Aggression in Humans and Other Primates

Biology, Psychology, Sociology

Author: Hans-Henning Kortüm,Jürgen Heinze

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110291363

Category: Psychology

Page: 202

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In this work aggression and conflict in man and other primates are interpreted in the light of evolutionary biology and game theory models. Unitl now interdisciplinary collaboration between the humanities and the natural sciences has been rare and hampered by different methodologies and terminology. Nevertheless, such cooperation is essential for elucidating the causes and consequences of aggression in humans and in explaining what shape aggression takes in particular situations. The aim of this volume is to present empirical and theoretical studies from biologists and social scientists to create an interdisciplinary framework for understanding aggression.

Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates

Author: James Silverberg,J. Patrick Gray

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195361230

Category: Psychology

Page: 328

View: 1144

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This book explores the role of aggression in primate social systems and its implications for human behavior. Many people look to primate studies to see if and how we might be able to predict violent behavior in humans, or ultimately to control war. Of particular interest in the study of primate aggression are questions such as: how do primates use aggression to maintain social organization; what are the costs of aggression; why do some primates avoid aggressive behavior altogether. Students and researchers in primatology, behavioral biology, anthropology, and psychology will read with interest as the editors and contributors to this book address these and other basic research questions about aggression. They bring new information to the topic as well as an integrated view of aggression that combines important evolutionary considerations with developmental, sociological and cultural perspectives.

Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans

Author: Martin N. Muller,Richard W. Wrangham

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674033245

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 483

View: 1914

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In only a few species do males strategically employ violence to control female sexuality. Why are females routinely abused in some species, but never in others? And can the study of such unpleasant behavior help us to understand the evolution of men's violence against women? The book presents extensive field research and analysis to evaluate sexual coercion in a range of species - including all of the great apes and humans - and to clarify its role in shaping social relationships among males, among females, and between the sexes.

The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology

Author: Matt DeLisi,Michael G Vaughn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317936744

Category: Psychology

Page: 660

View: 6669

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Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. Since the mapping of the human genome, scientists have been able to study the biosocial causes of human behaviour with the greatest specificity. After decades of almost exclusive sociological focus, criminology has undergone a paradigm shift where the field is more interdisciplinary and this book combines perspectives from criminology and sociology with contributions from fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology. The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology is the largest and most comprehensive work of its kind, and is organized into five sections that collectively span the terrain of biosocial research on antisocial behavior. Bringing together leading experts from around the world, this book considers the criminological, genetic and neuropsychological foundations of offending, as well as the legal and criminal justice applications of biosocial criminological theory. The handbook is essential reading for students, researchers, and practitioners from across the social, behavioural, and natural sciences who are engaged in the study of antisocial behaviour.

Global Challenges: Peace and War

Author: Yih-Jye Hwang,Lucie Cerna

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004246932

Category: History

Page: 254

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What is the idea of ‘peace’? This textbook aims to offer a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to studies of peace and war, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives.

Evolutionary Criminology

Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime

Author: Russil Durrant,Tony Ward

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123984939

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 6147

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In our attempts to understand crime, researchers typically focus on proximate factors such as the psychology of offenders, their developmental history, and the social structure in which they are embedded. While these factors are important, they don't tell the whole story. Evolutionary Criminology: Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime explores how evolutionary biology adds to our understanding of why crime is committed, by whom, and our response to norm violations. This understanding is important both for a better understanding of what precipitates crime and to guide approaches for effectively managing criminal behavior. This book is divided into three parts. Part I reviews evolutionary biology concepts important for understanding human behavior, including crime. Part II focuses on theoretical approaches to explaining crime, including the evolution of cooperation, and the evolutionary history and function of violent crime, drug use, property offending, and white collar crime. The developmental origins of criminal behavior are described to account for the increase in offending during adolescence and early adulthood as well as to explain why some offenders are more likely to desist than others. Proximal causes of crime are examined, as well as cultural and structural processes influencing crime. Part III considers human motivation to punish norm violators and what this means for the development of a criminal justice system. This section also considers how an evolutionary approach contributes to our understanding of crime prevention and reduction. The section closes with an evolutionary approach to understanding offender rehabilitation and reintegration. Reviews how evolutionary findings improve our understanding of crime and punishment Examines motivations to offend, and to punish norm violators Articulates evolutionary explanations for adolescent crime increase Identifies how this knowledge can aid in crime prevention and reduction, and in offender rehabilitation

Biology of Aggression

Author: Randy J. Nelson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195168763

Category: Psychology

Page: 512

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Unchecked aggression and violence take a significant toll on society. With recent advances in pharmacology and genetic manipulation techniques, new interest has developed in the biological mechanisms of aggression. The primary goal of this title is to summarise and synthesis recent advances in the subject.

