Aggression in Humans and Other Primates

Biology, Psychology, Sociology

Author: Hans-Henning Kortüm,Jürgen Heinze

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110291363

Category: Psychology

Page: 202

View: 2752

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In this work aggression and conflict in man and other primates are interpreted in the light of evolutionary biology and game theory models. Unitl now interdisciplinary collaboration between the humanities and the natural sciences has been rare and hampered by different methodologies and terminology. Nevertheless, such cooperation is essential for elucidating the causes and consequences of aggression in humans and in explaining what shape aggression takes in particular situations. The aim of this volume is to present empirical and theoretical studies from biologists and social scientists to create an interdisciplinary framework for understanding aggression.

Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates

Author: James Silverberg,J. Patrick Gray

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195361230

Category: Psychology

Page: 328

View: 4080

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This book explores the role of aggression in primate social systems and its implications for human behavior. Many people look to primate studies to see if and how we might be able to predict violent behavior in humans, or ultimately to control war. Of particular interest in the study of primate aggression are questions such as: how do primates use aggression to maintain social organization; what are the costs of aggression; why do some primates avoid aggressive behavior altogether. Students and researchers in primatology, behavioral biology, anthropology, and psychology will read with interest as the editors and contributors to this book address these and other basic research questions about aggression. They bring new information to the topic as well as an integrated view of aggression that combines important evolutionary considerations with developmental, sociological and cultural perspectives.

Verbale Aggression

Multidisziplinäre Zugänge zur verletzenden Macht der Sprache

Author: Silvia Bonacchi

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110522977

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 402

View: 6290

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Der Band präsentiert Beiträge aus unterschiedlichen sprachbezogenen Disziplinen, die einen umfassenden theoretischen Rahmen und Fallstudien zur verbalen Aggression in ihren vielfältigen Erscheinungsformen liefern. Sprachliche Aggressionsformen stellen nicht so sehr eine Verschiebung physischer Aggression dar, sondern sie sind Aggressionsakte sui generis, die vor allem durch ihre starke Symbolizität (gebrauchsgebundene Zeichenhaftigkeit) und Indexikalität (Hinweiskraft) wirken und treffen. Der Band besteht aus vier Hauptteilen, „Zum Ausdruck verbaler Aggression", „Verbale Aggression in Praxisfeldern", „Hassrede und Ideologie", „Inszenierungen verbaler Aggression", in denen nicht nur auf die handlungsleitende Dimension von verbalen Aggressionsakten ausführlich eingegangen wird, sondern auch die Gestaltung von aggressionsbezogenen kommunikativen und diskursiven Praktiken, ihre Gebundenheit an Medien sowie ihre breiten Wirkungsfelder (etwa in therapeutischen und didaktischen Prozessen) nachgezeichnet werden. Das Buch bietet fachlich fundierte Grundlagen und Perspektiven für Sprachwissenschaftler, Psychologen, Soziologen, Pädagogen, Medienwissenschaftler und Journalisten, die sich mit verbaler Aggression auseinandersetzen möchten.

Fliehen-Kämpfen-Kapitulieren

Rationales Handeln im Zeitalter Friedrich Barbarossas

Author: Mareike Pohl

Publisher: Kohlhammer Verlag

ISBN: 3170272144

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 9918

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Das Mittelalter ist anders, fremd und für uns heute oft unverständlich & viele Forschungen der letzten Jahre befassten sich intensiv mit der Alterität, der Andersartigkeit des Mittelalters und seiner Akteure. Vielfach wird davon ausgegangen, dass im Mittelalter mehr die Symbolik als das rationale Handeln die Politik der Regierenden bestimmte. Handelte aber ein Herrscher wie Friedrich Barbarossa auch gegen den "gesunden Menschenverstand>, um seine Ehre zu verteidigen? Oftmals gerät dabei aus dem Blick, dass es auch zahlreiche Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen heute und damals gibt, gerade wenn es um Entscheidungen mittelalterlicher Akteure geht. Mithilfe moderner soziologischer Theorien über menschliches Handeln wie der Rational-Choice-Theorie wird auf Grundlage der soliden Quellenbasis und -kenntnis gezeigt, dass rationales Handeln entgegen bisheriger Annahmen doch sehr viel wahrscheinlicher war, als bislang geglaubt. Anhand zentraler Themenfelder der Barbarossazeit wie Handeln in Schlachten (Fliehen, Kämpfen ausweichen, Kämpfen auch bei klarer Unterlegenheit) oder Geld als Tauschgut (auch und gerade gegen Ehre, Lösegeld oder Gnade) wird diesen Leitfragen nachgegangen und gezeigt, dass symbolhaftes und zweckrationales Handeln sich nicht gegenseitig ausschließen müssen, sich einander im besten Fall sogar ergänzen.

