. It continues to animate the political relationship between France and Africa, especially debates about African immigration to France. Focusing on the period between World War I and 1968, Mann draws on archival research and extensive interviews with surviving Malian veterans of French wars to explore the experiences of the African soldiers. He describes the effects their long absences and infrequent homecomings had on these men and their communities, he considers the veterans’ status within contemporary Malian society, and he examines their efforts to claim recognition and pensions from France. Mann contends that Mali is as much a postslavery society as it is a postcolonial one, and that specific ideas about reciprocity, mutual obligation, and uneven exchange that had developed during the era of slavery remain influential today, informing Malians’ conviction that France owes them a “blood debt” for the military service of African soldiers in French wars.

An Empire Divided

Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880-1914

Author: J. P. Daughton,James Patrick Daughton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195374010

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 5762

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With case studies on Indochina, Polynesia, and Madagascar, this work tells the story of how troubled relations between Catholic missionaries and a host of republican critics shaped colonial policies. It also talks about Catholic perspectives, and domestic French politics in the tumultuous decades before WWI.

Our New Husbands Are Here

Households, Gender, and Politics in a West African State from the Slave Trade to Colonial Rule

Author: Emily Lynn Osborn

Publisher: Ohio University Press

ISBN: 0821443976

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 952

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In Our New Husbands Are Here, Emily Lynn Osborn investigates a central puzzle of power and politics in West African history: Why do women figure frequently in the political narratives of the precolonial period, and then vanish altogether with colonization? Osborn addresses this question by exploring the relationship of the household to the state. By analyzing the history of statecraft in the interior savannas of West Africa (in present-day Guinea-Conakry), Osborn shows that the household, and women within it, played a critical role in the pacifist Islamic state of Kankan-Baté, enabling it to endure the predations of the transatlantic slave trade and become a major trading center in the nineteenth century. But French colonization introduced a radical new method of statecraft to the region, one that separated the household from the state and depoliticized women’s domestic roles. This book will be of interest to scholars of politics, gender, the household, slavery, and Islam in African history.

In the Museum of Man

Race, Anthropology, and Empire in France, 1850–1950

Author: Alice L. Conklin

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469031

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 1095

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In the Museum of Man offers new insight into the thorny relationship between science, society, and empire at the high-water mark of French imperialism and European racism. Alice L. Conklin takes us into the formative years of French anthropology and social theory between 1850 and 1900; then deep into the practice of anthropology, under the name of ethnology, both in Paris and in the empire before and especially after World War I; and finally, into the fate of the discipline and its practitioners under the German Occupation and its immediate aftermath. Conklin addresses the influence exerted by academic networks, museum collections, and imperial connections in defining human diversity socioculturally rather than biologically, especially in the wake of resurgent anti-Semitism at the time of the Dreyfus Affair and in the 1930s and 1940s. Students of the progressive social scientist Marcel Mauss were exposed to the ravages of imperialism in the French colonies where they did fieldwork; as a result, they began to challenge both colonialism and the scientific racism that provided its intellectual justification. Indeed, a number of them were killed in the Resistance, fighting for the humanist values they had learned from their teachers and in the field. A riveting story of a close-knit community of scholars who came to see all societies as equally complex, In the Museum of Man serves as a reminder that if scientific expertise once authorized racism, anthropologists also learned to rethink their paradigms and mobilize against racial prejudice—a lesson well worth remembering today.

Decolonization and African Society

The Labor Question in French and British Africa

Author: Frederick Cooper

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521566001

Category: History

Page: 677

View: 9143

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Large-scale comparative study of African labor and colonial policy.

Empire's Children

Race, Filiation, and Citizenship in the French Colonies

Author: Emmanuelle Saada,Arthur Goldhammer

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226733076

Category: History

Page: 339

View: 5459

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Europe’s imperial projects were often predicated on a series of legal and scientific distinctions that were frequently challenged by the reality of social and sexual interactions between the colonized and the colonizers.When Emmanuelle Saada discovered a 1928 decree defining the status of persons of mixed parentage born in French Indochina—the métis—she found not only a remarkable artifact of colonial rule, but a legal bombshell that introduced race into French law for the first time. The decree was the culmination of a decades-long effort to resolve the “métis question”: the educational, social, and civil issues surrounding the mixed population. Operating at the intersection of history, anthropology, and law, Empire’s Children reveals the unacknowledged but central role of race in the definition of French nationality. Through extensive archival work in both France and Vietnam, and a close reading of primary and secondary material from the Pacific islands and sub-Saharan and North Africa, Saada has created in Empire’s Children an original and compelling perspective on colonialism, law, race, and culture from the end of the nineteenth century until decolonization.

