Anthocyanins

Biosynthesis, Functions, and Applications

Author: Kevin Gould,Kevin M Davies,Chris Winefield

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387773353

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 5193

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In recent years there has been an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about anthocyanins pigments. Indeed, the molecular genetic control of anthocyanins biosynthesis is now one of the best understood of all secondary metabolic pathways. There have also been substantial improvements in analytical technology that have led to the discovery of novel anthocyanin compounds. Armed with this knowledge and the tools for genetic engineering, plant breeders are now introducing vibrant new colors into horticultural crops. The food industry has also benefited from the resurgence of interest in anthocyanins. A greater understanding of the chemistry of these pigments has led to improved methods for stabilizing the color of anthocyanins extracts, so that they are more useful as food colorings. Methods for the bulk production of anthocyanins from cell cultures have been optimized for this purpose. Possible benefits to human health from the ingestion of anthocyanin-rich foods have also been a major feature of the recent scientific literature. Anthocyanins are remarkably potent antioxidants, and their ingestion has been postulated to stave off the effects of oxidative stress. These pigments, especially in conjunction with other flavonoids, have been associated with reductions in the incidence and severity of many other non-infectious diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. An industry is developing around anthocyanins as nutritional supplements. Finally, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the benefits of anthocyanins to plants themselves. Originally considered an extravagance without a purpose, anthocyanins are now implicated in multifarious vital functions. These include the attraction of pollinators and frugivores, aposematic defense from herbivores, and protection from environmental stressors such as strong light, UVB, drought, and free radical attacks. Anthocyanins are evidently highly versatile, and enormously useful to plants. This book covers all aspects of the biosynthesis and function of anthocyanins (and related compounds such as proanthocyanidins) in plants, and their applications in agriculture, food products, and human health. Featured areas include their relevance to: * Plant stress * Flower and fruit color * Human health * Wine quality and health attributes * Food colorants and ingredients * Cell culture production systems * The pastoral sector

Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128140453

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 2194

View: 7878

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Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry is the ideal primer for food scientists, researchers, students and young professionals who want to acquaint themselves with food chemistry. Well-organized, clearly written, and abundantly referenced, the book provides a foundation for readers to understand the principles, concepts, and techniques used in food chemistry applications. Articles are written by international experts and cover a wide range of topics, including food chemistry, food components and their interactions, properties (flavor, aroma, texture) the structure of food, functional foods, processing, storage, nanoparticles for food use, antioxidants, the Maillard and Strecker reactions, process derived contaminants, and the detection of economically-motivated food adulteration. The encyclopedia will provide readers with an introduction to specific topics within the wider context of food chemistry, as well as helping them identify the links between the various sub-topics. Offers readers a comprehensive understanding of food chemistry and the various connections between the sub-topics Provides an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and readers from undergraduate levels and upwards Meticulously organized, with articles structured logically based on the various elements of food chemistry

Melatonin in Plants

Author: Haitao Shi,Wei Hu,Jone Love

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889453111

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6438

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This topic focuses on distribution, synthesis, metabolism, and the in vivo roles of melatonin in plants, with 1 editorial, 3 reviews, 21 original research studies and 1 corrigendum.

Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464991359

Category: Science

Page: 836

View: 5129

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Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Biological Pigments. The editors have built Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Biological Pigments in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Hexosyltransferases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition

ScholarlyBrief

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464935483

Category: Medical

Page: 66

View: 6298

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Hexosyltransferases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Hexosyltransferases in a concise format. The editors have built Hexosyltransferases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Hexosyltransferases in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Hexosyltransferases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Advances in Solanum Research and Application: 2013 Edition

ScholarlyPaper

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1481684132

Category: Science

Page: 40

View: 5298

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Advances in Solanum Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about ZZZAdditional Research in a compact format. The editors have built Advances in Solanum Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about ZZZAdditional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Solanum Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Plant-derived Natural Products

Synthesis, Function, and Application

Author: Anne E. Osbourn,Virginia Lanzotti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387854984

Category: Science

Page: 597

View: 4033

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Plants produce a huge array of natural products (secondary metabolites). These compounds have important ecological functions, providing protection against attack by herbivores and microbes and serving as attractants for pollinators and seed-dispersing agents. They may also contribute to competition and invasiveness by suppressing the growth of neighboring plant species (a phenomenon known as allelopathy). Humans exploit natural products as sources of drugs, flavoring agents, fragrances and for a wide range of other applications. Rapid progress has been made in recent years in understanding natural product synthesis, regulation and function and the evolution of metabolic diversity. It is timely to bring this information together with contemporary advances in chemistry, plant biology, ecology, agronomy and human health to provide a comprehensive guide to plant-derived natural products. Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function and application provides an informative and accessible overview of the different facets of the field, ranging from an introduction to the different classes of natural products through developments in natural product chemistry and biology to ecological interactions and the significance of plant-derived natural products for humans. In the final section of the book a series of chapters on new trends covers metabolic engineering, genome-wide approaches, the metabolic consequences of genetic modification, developments in traditional medicines and nutraceuticals, natural products as leads for drug discovery and novel non-food crops.

