The Oxford Handbook of Hume

Author: Paul Russell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199742847

Category:

Page: 840

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The Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) is widely regarded as the greatest and most significant English-speaking philosopher and often seen as having had the most influence on the way philosophy is practiced today in the West. His reputation is based not only on the quality of his philosophical thought but also on the breadth and scope of his writings, which ranged over metaphysics, epistemology, morals, politics, religion, and aesthetics. The Handbook's 38 newly commissioned chapters are divided into six parts: Central Themes; Metaphysics and Epistemology; Passion, Morality and Politics; Aesthetics, History, and Economics; Religion; Hume and the Enlightenment; and After Hume. The volume also features an introduction from editor Paul Russell and a chapter on Hume's biography.

Introducing Empiricism

A Graphic Guide

Author: Dave Robinson

Publisher: Icon Books Ltd

ISBN: 1785780174

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

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Our knowledge comes primarily from experience – what our senses tell us. But is experience really what it seems? The experimental breakthroughs in 17th-century science of Kepler, Galileo and Newton informed the great British empiricist tradition, which accepts a ‘common-sense’ view of the world – and yet concludes that all we can ever know are ‘ideas’. Dave Robinson, with the aid of Bill Mayblin’s brilliant illustrations, outlines the arguments of Locke, Berkeley, Hume, J.S. Mill, Bertrand Russell and the last British empiricist, A.J. Ayer. They also explore criticisms of empiricism in the work of Kant, Wittgenstein, Karl Popper and others, providing a unique overview of this compelling area of philosophy.

Neurosis and Assimilation

Contemporary Revisions on The Life of the Concept

Author: Charles William Johns

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319475428

Category: Philosophy

Page: 66

View: 4640

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This book deals with the possibility of an ontological and epistemological account of the psychological category 'neurosis'. Intertwining thoughts from German idealism, Continental philosophy and psychology, the book shows how neurosis precedes and exists independently from human experience and lays the foundations for a non-essentialist, non-rational theory of neurosis; in cognition, in perception, in linguistics and in theories of object-relations and vitalism. The personal essays collected in this volume examine such issues as assimilation, the philosophy of neurosis, aneurysmal philosophy, and the connection between Hegel and Neurosis, among others. The volume establishes the connection between a now redundant psycho-analytic term and an extremely progressive discipline of Continental philosophy and Speculative realism.

Distraction

Problems of Attention in Eighteenth-Century Literature

Author: Natalie M. Phillips

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421420139

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 304

View: 7001

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Early novel reading typically conjures images of rapt readers in quiet rooms, but commentators at the time described reading as a fraught activity, one occurring amidst a distracting cacophony that included sloshing chamber pots and wailing street vendors. Auditory distractions were compounded by literary ones as falling paper costs led to an explosion of print material, forcing prose fiction to compete with a dizzying array of essays, poems, sermons, and histories. In Distraction, Natalie M. Phillips argues that prominent Enlightenment authors—from Jane Austen and William Godwin to Eliza Haywood and Samuel Johnson—were deeply engaged with debates about the wandering mind, even if they were not equally concerned about the problem of distractibility. Phillips explains that some novelists in the 1700s—viewing distraction as a dangerous wandering from singular attention that could lead to sin or even madness—attempted to reform diverted readers. Johnson and Haywood, for example, worried that contemporary readers would only focus long enough to "look into the first pages" of essays and novels; Austen offered wry commentary on the issue through the creation of the daft Lydia Bennet, a character with an attention span so short she could listen only "half-a-minute." Other authors radically redefined distraction as an excellent quality of mind, aligning the multiplicity of divided focus with the spontaneous creation of new thought. Laurence Sterne’s Tristram Shandy, for example, won audiences with its comically distracted narrator and uniquely digressive form. Using cognitive science as a framework to explore the intertwined history of mental states, philosophy, science, and literary forms, Phillips explains how arguments about the diverted mind made their way into the century’s most celebrated literature. She also draws a direct link between the disparate theories of focus articulated in eighteenth-century literature and modern experiments in neuroscience, revealing that contemporary questions surrounding short attention spans are grounded in long conversations over the nature and limits of focus.

Locke

Author: Edward Feser

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780744536

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 7691

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The philosophy of John Locke has dramatically shaped the way we live today. He is quoted in the Declaration of Independence and has had a lasting influence on many of our political systems, shaping our ideas on rights, government by consent, religious toleration, psychology and empirical science. Thought by many to be the quintessential philosopher of the modern age, his ideas are the key to understanding society and politics in the West. In this accessible introduction, Edward Feser explores Locke in historical context as well as his lasting influence, and looks critically at his legacy. In this, the author argues, we find the origins of many of the conflicts that dominate modern Western social and political life.

