A Mission to Civilize

The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895-1930

Author: Alice L. Conklin

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804729999

Category: Political Science

Page: 367

View: 3220

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" Conklin brilliantly traces the interconnections and linkages between the three critical sites of political, cultural, and ideological interchange in France' s civilizing mission in Africa: the imperial center, the colonial edifice sur place in West Africa, and the Africans themselves. This is scholarship that will eventually provoke a significant change in the way modern French history is conceived, researched, and written." — Julia Clancy-Smith, University of Arizona

Heroes of Empire

Five Charismatic Men and the Conquest of Africa

Author: Edward Berenson

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520272587

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 8724

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Presents a history of the exploration of Africa between 1870 and 1914 by British and French explorers and argues that these men transformed the imperial steeplechase of those years into a powerful heroic moment.

From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel

The Road to Nongovernmentality

Author: Gregory Mann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316194272

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 5431

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This book looks beyond the familiar history of former empires and new nation-states to consider newly transnational communities of solidarity and aid, social science and activism. Shortly after independence from France in 1960, the people living along the Sahel - a long, thin stretch of land bordering the Sahara - became the subjects of human rights campaigns and humanitarian interventions. Just when its states were strongest and most ambitious, the postcolonial West African Sahel became fertile terrain for the production of novel forms of governmental rationality realized through NGOs. The roots of this 'nongovernmentality' lay partly in Europe and North America, but it flowered, paradoxically, in the Sahel. This book is unique in that it questions not only how West African states exercised their new sovereignty but also how and why NGOs - ranging from CARE and Amnesty International to black internationalists - began to assume elements of sovereignty during a period in which it was so highly valued.

France and Its Empire Since 1870

Author: Alice L. Conklin,Sarah Fishman,Robert Zaretsky

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199384444

Category: History

Page: 453

View: 1136

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Providing an up-to-date synthesis of the history of an extraordinary nation--one that has been shrouded in myths, many of its own making--France and Its Empire Since 1870 seeks both to understand these myths and to uncover the complicated and often contradictory realities that underpin them. It situates modern French history in transnational and global contexts and also integrates the themes of imperialism and immigration into the traditional narrative. Authors Alice L. Conklin, Sarah Fishman, and Robert Zaretsky begin with the premise that while France and the U.S. are sister republics, they also exhibit profound differences that are as compelling as their apparent similarities. The authors frame the book around the contested emergence of the French Republic--a form of government that finally appears to have a permanent status in France--but whose birth pangs were much more protracted than those of the American Republic. Presenting a lively and coherent narrative of the major developments in France's tumultuous history since 1870, the authors organize the chapters around the country's many turning points and confrontations. They also offer detailed analyses of politics, society, and culture, considering the diverse viewpoints of men and women from every background including the working class and the bourgeoisie, immigrants, Catholics, Jews and Muslims, Bretons and Algerians, rebellious youth, and gays and lesbians.

Communal Labor in Colonial Kenya

The Legitimization of Coercion, 1912–1930

Author: O. Okia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230392962

Category: History

Page: 186

View: 2183

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This project examines the development of forced labor in colonial Kenya from 1912 to 1930 and the parallel normalization of communal forced labor during this time period. The colonial reinvention of traditional unpaid labor was, as the noted historian of Kenya, Robert Maxon, has stated, 'based upon a completely fallacious view of the traditional history of Kenya's people.' Even among certain ethnic groups with a nebulous tradition of communal or collective labor, the labor requirements under communal labor were frequently distorted to the point were coerced labor no longer resembled its community based origins. State manipulation of these communal obligations was, in fact, part of a more general phenomenon in Africa. Europeans in Africa made use of invented tradition to both co-opt and ideologically solidify certain Africans into positions of leadership, like chiefs, and to also redefine relationships between Europeans and Africans. Seen by the state as merely an extension of tribal duties and resurrected as another phantom of customary law, communal labor was not actually exploitation but a form of relearning. In the case of communal labor, the British in Kenya used the Native Authority Ordinance to 'invent' traditional powers that galvanized the authority of chiefs to call out the labor. Conversely, chiefs also took advantage of these 'traditional' mandates to enhance their own status.

