Anthropology and Nursing

Author: Pat Holden,Jenny Littlewood

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317401506

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 1160

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Nursing has been described as the most ‘natural’ female occupation of all, embodying the so-called feminine ideals of tenderness and caring. Yet these ideals are juxtaposed with images of nurses as sex objects, or as ruthlessly efficient harridans. How have these very different images been constructed? And how do they relate to the reality of nursing - the close contact with blood, urine and faeces, and the involvement with the rites of birth, illness and death? This book, first published in 1991, explores the alternative ways different societies have developed to reconcile these contradictions. Using contemporary, historical and cross-cultural case material, the contributors trace the historical development of the role, and investigate the expected qualities of nurses within different cultural settings, such as India, Uganda and Japan. They look closely at ‘the nurse’ as a social construct, and demonstrate how the stereotypes relate to a particular society's notions of gender. Designed primarily for anthropologists and sociologists interested in health, illness and systems of health care, this book challenges some of the myths of traditional nursing studies and provides an original perspective on doctor/nurse/patient relationships.

Anthropology and Nursing

Author: Pat Holden,Jenny Littlewood

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317401514

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 8345

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Nursing has been described as the most ‘natural’ female occupation of all, embodying the so-called feminine ideals of tenderness and caring. Yet these ideals are juxtaposed with images of nurses as sex objects, or as ruthlessly efficient harridans. How have these very different images been constructed? And how do they relate to the reality of nursing - the close contact with blood, urine and faeces, and the involvement with the rites of birth, illness and death? This book, first published in 1991, explores the alternative ways different societies have developed to reconcile these contradictions. Using contemporary, historical and cross-cultural case material, the contributors trace the historical development of the role, and investigate the expected qualities of nurses within different cultural settings, such as India, Uganda and Japan. They look closely at ‘the nurse’ as a social construct, and demonstrate how the stereotypes relate to a particular society's notions of gender. Designed primarily for anthropologists and sociologists interested in health, illness and systems of health care, this book challenges some of the myths of traditional nursing studies and provides an original perspective on doctor/nurse/patient relationships.

Breastfeeding

New Anthropological Approaches

Author: Cecília Tomori,Aunchalee E. L. Palmquist,EA Quinn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351383604

Category: Social Science

Page: 234

View: 5130

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Breastfeeding: New Anthropological Approaches unites sociocultural, biological, and archaeological anthropological scholarship to spark new conversations and research about breastfeeding. While breastfeeding has become the subject of intense debate in many settings, anthropological perspectives have played a limited role in these conversations. The present volume seeks to broaden discussions around breastfeeding by showcasing fresh insights gleaned from an array of theoretical and methodological approaches, which are grounded in the close study of people across the globe. Drawing on case studies and analyses of key issues in the field, the book highlights the power of anthropological research to illuminate the evolutionary, historical, biological, and sociocultural context of the complex, lived experience of breastfeeding. By bringing together researchers across three anthropological subfields, the volume seeks to produce transformative knowledge about human lactation, breastfeeding, and human milk. This book is a key resource for scholars of medical and biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, bioarchaeology, sociocultural anthropology, and human development. Lactation professionals and peer supporters, midwives, and others who support infant feeding will find the book an essential read.

Food and Culture

A Reader

Author: Carole Counihan,Penny Van Esterik

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0415977762

Category: Social Science

Page: 608

View: 5159

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This reader reveals how food habits and beliefs both present a microcosm of any culture and contribute to our understanding of human behaviour. Particular attention is given to how men and women define themselves differently through food choices.

Applied Anthropology

Unexpected Spaces, Topics and Methods

Author: Sheena Nahm,Cortney Hughes Rinker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131742803X

Category: Social Science

Page: 180

View: 8261

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This collection brings together recent innovative work in applied and practicing anthropology. Organised around the theme of unexpectedness, it examines some of the novel spaces, topics, and methods that anthropologists are involved with. The volume emphasises non-traditional settings and demonstrates the important role of anthropology in addressing some of the pressing issues facing society today. The contributors offer detailed ethnographic examples from their own research and work that give students valuable insight and advice. Drawn mainly from the United States, the case studies illustrate the diverse arenas in which anthropologists operate, from law and finance to education and health care. Simultaneous consideration is given to practical applications, theoretical reflections, and professional experiences.