Making Jazz French

Music and Modern Life in Interwar Paris

Author: Jeffrey H. Jackson

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822385082

Category: Music

Page: 279

View: 624

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Between the world wars, Paris welcomed not only a number of glamorous American expatriates, including Josephine Baker and F. Scott Fitzgerald, but also a dynamic musical style emerging in the United States: jazz. Roaring through cabarets, music halls, and dance clubs, the upbeat, syncopated rhythms of jazz soon added to the allure of Paris as a center of international nightlife and cutting-edge modern culture. In Making Jazz French, Jeffrey H. Jackson examines not only how and why jazz became so widely performed in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s but also why it was so controversial. Drawing on memoirs, press accounts, and cultural criticism, Jackson uses the history of jazz in Paris to illuminate the challenges confounding French national identity during the interwar years. As he explains, many French people initially regarded jazz as alien because of its associations with America and Africa. Some reveled in its explosive energy and the exoticism of its racial connotations, while others saw it as a dangerous reversal of France’s most cherished notions of "civilization." At the same time, many French musicians, though not threatened by jazz as a musical style, feared their jobs would vanish with the arrival of American performers. By the 1930s, however, a core group of French fans, critics, and musicians had incorporated jazz into the French entertainment tradition. Today it is an integral part of Parisian musical performance. In showing how jazz became French, Jackson reveals some of the ways a musical form created in the United States became an international phenomenon and acquired new meanings unique to the places where it was heard and performed.

Heroes of Empire

Five Charismatic Men and the Conquest of Africa

Author: Edward Berenson

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520272587

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 3311

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Presents a history of the exploration of Africa between 1870 and 1914 by British and French explorers and argues that these men transformed the imperial steeplechase of those years into a powerful heroic moment.

The French Encounter with Africans

White Response to Blacks, 1530-1880. Foreword by James D. Le Sueur

Author: William B. Cohen

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253003058

Category: History

Page: 382

View: 3325

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"As French and American historians of France are revisiting the history of French racism today, William B. Cohen's book is more important than ever. It has become a classic." -- Nancy L. Green In this pioneering work, William B. Cohen traces the ways in which negative attitudes toward blacks became deeply embedded in French culture. Examining the forces that shaped these views, Cohen reveals the persistent inequality of French interactions with blacks in Africa, in the slave colonies of the West Indies, and in France itself. Now a classic, The French Encounter with Africans is essential reading for anyone engaged in current discussions of European relations with non-Europeans and with issues of racism, ethnicity, identity, colonialism, and empire.

Hybrid Modernities

Architecture and Representation at the 1931 Colonial Exposition, Paris

Author: Patricia A. Morton

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262632713

Category: Architecture

Page: 380

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A look at how the 1931 International Colonial Exposition in Paris created hybrids of French and colonial culture.

Colonial conscripts

the Tirailleurs Sénégalais in French West Africa, 1857-1960

Author: Myron J. Echenberg

Publisher: Heinemann ; London : J. Currey

ISBN: 9780852556016

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 7367

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Genocide in German South-West Africa

the Colonial War (1904-1908) in Namibia and its aftermath

Author: Jürgen Zimmerer,Joachim Zeller,Edward Neather

Publisher: Merlin Pr

ISBN: 9780850365740

Category: History

Page: 291

View: 8440

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The 1904 war that broke out in present day Namibia after the Herero tribe rose against an oppressive colonial regime—and the German army’s brutal suppression of that uprising—are the focus of this collection of essays. Exploring the annihilation of both the Herero and Nama people, this selection from prominent researchers of German imperialism considers many aspects of the war and shows how racism, concentration camps, and genocide in the German colony foreshadow Hitler’s Third Reich war crimes.

