Achieving Social Impact

Sociology in the Public Sphere

Author: Marta Soler Gallart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319602705

Category: Social Science

Page: 94

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This book presents the findings of research projects conducted by CREA (Community of Researchers on Excellence for all), a research community based in Barcelona, showing how social transformation combines scientific excellence with the political and social impact of the research. Analyzing the impact of pursuing social sciences research by providing examples of achievements and opportunities despite barriers and obstacles encountered along the way, it is of interest for a broad spectrum of scholars from the field of social sciences – particularly public sociology – as well as from other sciences such as biology and neuroscience.

Transhumanism and Society

The Social Debate over Human Enhancement

Author: Stephen Lilley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400749813

Category: Philosophy

Page: 89

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This book provides an introductory overview to the social debate over enhancement technologies with an overview of the transhumanists' call to bypass human nature and conservationists' argument in defense of it. The author present this controversy as it unfolds in the contest between transhumanists proponents and conservationists, who push back with an argument to conserve human nature and to ban enhancement technologies. This book provides an overview of the key contested points and present the debate in an orderly, constructive fashion. Readers are informed about the discussion over humanism, the tension between science and religion, and the interpretation of socio-technological revolutions; and are invited to make up their own mind about one of the most challenging topics concerning the social and ethical implications of technological advancements.

Cultural Competence in Health

A Review of the Evidence

Author: Crystal Jongen,Janya McCalman,Roxanne Bainbridge,Anton Clifford

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 981105293X

Category: Medical

Page: 139

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This resource supports evidence-informed approaches to improving the cultural competence of health service delivery. By reviewing the evidence from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the US, it provides readers with a clear and systematic overview of the interventions and indicators applied to enable health system agencies and professionals to work effectively in various cross-cultural health care situations. The book highlights the importance of cultural competence and describes the current situation in the studied countries; identifies effective approaches and strategies for improving the situation; reviews the indicators for measuring progress; assesses the health outcomes associated with cultural competence; summarizes the quality of the evidence; and presents an evidence-informed conceptual framework for cultural competence in health. Cultural competence is critical to reducing health disparities and has become a popular concept in these countries for improving access to high-quality, respectful and responsive health care. This book provides policy makers, health practitioners, researchers and students with a much needed summary of what works to improve health systems, services and practice.

Beyond Safety Training

Embedding Safety in Professional Skills

Author: Corinne Bieder,Claude Gilbert,Benoît Journé,Hervé Laroche

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319655272

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 159

View: 6831

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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book investigates why, despite more and more resources devoted to safety training, expectations are not entirely met, particularly in the industrial sectors that have already achieved a high safety level. It not only reflects the most precious viewpoints of experts from different disciplines, different countries, with experiences in various industrial fields at the cutting edge of theories and practices in terms of safety, professionalization and their relationships. It also consolidates the positioning of the Foundation for an Industrial Safety Culture, highlighting what is currently considered at stake in terms of safety training, taking into account the system of constraints the different stakeholders are submitted to. It reports some success stories as well as elements which could explain the observed plateau in terms of outcome. It identifies some levers for evolution for at-risk industry and outlines a possible research agenda to go further with experimental solutions.