Counter-Archive

Film, the Everyday, and Albert Kahn's Archives de la Planète

Author: Paula Amad

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231509073

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 480

View: 2172

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Tucked away in a garden on the edge of Paris is a multimedia archive like no other: Albert Kahn's Archives de la Planète (1908-1931). Kahn's vast photo-cinematographic experiment preserved world memory through the privileged lens of everyday life, and Counter-Archive situates this project in its biographic, intellectual, and cinematic contexts. Tracing the archive's key influences, such as the philosopher Henri Bergson, the geographer Jean Brunhes, and the biologist Jean Comandon, Paula Amad maps an alternative landscape of French cultural modernity in which vitalist philosophy cross-pollinated with early film theory, documentary film with the avant-garde, cinematic models of temporality with the early Annales school of history, and film's appropriation of the planet with human geography and colonial ideology. At the heart of the book is an insightful meditation upon the transformed concept of the archive in the age of cinema and an innovative argument about film's counter-archival challenge to history. The first comprehensive study of Kahn's films, Counter-Archive also offers a vital historical perspective on debates involving archives, media, and memory.

Empire of Love

Histories of France and the Pacific

Author: Matt K. Matsuda

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195347470

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 2735

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In this broad-ranging survey of Paris, Tahiti, Indochina, Japan, New Caledonia, and the South Pacific generally, Matt Matsuda illustrates the fascinating interplay that shaped the imaginations of both colonizer and colonized. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources, Matsuda describes the constitution of a "French Pacific" through the eyes of Tahitian monarchs, Kanak warriors, French politicos and prisoners, Asian revolutionaries and Central American laborers, among others. He argues that French imperialism in the Pacific, both real and imagined, was registered most forcefully in languages of desire and love--for lost islands, promised wealth and riches, carnal and spiritual pleasures--and political affinities. Exploring the conflicting engagements with love for and against the empire in the Pacific, this book is an imaginative and ground-breaking work in global imperial and colonial histories, as well as Pacific histories.

Journal of the Civil War Era

Fall 2014 Issue

Author: William A. Blair

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469615991

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 4399

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The Journal of the Civil War Era Volume 4, Number 3, September 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Editor's Note, William Blair Articles Felicity Turner Rights and the Ambiguities of Law: Infanticide in the Nineteenth-Century U.S. South Paul Quigley Civil War Conscription and the International Boundaries of Citizenship Jay Sexton William H. Seward in the World Review Essay Patick J. Kelly the European Revolutions of 1848 and the Transnational turn in Civil War History Book Reviews Books Received Notes on Contributors

African Film and Literature

Adapting Violence to the Screen

Author: Lindiwe Dovey

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231519389

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 364

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Analyzing a range of South African and West African films inspired by African and non-African literature, Lindiwe Dovey identifies a specific trend in contemporary African filmmaking-one in which filmmakers are using the embodied audiovisual medium of film to offer a critique of physical and psychological violence. Against a detailed history of the medium's savage introduction and exploitation by colonial powers in two very different African contexts, Dovey examines the complex ways in which African filmmakers are preserving, mediating, and critiquing their own cultures while seeking a united vision of the future. More than merely representing socio-cultural realities in Africa, these films engage with issues of colonialism and postcolonialism, "updating" both the history and the literature they adapt to address contemporary audiences in Africa and elsewhere. Through this deliberate and radical re-historicization of texts and realities, Dovey argues that African filmmakers have developed a method of filmmaking that is altogether distinct from European and American forms of adaptation.

Race in France

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Politics of Difference

Author: Herrick Chapman,Laura L. Frader

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782381791

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 6736

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Scholars across disciplines on both sides of the Atlantic have recently begun to open up, as never before, the scholarly study of race and racism in France. These original essays bring together in one volume new work in history, sociology, anthropology, political science, and legal studies. Each of the eleven articles presents fresh research on the tension between a republican tradition in France that has long denied the legitimacy of acknowledging racial difference and a lived reality in which racial prejudice shaped popular views about foreigners, Jews, immigrants, and colonial people. Several authors also examine efforts to combat racism since the 1970s.

The French Imperial Nation-State

Negritude and Colonial Humanism Between the Two World Wars

Author: Gary Wilder

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226897721

Category: History

Page: 404

View: 1351

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France experienced a period of crisis following World War I when the relationship between the nation and its colonies became a subject of public debate. The French Imperial Nation-State focuses on two intersecting movements that redefined imperial politics—colonial humanism led by administrative reformers in West Africa and the Paris-based Negritude project, comprising African and Caribbean elites. Gary Wilder develops a sophisticated account of the contradictory character of colonial government and examines the cultural nationalism of Negritude as a multifaceted movement rooted in an alternative black public sphere. He argues that interwar France must be understood as an imperial nation-state—an integrated sociopolitical system that linked a parliamentary republic to an administrative empire. An interdisciplinary study of colonial modernity combining French history, colonial studies, and social theory, The French Imperial Nation-State will compel readers to revise conventional assumptions about the distinctions between republicanism and racism, metropolitan and colonial societies, and national and transnational processes.