Home and Family in Japan

Continuity and Transformation

Author: Richard Ronald,Allison Alexy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136888861

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 1506

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In the Japanese language the word ‘ie’ denotes both the materiality of homes and family relations within. The traditional family and family house - often portrayed in ideal terms as key foundations of Japanese culture and society - have been subject to significant changes in recent years. This book comprehensively addresses various aspects of family life and dwelling spaces, exploring how homes, household patterns and kin relations are reacting to contemporary social, economic and urban transformations, and the degree to which traditional patterns of both houses and households are changing. The book contextualises the shift from the hegemonic post-war image of standard family life, to the nuclear family and to a situation now where Japanese homes are more likely to include unmarried singles; childless couples; divorcees; unmarried adult children and elderly relatives either living alone or in nursing homes. It discusses how these new patterns are both reinforcing and challenging typical understandings of Japanese family life.

What Kinship Is-And Is Not

Author: Marshall Sahlins

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226925137

Category: Social Science

Page: 128

View: 7785

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In this pithy two-part essay, Marshall Sahlins reinvigorates the debates on what constitutes kinship, building on some of the best scholarship in the field to produce an original outlook on the deepest bond humans can have. Covering thinkers from Aristotle and Lévy- Bruhl to Émile Durkheim and David Schneider, and communities from the Maori and the English to the Korowai of New Guinea, he draws on a breadth of theory and a range of ethnographic examples to form an acute definition of kinship, what he calls the “mutuality of being.” Kinfolk are persons who are parts of one another to the extent that what happens to one is felt by the other. Meaningfully and emotionally, relatives live each other’s lives and die each other’s deaths. In the second part of his essay, Sahlins shows that mutuality of being is a symbolic notion of belonging, not a biological connection by “blood.” Quite apart from relations of birth, people may become kin in ways ranging from sharing the same name or the same food to helping each other survive the perils of the high seas. In a groundbreaking argument, he demonstrates that even where kinship is reckoned from births, it is because the wider kindred or the clan ancestors are already involved in procreation, so that the notion of birth is meaningfully dependent on kinship rather than kinship on birth. By formulating this reversal, Sahlins identifies what kinship truly is: not nature, but culture.

Death and Bereavement Across Cultures

Second edition

Author: Colin Murray Parkes,Pittu Laungani,William Young

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317520920

Category: Psychology

Page: 234

View: 9642

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All societies have their own customs and beliefs surrounding death. In the West, traditional ways of mourning are disappearing, and although Western science has had a major impact on how people die, it has taught us little about the way to die or to grieve. Many whose work brings them into contact with the dying and the bereaved from Western and other cultures are at a loss to know how to offer appropriate and sensitive support. Death and Bereavement Across Cultures 2nd Edition is a handbook which meets the needs of doctors, nurses, social workers, hospital chaplains, counsellors and volunteers caring for patients with life-threatening illness and their families before and after bereavement. It is a practical guide explaining the religious and other differences commonly met with in multi-cultural societies when someone is dying or bereaved. In doing so readers may be surprised to find how much we can learn from other cultures about our own attitudes and assumptions about death. Written by international experts in the field the book: Describes the rituals and beliefs of major world religions; Explains their psychological and historical context; Shows how customs are changed by contact with the West; Considers the implications for the future The second edition includes new chapters that: explore how members of the health care professions perform roles formerly conducted by priests and shamans can cross the cultural gaps between different cultures and religions; consider the relevance of attitudes and assumptions about death for our understanding of religious and nationalist extremism and its consequences; discuss the Buddhist, Islamic and Christian ways of death. Death raises questions which science cannot answer. Whatever our personal beliefs we can all gain from learning how others view these ultimate problems. This book explores the richness of mourning traditions around the world with the aim of increasing the sensitivity and understanding which we all bring to the issue of death and bereavement.