Failing States, Collapsing Systems

BioPhysical Triggers of Political Violence

Author: Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319478168

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 110

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This work executes a unique transdisciplinary methodology building on the author’s previous book, A User’s Guide to the Crisis of Civilization: And How to Save it (Pluto, 2010), which was the first peer-reviewed study to establish a social science framework for the integrated analysis of crises across climate, energy, food, economic, terror and the police state. Since the 2008 financial crash, the world has witnessed an unprecedented outbreak of social unrest in every major continent. Beginning with the birth of the Occupy movement and the Arab Spring, the eruption of civil disorder continues to wreak havoc unpredictably from Greece to Ukraine, from China to Thailand, from Brazil to Turkey, and beyond. Yet while policymakers and media observers have raced to keep up with events, they have largely missed the biophysical triggers of this new age of unrest – the end of the age of cheap fossil fuels, and its multiplying consequences for the Earth’s climate, industrial food production, and economic growth. This book for the first time develops an empirically-ground theoretical model of the complex interaction between biophysical processes and geopolitical crises, demonstrated through the analysis of a wide range of detailed case studies of historic, concurrent and probable state failures in the Middle East, Northwest Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Europe and North America. Geopolitical crises across these regions, Ahmed argues, are being driven by the proliferation of climate, food and economic crises which have at their root the common denominator of a fundamental and permanent disruption in the energy basis of industrial civilization. This inevitable energy transition, which will be completed well before the close of this century, entails a paradigm shift in the organization of civilization. Yet for this shift to result in a viable new way of life will require a fundamental epistemological shift recognizing humanity’s embeddedness in the natural world. For this to be achieved, the stranglehold of conventional models achieved through the hegemony of establishment media reporting – dominated by fossil fuel interests – must be broken. While geopolitics cannot be simplistically reduced to the biophysical, this book shows that international relations today can only be understood by recognizing the extent to which the political is embedded in the biophysical. Although the book offers a rigorous scientific analysis, it is written in a clean, journalistic style to ensure readability and accessibility to a general audience. It will contain a large number of graphical illustrations concerning oil production data, population issues, the food price index, economic growth and debt, and other related issues to demonstrate the interconnections and correlations across key sectors.

Metals in Past Societies

A Global Perspective on Indigenous African Metallurgy

Author: Shadreck Chirikure

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331911641X

Category: Social Science

Page: 166

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This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.

Understanding Policy Decisions

Author: Bruno Dente

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319025201

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 134

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This book proposes a model for understanding how innovative policy decisions are taken in complex political and organizational systems as well as the possible strategies that the promoter of the innovation can employ in order to maximize the probability of successful adoption and implementation. It presents a conceptual framework for the analysis of decisional situations in order to design the most appropriate strategies for overcoming conflict (e.g. of the NIMBY variety) and/or increasing the engagement of potentially interested actors. The book includes a template for decisional case studies, a protocol for the definition of a decisional strategy, and an exercise in decisional analysis.

A Theory of Contestation

Author: Antje Wiener

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642552358

Category: Political Science

Page: 95

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The Theory of Contestation advances critical norms research in international relations. It scrutinises the uses of ‘contestation’ in international relations theories with regard to its descriptive and normative potential. To that end, critical investigations into international relations are conducted based on three thinking tools from public philosophy and the social sciences: The normativity premise, the diversity premise and cultural cosmopolitanism. The resulting theory of contestation entails four main features, namely types of norms, modes of contestation, segments of norms and the cycle of contestation. The theory distinguishes between the principle of contestedness and the practice of contestation and argues that, if contestedness is accepted as a meta-organising principle of global governance, regular access to contestation for all involved stakeholders will enhance legitimate governance in the global realm.

Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) in the Marketing Context

A State of the Art Analysis and Future Directions

Author: Elvira Ismagilova,Yogesh K Dwivedi,Emma Slade,Michael Williams

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319524593

Category: Computers

Page: 124

View: 8902

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This SpringerBrief offers a state of the art analysis of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communications and its role in marketing. The book begins with an overview of traditional word-of-mouth (WOM) and its evolution to eWOM. It discusses the differences between traditional and online WOM. The book examines why people engage in eWOM communications, but also how consumers evaluate its persuasiveness. It also looks at the effects of eWOM. The book identifies current gaps in the eWOM research, but also highlights future directions for this growing field. eWOM is an important marketing technique in brand communications, and it plays an important role in modern e-commerce. Marketers become extremely interested in enhancing the power of eWOM developing loyalty programs and building brands. Studying the effect of eWOM can be beneficial for companies. This book should be a good resource for scholars and practitioners that need to understand the pervasive effects of eWOM.

Social Banking and Social Finance

Answers to the Economic Crisis

Author: Roland Benedikter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441977748

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 136

View: 2961

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For over 2,000 years, banks have served to facilitate the exchange of money and to provide a variety of economic and financial services. During the most recent financial collapse and subsequent recession, beginning in 2008, banks have been vilified as perpetrators of the crisis, the public distrust compounded by massive public bailouts. Nevertheless, another form of banking has also emerged, with a focus on promoting economic sustainability, investing in community, providing opportunity for the disadvantaged, and supporting social, environmental, and ethical agendas. Social Banking and Social Finance traces the emergence of the “bank with a conscience” and proposes a new approach to banking in the wake of the economic crisis. Featuring innovations and initiatives in banking from Europe, Canada, and the United States, Roland Benedikter presents an alternative to traditional banking practices that are focused exclusively on profit maximization. He argues that social banking is not about changing the system, but about improving some of its core features by putting into use the "triple bottom line" principle of profit-people-planet. Important lessons can be learned by the success of social banks that may be useful for the greater task of improving the global financial system and avoiding economic crises in the future.

Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting

Imperatives for Equitable Public Expenditure

Author: Cecilia Ng

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319244965

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 6917

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This unique book focuses on the hybridization of grassroots participation in planning, implementing, and developing gender-responsive budgeting. It explores the possibilities for gender sensitive budgeting when implemented using techniques that have been popularized by participatory governance activists. A combination of the two allows for a whole new way of ensuring public budgets are used equitably.

Impact of Organized Crime on Murder of Law Enforcement Personnel at the U.S.-Mexican Border

Author: Sara Schatz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789401792486

Category: Social Science

Page: 114

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This brief fills a gap in the studies of organized crime in Mexico (Kan 2012, Ríos 2011, Dell 2011) by documenting and mapping the post-2008 assassination of Mexican border police chiefs. It traces out a “systematic” of law-enforcement assassination in Northern Tier Mexico, showing how the selective, often sequential, hits by cartels on chiefs in border towns and along key drug-trafficking corridors has proven an effective strategy by organized crime elements to serve several goals: (1) to retaliate for federal, state and local prosecution, (2) to try and neutralize police chiefs, (3) to achieve intermittent local governance and/or to seed corrupt police chiefs at the municipal level, and, (4) to reduce local governmental capacity to obtain greater freedom for movement of goods. It is argued that the tactical advantage of organized crime elements gives them relatively easy physical access to law enforcement targets and thus is thus one prime element facilitating the use of assassination as a strategy. U.S. and Mexican legal, political and judicial institutions have not been able to adequately restrict opportunity for law-enforcement assassinations. The inability to reduce access to weapons and officials, to increase security for police personnel, to reduce corruption and punish offenders sets the stage for the assassination of local law enforcement. Yet, it is the goals of organized crime elements (to clear drug-smuggling routes and to try and gain more pliant governance at the municipal level) that ultimately motivate such killings.

Ethics Dumping

Case Studies from North-South Research Collaborations

Author: Doris Schroeder,Julie Cook,François Hirsch,Solveig Fenet,Vasantha Muthuswamy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319647318

Category: Philosophy

Page: 134

View: 9526

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This book is published under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.

Perspectives on Educational Quality

Illustrative Outcomes on Primary and Secondary Schooling in the Netherlands

Author: Jaap Scheerens,Hans Luyten,Jan van Ravens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400709263

Category: Education

Page: 148

View: 9737

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The quality of education is a term that is frequently used in public debates. Understood in the sense of education being “generally okay” , or rather, most frequently, as “not okay”. Perhaps there is an overruling nostalgic view that formerly education was better than today. In scholarly discourse there are those who maintain that the quality of education is an illusive term, with varying interpretations in different settings and by different stakeholders. In this book the complexity of the concept of education quality is recognized, but a conceptual framework is presented that makes quality, despite its complexity, amenable to rational and empirical analysis. Productivity, equity, effectiveness, efficiency and responsiveness of education systems are seen as key facets of quality. A concrete set of indicators is presented that makes for the measurement of these quality facets. In the second part of the book the quality framework is applied to an analysis of the quality of education in the Netherlands. Common sense in the Netherlands is dominated by the view that the quality of education is a course for serious concern. Some recent quality reviews take the same pessimistic outlook. However, the current overview of indicators on the Dutch system, seen from an international perspective, presents a picture that is much more positive. Still there is always room for improvement, in the case of the Netherlands this should probably be sought in diminishing the selectivity of the system as a way to improve participation in higher education.

Postcolonial Reconstruction: A Sociological Reading of Octavio Paz

Author: Oliver Kozlarek

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331944302X

Category: Social Science

Page: 76

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This book presents a close reading of the work of the Mexican writer and Nobel Prize Laureate, Octavio Paz. It does so from the specific perspective of sociology and the more general perspective of the social sciences. The book identifies opportunities for relating Paz’ sociological ideas to contemporary debates, arguing that Paz’ sociology is linked very closely to his assessment of what could be called the post-colonial condition that Mexico has been experiencing. The book thus advances the understanding of the differences between post-colonial experiences in Latin America and those of other areas of the world. In addition to revealing Paz’ sociology, the book focuses on Modernity and examines Paz’ critique of Modernity and his “project of Modernity”. It shows that a close examination of the works of Octavio Paz helps redefine Modernity from a Latin American perspective as an experience in which the global and local are intertwined, and helps to point in the direction of a new kind of humanism.