Separate Peoples, One Land

The Minds of Cherokees, Blacks, and Whites on the Tennessee Frontier

Author: Cynthia Cumfer

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469606593

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 394

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Exploring the mental worlds of the major groups interacting in a borderland setting, Cynthia Cumfer offers a broad, multiracial intellectual and cultural history of the Tennessee frontier in the Revolutionary and early national periods, leading up to the era of rapid westward expansion and Cherokee removal. Attentive to the complexities of race, gender, class, and spirituality, Cumfer offers a rare glimpse into the cultural logic of Native American, African American, and Euro-American men and women as contact with one another powerfully transformed their ideas about themselves and the territory they came to share. The Tennessee frontier shaped both Cherokee and white assumptions about diplomacy and nationhood. After contact, both groups moved away from local and personal notions about polity to embrace nationhood. Excluded from the nationalization process, slaves revived and modified African and American premises about patronage and community, while free blacks fashioned an African American doctrine of freedom that was both communal and individual. Paying particular attention to the influence of older European concepts of civilization, Cumfer shows how Tennesseans, along with other Americans and Europeans, modified European assumptions to contribute to a discourse about civilization, one both dynamic and destructive, which has profoundly shaped world history.

Uncivil War

Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria

Author: James D. Le Sueur

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812235883

Category: History

Page: 342

View: 3013

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Uncivil War is a provocative study of the intellectuals who confronted the loss of France's most prized overseas possession, colonial Algeria. Tracing the intellectual history of one of the most violent wars of European decolonization, James D. Le Sueur illustrates how such key figures as Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Germaine Tillion, Jacques Soustelle, Raymond Aron, Claude Levi-Strauss, Albert Memmi, Frantz Fanon, Mouloud Feraoun, Jean Amrouche, and Pierre Bourdieu agonized over the "Algerian question." As Le Sueur argues, these and other individuals forged new notions of the nation and nationalism, giving rise to a politics of identity that continues to influence debate around the world. Indeed, the French-Algerian War occupies a seminal place in colonial and contemporary history. How did these varied intellectuals—many of whom had been influential in either shaping or critiquing the ideology of colonial enterprise—reconstruct French national identity during decolonization? How was Algerian national identity also reconceptualized, in both intellectual and political circles, French and Algerian, on both right and left? How was the colonial notion of French universalism debated and, by many, invalidated? What has the politically charged concept of "the Other" to do with Algeria's decolonization? Le Sueur turns to a wide array of public archives, previously unstudied private collections, interviews, and published works to examine the dynamism of these inquiries. He investigates Franco-Muslim relations from reconciliation to rupture, a transition resulting from the rise of anticolonialism, political radicalism, military extremism, and Algerian nationalism, as well as the looming threat of civil war in France. As Le Sueur reveals, it was incumbent upon the intellectuals of the day to respond to these crises in the public arena. Whether to celebrate decolonization or decry it as a turning point in French and North African history, intellectuals engaged fully in identity debates and, in so doing, attended to a variety of political, social, moral, and even their own professional concerns. An interdisciplinary work of the first order, Uncivil War combines anthropology, history, critical theory, and postcolonial studies in an intimate look at a pivotal and highly contested moment in modern history.

France in an Era of Global War, 1914-1945

Occupation, Politics, Empire and Entanglements

Author: A. Carrol,L. Broch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137443502

Category: History

Page: 257

View: 976

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In France in an Era of Global War, scholars re-examine experiences of French politics, occupation, empire and entanglements with the Anglophone world between 1914 and 1945. In doing so, they question the long-standing myths and assumptions which continue to surround this period, and offer new avenues of enquiry.

The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History

Author: John Parker,Richard Reid

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667552

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 9721

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The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History represents an invaluable tool for historians and others in the field of African studies. This collection of essays, produced by some of the finest scholars currently working in the field, provides the latest insights into, and interpretations of, the history of Africa - a continent with a rich and complex past. An understanding of this past is essential to gain perspective on Africa's current challenges, and this accessible and comprehensive volume will allow readers to explore various aspects - political, economic, social, and cultural - of the continent's history over the last two hundred years. Since African history first emerged as a serious academic endeavour in the 1950s and 1960s, it has undergone numerous shifts in terms of emphasis and approach, changes brought about by political and economic exigencies and by ideological debates. This multi-faceted Handbook is essential reading for anyone with an interest in those debates, and in Africa and its peoples. While the focus is determinedly historical, anthropology, geography, literary criticism, political science and sociology are all employed in this ground-breaking study of Africa's past.