Sociobiology

Author: Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674002350

Category: Nature

Page: 697

View: 9479

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When this classic work was first published in 1975, it created a new discipline and started a tumultuous round in the age-old nature versus nurture debate. The controversy surrounding the book's publication--and surrounding its central claim that human social behavior has a biological foundation--reverberates to this day. In the introduction to this twenty-fifth anniversary edition, Edward O. Wilson shows how research in human genetics and neuroscience over the past quarter of a century has strengthened the case for a biological understanding of human nature.

Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster

Author: George Fink

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123813824

Category: Medical

Page: 896

View: 8567

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Stress is a universal phenomenon that impacts adversely on most people. Following on the heels of Stress Science: Neuroendocrinology and Stress Consequences: Mental, Neuropsychological and Socioeconomic, this third derivative volume will provide a readily accessible and affordable compendium that explains the phenomenon of stress as it relates physically and mentally to war, conflict and disaster. The first section will be dedicated to study of the link between stress and various forms of conflict. Specific instances of conflict will be discussed - the Gulf wars, Korea, Hiroshima bombing, the Holocaust, 9/11, Northern Ireland, terrorism in general, torture. The second section will explore the stress impact of more general physical disasters such as airline and vehicle accidents, earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes. The final section will focus on the clinical relationship between conflict stress and various mental diseases – PTSD, suicide, disaster syndrome, etc – as well as the adverse impact of stress on human physical health in general. Comprised of about 100 top articles selected from Elsevier’s Encyclopedias of Stress, the volume will provide a valuable desk reference that will put relevant articles readily at the fingertips of all scientists who consider stress. Chapters offer impressive and unique scope with topics addressing the relationship between stress generated by war, conflict and disaster and various physical/mental disorders Richly illustrated with over 200 figures, dozens in color Articles carefully selected by one of the world’s most preeminent stress researchers and contributors represent the most outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter providing fully vetted and reliable expert knowledge

Behave

The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst

Author: Robert M Sapolsky

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1448129788

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 6558

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***'Awe-inspiring... You will learn more about human nature than in any other book I can think of' Henry Marsh THE NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER / WINNER OF THE 2017 LA TIMES BOOK PRIZE 'One of the best scientist-writers of our time' Oliver Sacks Why do human beings behave as they do? We are capable of savage acts of violence but also spectacular feats of kindness: is one side of our nature destined to win out over the other? Every act of human behaviour has multiple layers of causation, spiralling back seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years, even centuries, right back to the dawn of time and the origins of our species. In the epic sweep of history, how does our biology affect the arc of war and peace, justice and persecution? How have our brains evolved alongside our cultures? This is the exhilarating story of human morality and the science underpinning the biggest question of all: what makes us human?

Demonic Males

Apes and the Origins of Human Violence

Author: Richard W. Wrangham,Dale Peterson

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780395877432

Category: Nature

Page: 350

View: 788

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Draws on recent discoveries about human evolution to examine whether violence among men is a product of their primitive heritage, and searches for solutions to the problems of war, rape, and murder

The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society

Author: Rosemary Hopcroft,Rosemary L. Hopcroft

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190299320

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 7397

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Evolution, biology, and society is a catch-all phrase encompassing any scholarly work that utilizes evolutionary theory and/or biological or behavioral genetic methods in the study of the human social group, and The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society contains an much needed overview of research in the area by sociologists and other social scientists. The examined topics cover a wide variety of issues, including the origins of social solidarity; religious beliefs; sex differences; gender inequality; determinants of human happiness; the nature of social stratification and inequality and its effects; identity, status, and other group processes; race, ethnicity, and race discrimination; fertility and family processes; crime and deviance; and cultural and social change. The scholars whose work is presented in this volume come from a variety of disciplines in addition to sociology, including psychology, political science, and criminology. Yet, as the essays in this volume demonstrate, the potential of theory and methods from biology for illuminating social phenomena is clear, and sociologists stand to gain from learning more about them and using them in their own work. The theory focuses on evolution by natural selection, the primary paradigm of the biological sciences, while the methods include the statistical analyses sociologists are familiar with, as well as other methods that they may not be familiar with, such as behavioral genetic methods, methods for including genetic factors in statistical analyses, gene-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, and methods for testing levels of hormones and other biochemicals in blood and saliva and including these factors in analyses. This work will be of interest to any sociologist with an interest in exploring the interaction of biological and sociological processes. As an introduction to the field it is useful for teaching upper-level or graduate students in sociology or a related social science.

Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language

Author: Robin Dunbar

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674363366

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 230

View: 6332

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What a big brain we have for all the small talk we make. It's an evolutionary riddle that at long last makes sense in this intriguing book about what gossip has done for our talkative species. Psychologist Robin Dunbar looks at gossip as an instrument of social order and cohesion--much like the endless grooming with which our primate cousins tend to their social relationships. Apes and monkeys, humanity's closest kin, differ from other animals in the intensity of these relationships. All their grooming is not so much about hygiene as it is about cementing bonds, making friends, and influencing fellow primates. But for early humans, grooming as a way to social success posed a problem: given their large social groups of 150 or so, our earliest ancestors would have had to spend almost half their time grooming one another--an impossible burden. What Dunbar suggests--and his research, whether in the realm of primatology or in that of gossip, confirms--is that humans developed language to serve the same purpose, but far more efficiently. It seems there is nothing idle about chatter, which holds together a diverse, dynamic group--whether of hunter-gatherers, soldiers, or workmates. Anthropologists have long assumed that language developed in relationships among males during activities such as hunting. Dunbar's original and extremely interesting studies suggest otherwise: that language in fact evolved in response to our need to keep up to date with friends and family. We needed conversation to stay in touch, and we still need it in ways that will not be satisfied by teleconferencing, email, or any other communication technology. As Dunbar shows, the impersonal world of cyberspace will not fulfill our primordial need for face-to-face contact. From the nit-picking of chimpanzees to our chats at coffee break, from neuroscience to paleoanthropology, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language offers a provocative view of what makes us human, what holds us together, and what sets us apart.

Human Ethology

Author: Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202366616

Category: Social Science

Page: 848

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With the discovery of conditioned reflexes by I. P. Pavlov, the possibilities for experimenting, following the example set by the classical, exact sciences, were made available to the behavioral sciences. Many psychologists hoped that the component parts of behavior had also been found from which the entire, multifaceted cosmos of behavior could then be constructed. An experimentally oriented psychology subsequently developed including the influential school of behaviorism. This first text on human ethology presents itself as a unified work, even though not every area could be treated with equal depth. For example, a branch of ethology has developed in the past decade which places particular emphasis on ecology and population genetics. This field, known as sociobiology, has enriched discussion beyond the boundaries of behavioral biology through its stimulating, and often provocative, theses. After vigorous debates between behaviorists, anthropologists, and sociologists, we have entered a period of exchange of thoughts and a mutual approach, which in many instances has led to cooperative projects of researchers from different disciplines. This work offers a biological point of view for discussion and includes data from the author's cross-cultural work and research from the staff of his institute. It confirms, above all else, the astonishing unity of mankind and paints a basically positive picture of how we are moved by the same passions, jealousies, friendliness, and active curiosity. The need to understand ourselves has never been as great as it is today. An ideologically torn humanity struggles for its survival. Our species, does not know how it should compensate its workers, and it experiments with various economic systems, constitutions, and forms of government. It struggles for freedom and stumbles into newer conflicts. Population growth is apparently completely out of hand, and at the same time many resources are being depleted. We must consider our existence rationally in order to understand it, but certainly not with cold, calculating reason but with the warm feeling of a heart concerned for the welfare of later generations.

Race, Monogamy, and Other Lies They Told You

Busting Myths about Human Nature

Author: Agustín Fuentes

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520285999

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 8063

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There are three major myths of human nature: humans are divided into biological races; humans are naturally aggressive; and men and women are truly different in behavior, desires, and wiring. In an engaging and wide-ranging narrative, Agustín Fuentes counters these pervasive and pernicious myths about human behavior. Tackling misconceptions about what race, aggression, and sex really mean for humans, Fuentes incorporates an accessible understanding of culture, genetics, and evolution, requiring us to dispose of notions of “nature or nurture.” Presenting scientific evidence from diverse fields—including anthropology, biology, and psychology—Fuentes devises a myth-busting toolkit to dismantle persistent fallacies about the validity of biological races, the innateness of aggression and violence, and the nature of monogamy and differences between the sexes. A final chapter plus an appendix provide a set of take-home points on how readers can myth-bust on their own. Accessible, compelling, and original, this book is a rich and nuanced account of how nature, culture, experience, and choice interact to influence human behavior.