Visualizing the Data City

Social Media as a Source of Knowledge for Urban Planning and Management

Author: Paolo Ciuccarelli,Giorgia Lupi,Luca Simeone

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319021958

Category: Computers

Page: 76

View: 5417

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This book investigates novel methods and technologies for the collection, analysis and representation of real-time user-generated data at the urban scale in order to explore potential scenarios for more participatory design, planning and management processes. For this purpose, the authors present a set of experiments conducted in collaboration with urban stakeholders at various levels (including citizens, city administrators, urban planners, local industries and NGOs) in Milan and New York in 2012. It is examined whether geo-tagged and user-generated content can be of value in the creation of meaningful, real-time indicators of urban quality, as it is perceived and communicated by the citizens. The meanings that people attach to places are also explored to discover what such an urban semantic layer looks like and how it unfolds over time. As a conclusion, recommendations are proposed for the exploitation of user-generated content in order to answer hitherto unsolved urban questions. Readers will find in this book a fascinating exploration of techniques for mining the social web that can be applied to procure user-generated content as a means of investigating urban dynamics.

Marconi's Wireless and the Rhetoric of a New Technology

Author: Aaron A. Toscano

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400739761

Category: Education

Page: 145

View: 9063

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By examining a selection of the discourse surrounding Marconi's invention of the wireless, which excited early 20th century audiences even before becoming a viable technology, this book establishes a broader definition for contemporary technical communication.

Handbook of Survey Methodology for the Social Sciences

Author: Lior Gideon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461438764

Category: Social Science

Page: 520

View: 4292

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Surveys enjoy great ubiquity among data collection methods in social research: they are flexible in questioning techniques, in the amount of questions asked, in the topics covered, and in the various ways of interactions with respondents. Surveys are also the preferred method by many researchers in the social sciences due to their ability to provide quick profiles and results. Because they are so commonly used and fairly easy to administer, surveys are often thought to be easily thrown together. But designing an effective survey that yields reliable and valid results takes more than merely asking questions and waiting for the answers to arrive. Geared to the non-statistician, the Handbook of Survey Methodology in Social Sciences addresses issues throughout all phases of survey design and implementation. Chapters examine the major survey methods of data collection, providing expert guidelines for asking targeted questions, improving accuracy and quality of responses, while reducing sampling and non-sampling bias. Relying on the Total Survey Error theory, various issues of both sampling and non-sampling sources of error are explored and discussed. By covering all aspects of the topic, the Handbook is suited to readers taking their first steps in survey methodology, as well as to those already involved in survey design and execution, and to those currently in training. Featured in the Handbook: • The Total Survey Error: sampling and non-sampling errors. • Survey sampling techniques. • The art of question phrasing. • Techniques for increasing response rates • A question of ethics: what is allowed in survey research? • Survey design: face-to-face, phone, mail, e-mail, online, computer-assisted.? • Dealing with sensitive issues in surveys. • Demographics of respondents: implications for future survey research. • Dealing with nonresponse, and nonresponse bias The Handbook of Survey Methodology in Social Sciences offers how-to clarity for researchers in the social and behavioral sciences and related disciplines, including sociology, criminology, criminal justice, social psychology, education, public health, political science, management, and many other disciplines relying on survey methodology as one of their main data collection tools.

The Rise of the Creative Class

And how It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life

Author: Richard Florida

Publisher: Pluto Press Australia

ISBN: 9781877270574

Category: Creative ability

Page: 404

View: 1566

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Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Author: Dorothee Heemskerk,Maxine Caws,Ben Marais,Jeremy Farrar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319191322

Category: Medical

Page: 66

View: 9974

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This work contains updated and clinically relevant information about tuberculosis. It is aimed at providing a succinct overview of history and disease epidemiology, clinical presentation and the most recent scientific developments in the field of tuberculosis research, with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. It may serve as a practical resource for students, clinicians and researchers who work in the field of infectious diseases.