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful

Author: Edmund Burke

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645982

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 9439

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'Pain and pleasure are simple ideas, incapable of definition.' In 1757 the 27-year-old Edmund Burke argued that our aesthetic responses are experienced as pure emotional arousal, unencumbered by intellectual considerations. In so doing he overturned the Platonic tradition in aesthetics that had prevailed from antiquity until the eighteenth century, and replaced metaphysics with psychology and even physiology as the basis for the subject. Burke's theory of beauty encompasses the female form, nature, art, and poetry, and he analyses our delight in sublime effects that thrill and excite us. His revolution in method continues to have repercussions in the aesthetic theories of today, and his revolution in sensibility has paved the way for literary and artistic movements from the Gothic novel through Romanticism, twentieth-century painting, and beyond. In this new edition Paul Guyer conducts the reader through Burke's Enquiry, focusing on its place in the history of aesthetics and highlighting its innovations, as well as its influence on many subsequent authors from Kant and Schiller to Ruskin and Nietzsche. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Locke on Essence and Identity

Author: C.H. Conn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400710054

Category: Philosophy

Page: 212

View: 2731

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This book is a study of John Locke's metaphysics of organisms and persons, with particular emphasis on his theory of identity through time and his conventionalism with respect to kinds and essences. After presenting three arguments for thinking that the organisms and persons in Locke's ontology have both spatial and temporal extent, the author argues that on a four-dimensional ontology there is no contradiction between Locke's theory of identity and his rejection of essentialism.

Worlds Without End

The Many Lives of the Multiverse

Author: Mary-Jane Rubenstein

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023152742X

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 4260

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"Multiverse" cosmologies imagine our universe as just one of a vast number of others. While this idea has captivated philosophy, religion, and literature for millennia, it is now being considered as a scientific hypothesis—with different models emerging from cosmology, quantum mechanics, and string theory. Beginning with ancient Atomist and Stoic philosophies, Mary-Jane Rubenstein links contemporary models of the multiverse to their forerunners and explores the reasons for their recent appearance. One concerns the so-called fine-tuning of the universe: nature's constants are so delicately calibrated that it seems they have been set just right to allow life to emerge. For some thinkers, these "fine-tunings" are evidence of the existence of God; for others, however, and for most physicists, "God" is an insufficient scientific explanation. Hence the allure of the multiverse: if all possible worlds exist somewhere, then like monkeys hammering out Shakespeare, one universe is bound to be suitable for life. Of course, this hypothesis replaces God with an equally baffling article of faith: the existence of universes beyond, before, or after our own, eternally generated yet forever inaccessible to observation or experiment. In their very efforts to sidestep metaphysics, theoretical physicists propose multiverse scenarios that collide with it and even produce counter-theological narratives. Far from invalidating multiverse hypotheses, Rubenstein argues, this interdisciplinary collision actually secures their scientific viability. We may therefore be witnessing a radical reconfiguration of physics, philosophy, and religion in the modern turn to the multiverse.

The Mind

Author: Daniel N. Robinson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 388

View: 949

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At the end of the twentieth century, it might seem that questions about the nature of the mind are best left to scientists - psychologists, neurophysiologists, and even computer programmers. Modern technology has provided not only artificial versions of what seems to be highly developed `intelligence', but also high-fidelity imaging techniques for visualizing the human brain in action. How could the views of Aristotle or Descartes or Kant possibly contribute anything to debates about these issues, when the relevant neurophysiological facts and principles were completely unknown to them? As this Oxford Reader shows, the arguments of philosophers throughout history still provide essential insights into contemporary questions about the mind, and help to clarify the underlying scientific assumptions. Contributions from thinkers ranging from Plato and Locke to Roger Penrose and Oliver Sacks show that appreciating the full complexity of debates about consciousness, intelligence, and perception demands attention to fundamental questions which have occupied philosophers for over two thousand years.

Phantom of Chance

Author: John D Lyons

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748653791

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 240

View: 319

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Provides a new account of the crucial shift from the classical and medieval conception of Fortune to the modern notion of chance or randomness.

Descartes

An Analytic and Historical Introduction

Author: Georges Dicker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195380320

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 5108

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This new edition of Georges Dicker's commentary on Descartes's Meditations serves as an introduction to Descartes's philosophy for undergraduates and as a sophisticated companion to his Meditations for advanced readers, and it incorporates much recent Descartes scholarship.

The Major Works

Author: Francis Bacon,Brian Vickers

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192840813

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 813

View: 6556

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This authoritative edition was originally published in the acclaimed Oxford Authors series under the general editorship of Frank Kermode. It brings together an extensive collection of Bacon's writing - the major prose in full, together with sixteen other pieces not otherwise available - to give the essence of his work and thinking. Although he had a distinguished career as a lawyer and statesman, Francis Bacon's lifelong goal was to improve and extend human knowledge. In The Advancement of Learning (1605) he made a brilliant critique of the deficiencies of previous systems of thought and proposed improvements to knowledge in every area of human life. He conceived the Essays (1597, much enlarged in 1625) as a study of the formative influences on human behaviour, psychological and social. In The New Atlantis (1626) he outlined his plan for a scientific research institute in the form of a Utopian fable. In addition to these major English works this edition includes 'Of Tribute', an important early work here printed complete for the first time, and a revealing selection of his legal and political writings, together with his poetry. A special feature of the edition is its extensive annotation which identifies Bacon's sources and allusions, and glosses his vocabulary.

New Directions in Economic Methodology

Author: Roger E. Backhouse

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134864396

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 5157

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In recent years there has been a flowering of work on economic methodology. However there is no longer any consensus about which direction this should take or, indeed, even what the role and content of economic methodology should be. This book reflects this diversity. Its contributors are responsible for the major developments in this field and together they give an account of all the major positions which currently prevail in economic methodology. These include attempts to rehabilitate the 'falsification' of Kuhn, Lakatos and Popper, sociology of knowledge approaches, different forms of realism, contributions from the 'rhetoric' project and other perspectives which view the economy as a text.