Handbook on Evolution and Society

Toward an Evolutionary Social Science

Author: Alexandra Maryanski,Richard Machalek,Jonathan H. Turner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317258339

Category: Political Science

Page: 580

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"Handbook on Evolution and Society" brings together original chapters by prominent scholars who have been instrumental in the revival of evolutionary theorizing and research in the social sciences over the last twenty-five years. Previously unpublished essays provide up-to-date, critical surveys of recent research and key debates. The contributors discuss early challenges posed by sociobiology, the rise of evolutionary psychology, the more conflicted response of evolutionary sociology to sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. Chapters address the application and limitations of Darwinian ideas in the social sciences. Prominent authors come from a variety of disciplines in ecology, biology, primatology, psychology, sociology, and the humanities. The most comprehensive resource available, this vital collection demonstrates to scholars and students the new ways in which evolutionary approaches, ultimately derived from biology, are influencing the diverse social sciences and humanities.

Monkeyluv

And Other Essays on Our Lives as Animals

Author: Robert M. Sapolsky

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0743260163

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 224

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A collection of original essays by a leading neurobiologist and primatologist shares the author's insights into behavioral biology, in a volume that focuses on three primary topics, including the physiology of genes, the human body, and the factors that shape human social interaction. By the author of A Primate's Memoir. Reprint. 25,000 first printing.

Peace Ethology

Behavioral Processes and Systems of Peace

Author: Peter Verbeek,Benjamin A. Peters

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118922530

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 1135

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A scholarly collection of timely essays on the behavioral science of peace With contributions from experts representing a wide variety of scholarly fields (behavioral and social sciences, philosophy, environmental science, anthropology and economics), Peace Ethology offers original essays on the most recent research and findings on the topic of the behavioral science of peace. This much-needed volume includes writings that examine four main areas of study: the proximate causation of peace, the developmental aspects of peace, the function and systems of peace and the evolution of peace. The popular belief persists that, by nature, humans are not pre-disposed to peace. However, archeological and paleontological evidence reveals that the vast majority of our time as a species has been spent in small hunter-gatherer bands that are basically peaceful and egalitarian in nature. The text also reveals that most of the earth’s people are living in more peaceful societies than in centuries past. This hopeful compendium of essays: Contains writings from noted experts from a variety of academic studies Offers a social-psychological perspective on the causation of peaceful behavior Includes information on children’s peacekeeping and peacemaking Presents ideas for overcoming social tension between police and civilians Provides the most recent thinking on the behavioral science of peace Written for students and academics of the behavioral and social sciences, Peace Ethology offers scholarly essays on the development, nature, and current state of peace.

Human Biodiversity

Genes, Race, and History

Author: Jonathan M. Marks

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202366562

Category: Social Science

Page: 321

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Are humans unique? This simple question, at the very heart of the hybrid field of biological anthropology, poses one of the false of dichotomies--with a stereotypical humanist answering in the affirmative and a stereotypical scientist answering in the negative. The "study "of human biology is different from the study of the biology of other species. In the simplest terms, people's lives and welfare may depend upon it, in a sense that they may not depend on the study of other scientific subjects. Where science is used to validate ideas--four out of five scientists preferring a brand of cigarettes or toothpaste--there is a tendency to accept the judgment as authoritative without asking the kinds of questions we might ask of other citizens' pronouncements. In "Human Biodiversity, "Marks has attempted to distill from a centuries-long debate what has been learned and remains to be learned about the biological differences within and among human groups. His is the first such attempt by an anthropologist in years, for genetics has undermined the fundamental assumptions of racial taxonomy. The history of those assumptions from Linnaeus to the recent past--the history of other, more useful assumptions that derive from Buffon and have reemerged to account for genetic variation--are the poles of Marks's exploration.

Developmental Origins of Aggression

Author: Richard Ernest Tremblay,Willard W. Hartup,John Archer

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9781593851101

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 9647

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"Offering the first comprehensive analysis of this topic in over 30 years, this book is sure to fuel discussion and debate among researchers, practitioners, and students in developmental psychology, child clinical psychology, child and adolescent psychiatry, criminology, and related disciplines. In the classroom, it is a unique and valuable text for graduate-level courses."--BOOK JACKET.