Tourism and Colonization in Indochina (1898-1939)

Author: Aline Demay

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443874108

Category: History

Page: 301

View: 977

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Direct flights to former imperial capitals, continued visits to the same tourist sites, and the emergence of tours dedicated to the imperial past all pose the question of the heritage of tourism in the former colonies. Lesser-known as a field of research, the study of tourism in colonial situations has begun to impose itself over the past decade as an important issue. Interestingly, in the colonial era, tourism was one element of the policies used by the colonial power to highlight its colony. The use of tourist activities for political ends was first confirmed in an October 2 1922 circular composed by the Minister of the Colonies, Albert Sarraut. This circular required all French overseas territories to organize and develop the tourism sector because, along with its economic benefits, “the tourist of today can be the colonist of tomorrow”. This theme, along with knowledge related more specifically to tourism – such as the creation of sites and tours, and the background of tourists – also contributes to sanitary, environmental, and planning questions, as well as issues concerning the construction of national sentiment. How did tourism develop in a territory during the period of colonial expansion? How are tourism and colonization related? What connections can be found between the two? Using archives and tourist publications, this book marks an unprecedented work of research into the enactment of tourism in Indochina. It places the establishment of tourism in this former French colony along with the tourism policies of Metropolitan France and the attempts to reproduce the organizations established in the Dutch East Indies and in Japan. The book, which focuses on events in the period from the turn of the twentieth century to the eve of the Second World War, analyses the transfer of European tourism practices to Indochina, their establishment, their integration with policies of valorisation in the 1920s, their spatial consequences, and the communication established by the state to promote Indochina as a tourist destination for both Indochinese and foreign tourists.

Hybrid Modernities

Architecture and Representation at the 1931 Colonial Exposition, Paris

Author: Patricia A. Morton

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262632713

Category: Architecture

Page: 380

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A look at how the 1931 International Colonial Exposition in Paris created hybrids of French and colonial culture.

German Colonialism

Race, the Holocaust, and Postwar Germany

Author: Volker Langbehn,Mohammad Salama

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520549

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 2241

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More than half a century before the mass executions of the Holocaust, Germany devastated the peoples of southwestern Africa. While colonialism might seem marginal to German history, new scholarship compares these acts to Nazi practices on the Eastern and Western fronts. With some of the most important essays from the past five years exploring the "continuity thesis," this anthology debates the links between German colonialist activities and the behavior of Germany during World War II. Some contributors argue the country's domination of southwestern Africa gave rise to perceptions of racial difference and superiority at home, building upon a nascent nationalism that blossomed into National Socialism and the Holocaust. Others remain skeptical and challenge the continuity thesis. The contributors also examine Germany's colonial past with debates over the country's identity and history and compare its colonial crimes with other European ventures. Other issues explored include the denial or marginalization of German genocide and the place of colonialism and the Holocaust within German and Israeli postwar relations.

The Birth of Vietnamese Political Journalism

Saigon, 1916-1930

Author: Philippe M.F. Peycam

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528043

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8110

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Philippe M. F. Peycam completes the first ever English-language study of Vietnam's emerging political press and its resistance to colonialism. Published in the decade that preceded the Communist Party's founding, this journalistic phenomenon established a space for public, political contestation that fundamentally changed Vietnamese attitudes and the outlook of Southeast Asia. Peycam directly links Saigon's colonial urbanization to the creation of new modes of individual and collective political agency. To better justify their presence, French colonialists implemented a peculiar brand of republican imperialism to encourage the development of a highly controlled print capitalism. Yet the Vietnamese made clever use of this new form of political expression, subverting colonial discourse and putting French rulers on the defensive, while simultaneously stoking Vietnamese aspirations for autonomy. Peycam specifically considers the work of Western-educated Vietnamese journalists who, in their legal writings, called attention to the politics of French rule. Peycam rejects the notion that Communist and nationalist ideologies changed the minds of "alienated" Vietnamese during this period. Rather, he credits colonial urban modernity with shaping the Vietnamese activist-journalist and the role of the French, even at their most coercive, along with the modern public Vietnamese intellectual and his responsibility toward the group. Countering common research on anticolonial nationalism and its assumptions of ethno-cultural homogeneity, Peycam follows the merging of French republican and anarchist traditions with neo-Confucian Vietnamese behavior, giving rise to modern Vietnamese public activism, its autonomy, and its contradictory aspirations. Interweaving biography with archival newspaper and French police sources, he writes from within these journalists' changing political consciousness and their shifting perception of social roles.