Flavonoids

Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications

Author: Oyvind M. Andersen,Kenneth R. Markham

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142003944X

Category: Science

Page: 1256

View: 3233

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Advances in the flavonoid field have been nothing short of spectacular over the last 20 years. While the medical field has noticed flavonoids for their potential antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotectant characteristics, growers and processors in plant sciences have utilized flavonoid biosynthesis and the genetic manipulation of the flavonoid pathway in plants to improve the nutritional and ornamental value of crops. Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications covers each class of flavonoid and presents the historic advances made in flavonoid research since the 1994 publication of an earlier text, Flavonoids Advances in Research Since 1986. This book details the analytical techniques scientists have used to achieve an improved understanding of flavonoid structures and functions as well as advances in the genetic manipulation of the flavonoid pathway, and the discovery of many new flavonoids. It indicates which techniques are best suited for the isolation and structure determination of flavonoids and whether the structures are novel. While explaining how to evaluate the flavonoid content in food and beverages, the book reveals the biotechnological advances that have allowed nutritionists and plant physiologists to assess the possible effects of flavonoids. As interest regarding the impact and health benefits of flavonoids continues to grow, Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications reflects the continuing commitment of flavonoid researchers to the improvement of human health and provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date source of information for all known flavonoids.

Ökologische Biochemie

Eine Einführung

Author: Jeffrey B. Harborne

Publisher: Springer Spektrum

ISBN: 9783642398506

Category: Science

Page: 383

View: 7558

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Didaktisch geschickt und anschaulich werden die biochemischen Beziehungen zwischen Pflanzen, Tieren und ihrer Umwelt beschrieben. Das Buch ist auch für Leser mit geringen Biochemiekenntnissen leicht verständlich. Aus dem Inhalt: Pflanzen und biochemische Adaption an Umwelt Biochemie der Pflanzenbestäubung Pflanzentoxine und ihre Wirkung auf Tiere Hormonelle Beziehungen zwischen Pflanzen und Tieren Nahrungspräferenzen Abwehrmechanismen von Pflanzen und Reaktionen der Tiere (Coevolution) Pheromone: Biochemische Kommunikation zwischen Tieren Biochemische Wechselwirkungen zwischen Pflanzen.

Recent Trends in Biotechnology and Therapeutic Applications of Medicinal Plants

Author: Mohd. Shahid,Anwar Shahzad,Abida Malik,Aastha Sahai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400766033

Category: Science

Page: 357

View: 6978

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The book provides an overview of current trends in biotechnology and medicinal plant sciences. The work includes detailed chapters on various advance biotechnological tools involved in production of phytoactive compounds of medicinal significance. Some recent and novel research studies on therapeutic applications of different medicinal plants from various geographical regions of the world have also been included. These studies report the antimicrobial activity of various natural plant products against various pathogenic microbial strains. Informative chapters on recent emerging applications of plant products such as source for nutraceuticals and vaccines have been integrated to cover latest advances in the field. This book also explores the conservation aspect of medicinal plants. Thus, chapters having comprehensively complied in vitro conservation protocols for various commercially important rare, threatened and endangered medicinal plants were provided in the present book.

Antioxidant Measurement and Applications

Author: Fereidoon Shahidi,Chi-Tang Ho

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: 9780841274280

Category: Medical

Page: 456

View: 1418

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Antioxidant Measurement and Applications will provide an excellent account of lipid oxidation and oxidative stability of food lipids and the role of antioxidants in prevention of oxidation, their occurrence and sources. There is a need in the market for a book of this caliber and will be well received by the industry. The book will cover mechanisms of action of antioxidants and analytical procedures and furthers the potential health benefits of antioxidants and their role in disease risks.

Food Colorants

Chemical and Functional Properties

Author: Carmen Socaciu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420009286

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 648

View: 9863

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Drawing on the expertise of internationally known, interdisciplinary scientists and researchers, Food Colorants: Chemical and Functional Properties provides an integrative image of the scientific characteristics, functionality, and applications of color molecules as pigments in food science and technology, as well as their impact on health. The book emphasizes the structure-function relationships of pigment molecules to explain biosynthesis, modifications and degradation during storage and processing, and the effect of these changes on quality and safety. Understanding the rate and nature of degradation assists in selecting optimum processing parameters. Beginning with an overview of the physics and biochemistry of color, the book focuses on the mechanics of pigment stability and bioavailability, and antioxidant and pro-oxidant action. It reviews the influence of pigments on health and metabolism, incorporating results of in vivo and in vitro studies. It addresses the occurrence of pigment in food matrices and their stability during processing and storage. Conventional technologies as well as new, environmentally friendly methods are presented along with recent advances in biotechnology to produce colorants. There is also a chapter on novel approaches to the biosynthesis of colorants by microalgae, microorganisms, and genetic engineering. Contributions give significant attention to analytical methods and recent advances in detecting both natural and synthetic colorants, their quality, quantity, and degradation during processing and storage. The book rounds out its comprehensive coverage with a look at quality and safety risk assessments and international regulations, as well as lists of formerly and newly approved colorants and additives. Peer reviewed contributions and critical evaluations ensure a concise, systematic presentation of the relationships between the chemical nature and functional properties of various natural and synthetic pigments used to color food.

Neurotransmitters in Plants

Perspectives and Applications

Author: Akula Ramakrishna,Victoria Vladimirovna Roshchina

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351360418

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 6441

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New scientific data confirm the origin of neurotransmitters in the ancient ocean, whose inhabitants use the compounds in their relationships. One example is the algae Ulvaria, whose image is represented on the cover. During evolution, plant and microbial cells stored the neurotransmitters that play multifunctional roles today. Researchers have paid special attention to their functions in plants, the oxygen well of our planet. This book provides powerful tools for both analyzing and manipulating organisms, considering the functions of neurotransmitters in plant cells and the practical application of knowledge about acetylcholine, catecholamines, serotonin, melatonin, histamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamine for ecology, agriculture, medicine and food industries. Neurotransmitters in Plants: Perspectives and Applications presents information on: the location and biosynthesis where neurotransmitters occur the molecular biology of some enzymes participating in the process their role in vivo and in vitro processes their functions in plant environmental adaptation in plants their role in enriching the food and medicinal value of plants.