The Decolonization Of Africa

Author: Professor David Birmingham,David Birmingham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135363676

Category: History

Page: 117

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This bold, popularizing synthesis presents a readily accessible introduction to one of the major themes of the twentieth-century world history. Between 1922, when self-government was restored to Egypt, and 1994, when non-racial democracy was achieved in South Africa, no less than 54 new nations were established in Africa. Written within the parameters of African history, as opposed to imperial history, this study charts the process of nationalism, liberation and independence that recast the political map of Africa in these years. Ranging from Algeria in the North, where a French colonial government used armed force to combat the Algerian aspirations of home rule, to the final overthrow of aparthied in the South, this is an authoritative survey that will be welcomed by all students tackling this complex and challenging topic.

Moses Montefiore

Author: Abigail Green

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674283147

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 560

View: 2970

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A Times Literary Supplement Book of the Year A New Republic Best Book of the Year Finalist, National Jewish Book Award Sir Moses Montefiore (1784–1885) was the preeminent Jewish figure of the nineteenth century—and one of the first truly global celebrities. His story, told here in full for the first time, is a remarkable and illuminating tale.

France and Its Empire Since 1870

Author: Alice L. Conklin,Sarah Fishman,Robert Zaretsky

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199384444

Category: History

Page: 453

View: 9621

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Providing an up-to-date synthesis of the history of an extraordinary nation--one that has been shrouded in myths, many of its own making--France and Its Empire Since 1870 seeks both to understand these myths and to uncover the complicated and often contradictory realities that underpin them. It situates modern French history in transnational and global contexts and also integrates the themes of imperialism and immigration into the traditional narrative. Authors Alice L. Conklin, Sarah Fishman, and Robert Zaretsky begin with the premise that while France and the U.S. are sister republics, they also exhibit profound differences that are as compelling as their apparent similarities. The authors frame the book around the contested emergence of the French Republic--a form of government that finally appears to have a permanent status in France--but whose birth pangs were much more protracted than those of the American Republic. Presenting a lively and coherent narrative of the major developments in France's tumultuous history since 1870, the authors organize the chapters around the country's many turning points and confrontations. They also offer detailed analyses of politics, society, and culture, considering the diverse viewpoints of men and women from every background including the working class and the bourgeoisie, immigrants, Catholics, Jews and Muslims, Bretons and Algerians, rebellious youth, and gays and lesbians.

Colonial Culture in France since the Revolution

Author: Pascal Blanchard,Sandrine Lemaire,Nicolas Bancel,Dominic Thomas

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253010535

Category: History

Page: 648

View: 1354

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This landmark collection by an international group of scholars and public intellectuals represents a major reassessment of French colonial culture and how it continues to inform thinking about history, memory, and identity. This reexamination of French colonial culture, provides the basis for a revised understanding of its cultural, political, and social legacy and its lasting impact on postcolonial immigration, the treatment of ethnic minorities, and national identity.

Curing the Colonizers

Hydrotherapy, Climatology, and French Colonial Spas

Author: Eric T. Jennings

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822338222

Category: History

Page: 271

View: 9515

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A cultural history of French colonizers, and their ambitions and anxieties, as reflected through highland spas in th French empire.

France and Its Empire Since 1870

Author: Alice L. Conklin,Sarah Fishman,Robert Zaretsky

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199384444

Category: History

Page: 453

View: 5454

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Providing an up-to-date synthesis of the history of an extraordinary nation--one that has been shrouded in myths, many of its own making--France and Its Empire Since 1870 seeks both to understand these myths and to uncover the complicated and often contradictory realities that underpin them. It situates modern French history in transnational and global contexts and also integrates the themes of imperialism and immigration into the traditional narrative. Authors Alice L. Conklin, Sarah Fishman, and Robert Zaretsky begin with the premise that while France and the U.S. are sister republics, they also exhibit profound differences that are as compelling as their apparent similarities. The authors frame the book around the contested emergence of the French Republic--a form of government that finally appears to have a permanent status in France--but whose birth pangs were much more protracted than those of the American Republic. Presenting a lively and coherent narrative of the major developments in France's tumultuous history since 1870, the authors organize the chapters around the country's many turning points and confrontations. They also offer detailed analyses of politics, society, and culture, considering the diverse viewpoints of men and women from every background including the working class and the bourgeoisie, immigrants, Catholics, Jews and Muslims, Bretons and Algerians, rebellious youth, and gays and lesbians.