Homo Oeconomicus 32 (3/4)

Author: Manfred J. Holler

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3892651191

Category: Fiction

Page: 212

View: 5553

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Homo Oeconomicus Volume 32, Number 3 / 4 (2015) Editorial The Fiscal Commons: Assessing the Limits and Possibilities of a Metaphor JUHA YLISALOR e ̃ ections on the Bildung Tradition and Foucault: A Public Choice of Self PATRICK A. MCNUTT Are Consumers Really the Main Victims of Price Cartels? THOMAS EGER AND PETER WEISE The Evolution of Cooperation with Punishment and Second Chance NAZARIA SOLFERINO and SERENA F. TAURINO Public Events as Public Bads DENNIS HÖFER and KARSTEN MAUSE Backs to the Wall: Strategies of Cluster Firms at the Beginning of the Global Economic Crisis of 2008 STEFAN FUCHS and MARTIN WROBEL Negotiations among Chinese and Germans – An Experimental Case Study HEIKE HENNING-SCHMIDT and GARI WALKOWITZ Desire on Stage BARBARA KLOSE-ULLMANNA Review of Juha Räikkä’s Social Justice in Practice DINA BABUSHINKA Feasibility Arguments, Their Nature, and Weakness JUHA RÄIKKÄ

Primate Paradigms

Sex Roles and Social Bonds

Author: Linda Marie Fedigan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226239484

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 4901

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This critical review of behavior patterns in nonhuman primates is an excellent study of the importance of female roles in different social groups and their significance in the evolution of human social life. "A book that properly illuminates in rich detail not only developmental and socioecological aspects of primate behavior but also how and why certain questions are asked. In addition, the book frequently focuses on insufficiently answered questions, especially those concerned with the evolution of primate sex differences. Fedigan's book is unique . . . because it places primate adaptations and our explanation of those patterns in a larger intellectual framework that is easily and appropriately connected to many lines of research in different fields (sociology, psychology, anthropology, neurobiology, endocrinology, and biology)—and not in inconsequential ways, either."—James McKenna, American Journal of Primatology "This is the feminist critique of theories of primate and human evolution."—John H. Cook, Nature

Biosociology of Dominance and Deference

Author: Allan Mazur

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742536937

Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

Page: 197

View: 8974

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This short, engaging volume develops new and sociologically sophisticated concepts to bring the fields of biology and sociology together. It is about the social biology of face-to-face dominance interactions and explores the evolution of behavior through connections among biology, language, culture, and socialization. Meant to be a self-contained exploration_sociologists would require no prior knowledge of biology; biologists would require no prior knowledge of sociology_this book is a fun, informative supplement for courses throughout sociology and the social sciences.

Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics

Author: H.E. Fitzgerald,B.H. Lester,M.W. Yogman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461536804

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 6827

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This volume posits two theories of behavioral pediatrics: that scientific and clinical study of organism--environment transactions requires investigators to alter recognize the importance of systemic models over mechanistic models; and that attention must be given to environmental contexts of development, and to the events in the environment that trigger and regulate the organization, development, and expression of human behavior.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 421

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

The Origins and Nature of Sociality

Author: Robert W. Sussman,Audrey R. Chapman

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202369846

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 5161

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Scientific developments have increasingly been transforming our understanding of the place of human beings in nature. The study of humanity, carried out in a variety of disciplines from anthropology and paleontology to genetics and neurosciences, is shedding new light on the origins and biological bases of human nature and culture. The findings of these relatively new hyphenated sciences have profound implications for the interpretation of human behavior within spiritual life no less than the material culture. This fine compendium serves as a splendid introduction to sociobiology. Sociobiology, now frequently being referred to by many as evolutionary psychology and evolutionary anthropology, first offered a radically selfish and individualist account of human nature. However, later researchers have moved away from such reductionisms, and into a sense of the common good that characterizes many species, and human brings as well. The emergence of discourses on the role of religion in understanding behavior in terms of moral considerations that permit people to live in community contexts has generated a lively examination within the new social sciences on the source of instinct, impulse, intelligence and interest. This compendium is clearly etched in a new and generous vision of human behavior that is at the same time rooted in the best of the current social sciences. The Origins and Nature of Sociality comes out of a symposium sponsored by the Program for Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and co-chaired by the editors. The contributors focus on the current status of research on sociality and the evolution of cooperative and altruistic behavior in nonhuman and human primates. They examine questions related to the evolution, cultural viability, and hormonal underpinnings of human sociality in specific detail, and describe patterns of sociality among nonhuman primates that many shed light on human social behavior. Robert W. Sussman is professor of anthropology, at Washington University in St. Louis. His work has appeared, among other places, in The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Folia Primatology, and Zygon. Audrey R. Chapman serves as director of the Science and Human Rights program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Washington D.C.

Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict: A-F

Author: Lester R. Kurtz

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780123695048

Category: Conflict (Psychology)

Page: 2665

View: 2889

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Provides timely and useful information about antagonism and reconciliation in all contexts of public and personal life. An essential reference for students and scholars working in the field of peace and conflict resolution studies, and for those seeking to explore alternatives to violence and share visions and strategies for social justice and social change.

Das unbeschriebene Blatt

Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104903905

Category: Social Science

Page: 768

View: 4537

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Mit einem aktuellen Vorwort zur Neuausgabe! Auf John Locke geht die Vorstellung zurück, der Mensch sei ein leeres Blatt, auf dem im Verlauf des Lebens die persönlichen Erfahrungen eingetragen werden. In seinem mittlerweile klassischen Buch »Das unbeschriebene Blatt. Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur« bezieht Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker ganz die Gegenposition: Mit Witz, Brillanz und Gelehrsamkeit analysiert er die Geschichte dieser Idee und zeigt, wie falsch sie ist – mit allen kruden Auswirkungen auf Vorstellungen von Sexualität, Rasse, Kindererziehung, Intelligenz usw. Die Rolle der Gene wird systematisch unterschätzt; aber das bedeutet nicht, dass wir ihnen völlig ausgeliefert sind. Pinker zeigt nämlich auch, wie befreiend diese Sichtweise sein kann. Ein unterhaltsames und anschauliches Buch zur Natur des Menschen, ein echter Lesegenuss.

Das weibliche Gehirn

Warum Frauen anders sind als Männer

Author: Louann Brizendine

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455850782

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7832

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Was Frauen zu Frauen macht Warum gebrauchen Frauen 20 000 Wörter am Tag, während Männer nur 7000 schaffen? Warum erinnern sie sich an Konflikte, von denen Männer meinen, es habe sie nie gegeben - und das, obwohl ihr Gehirn um 9 Prozent kleiner ist? Die Neuropsychiaterin Louann Brizendine präsentiert neueste Erkenntnisse der Gehirnforschung und erklärt in ihrem viel diskutierten Buch, warum Frauen die Welt so gründlich anders sehen als Männer. »Allen Männern zur Lektüre empfohlen, wenn sie gerade nicht an Sex denken.« Weltwoche

Race, Monogamy, and Other Lies They Told You

Busting Myths about Human Nature

Author: Agustín Fuentes

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520951670

Category: Social Science

Page: 290

View: 9636

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There are three major myths of human nature: humans are divided into biological races; humans are naturally aggressive; men and women are truly different in behavior, desires, and wiring. In an engaging and wide-ranging narrative Agustín Fuentes counters these pervasive and pernicious myths about human behavior. Tackling misconceptions about what race, aggression, and sex really mean for humans, Fuentes incorporates an accessible understanding of culture, genetics, and evolution requiring us to dispose of notions of "nature or nurture." Presenting scientific evidence from diverse fields, including anthropology, biology, and psychology, Fuentes devises a myth-busting toolkit to dismantle persistent fallacies about the validity of biological races, the innateness of aggression and violence, and the nature of monogamy and differences between the sexes. A final chapter plus an appendix provide a set of take-home points on how readers can myth-bust on their own. Accessible, compelling, and original, this book is a rich and nuanced account of how nature, culture, experience, and choice interact to influence human behavior.

Race and Other Misadventures

Essays in Honor of Ashley Montagu in His Ninetieth Year

Author: Larry T. Reynolds,Leonard Lieberman

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781882289356

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 6894

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Social Fabrics of the Mind

Author: Michael R.A. Chance

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1317542169

Category: Psychology

Page: 354

View: 7693

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Originally published in 1988, this book outlines a new evolutionary paradigm for understanding human society and mental structure, originating from the editor's work in primate ethology. It is supported and further elaborated by the contributors. Chance argues that two modes of social interaction, the agonic and hedonic, underlie social life and corresponding mentality. In the agonic mode we are concerned with self-security and our attention is much taken up with being accepted by a group. This mode is based on a recently discovered state of inhibited (braked) mental arousal. Social behaviour is either authoritarian or authority subservient, and has a tendency to control or be controlled. It curbs intelligence and restricts personality development. In the hedonic mode we are freer to form a network of personal relationships that are typically mutually supportive. The hedonic mode leads to the development of self-confidence and a relaxed empathic and collaborative personality with intelligence enhanced. The volume will still be of interest to all concerned with human affairs including those working in ethology, primatology, anthropology, social psychology, psychiatry and political sociology.

Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition

Author: Ádám Miklósi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199545669

Category: Pets

Page: 276

View: 9621

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This is the first book to summarize the burgeoning research literature on the behavioural ecology of the dog. As the leader of Europe's largest research group working solely on dog behaviour, the author is well placed to tackle such a project. The book will present a new ecological approach to the understanding of dog behaviour that will also highlight directions for future research. In providing links to human and primate behaviour research, it will appeal toanyone with an interest in behavioural ecology.