Global Mental Health

Anthropological Perspectives

Author: Brandon A Kohrt,Emily Mendenhall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315428032

Category: Social Science

Page: 389

View: 5733

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While there is increasing political interest in research and policy-making for global mental health, there remain major gaps in the education of students in health fields for understanding the complexities of diverse mental health conditions. Drawing on the experience of many well-known experts in this area, this book uses engaging narratives to illustrate that mental illnesses are not only problems experienced by individuals but must also be understood and treated at the social and cultural levels. The book -includes discussion of traditional versus biomedical beliefs about mental illness, the role of culture in mental illness, intersections between religion and mental health, intersections of mind and body, and access to health care; -is ideal for courses on global mental health in psychology, public health, and anthropology departments and other health-related programs.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Third Phase

Global Encounters and Emerging Moral Worlds

Author: Kate Hampshire,Bob Simpson

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782388087

Category: Medical

Page: 284

View: 6870

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Following the birth of the first "test-tube baby" in 1978, Assisted Reproductive Technologies became available to a small number of people in high-income countries able to afford the cost of private treatment, a period seen as the "First Phase" of ARTs. In the "Second Phase," these treatments became increasingly available to cosmopolitan global elites. Today, this picture is changing - albeit slowly and unevenly - as ARTs are becoming more widely available. While, for many, accessing infertility treatments remains a dream, these are beginning to be viewed as a standard part of reproductive healthcare and family planning. This volume highlights this "Third Phase" - the opening up of ARTs to new constituencies in terms of ethnicity, geography, education, and class.

Conformity and Conflict

Readings in Cultural Anthropology

Author: James P. Spradley,David W. McCurdy

Publisher: Jill Potash

ISBN: 0205234100

Category: Social Science

Page: 411

View: 748

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Demonstrate the nature of culture and its influence on people's lives. For over 40 years, the best-selling Conformity and Conflict has brought together original readings and cutting edge research alongside classic works as a powerful way to study human behavior and events. Its readings cover a broad range of theoretical perspectives and demonstrate basic anthropological concepts. The Fourteenth Edition incorporates successful articles from past editions and fresh ideas from the field to show fascinating perspectives on the human experience. Teaching and Learning Experience Personalize Learning - MyAnthroLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking - Articles, article introductions and review questions encourage students to examine their assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess their conclusions, and more! Engage Students - Section parts, key terms, maps, a glossary and subject index all spark student interest and illustrate the reader's main points with examples and visuals from daily life. Support Instructors - Teaching your course just got easier! You can create a Customized Text or use our Instructor's Manual, Electronic “MyTest” Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. Additionally, Conformity and Conflict's part introductions parallel the basic concepts taught in introductory courses – which allow the book to be used alone as a reader or in conjunction with a main text. Note: MyAnthroLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyAnthroLab, please visit www.MyAnthroLab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyAnthroLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205176011/ISBN-13: 9780205176014

People of the Mediterranean

An Essay in Comparative Social Anthropology

Author: J. Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317400518

Category: Social Science

Page: 302

View: 4844

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The Mediterranean countries have long attracted the attention of social anthropologists, from Frazer and Durkheim to the present day. In this volume, first published in 1977, Dr Davis reviews the extensive anthropological material collected and published by people who have worked in the area and claims that social anthropologists have a distinctive opportunity to compare similar kinds of institution and process in a variety of contexts – political, economic, bureaucratic, religious. He examines countries, tribes and communities stretching from Spain all the way round the Mediterranean and back along the coast of North Africa. In chapters on economics, stratification, politics, family and kinship, he has found it possible and sensible to set Albanian and Berber tribesmen beside each other, and to discuss Italian and Lebanese peasants in the same paragraph. The result is both a survey of the anthropological material and an essay in comparison, founded on a critique of the work of his predecessors and colleagues. The last chapter is an account of the uses anthropologists have made of the historical sources available to them.

Rationality and Relativism

In Search of a Philosophy and History of Anthropology

Author: I.C. Jarvie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317401174

Category: Social Science

Page: 174

View: 8811

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Anthropology revolves round answers to problems about the nature, development and unity of mankind; problems that are both philosophical and scientific. In this book, first published in 1984, Professor Jarvie applies Popper’s philosophy of science to understanding the history and theory of anthropology. Jarvie describes how the ancient view that the aim of science and philosophy was to get at the truth is challenged in anthropology by the doctrine of cultural relativism; that is, that truth varies with the cultural framework. He shows how philosophers as various as Peter Winch, W.V.O. Quine, W.T. Jones, Nelson Goodman and Richard Rorty were influenced by this doctrine. Yet these philosophers also accept the value of rational argument. Jarvie believes that there is a contradiction between relativism and any notion of human rationality that centres around argument. Forced by the contradiction to choose between rationality and relativism, he argues strongly that logical, scientific and moral considerations favour rationality and urge repudiation of relativism. The central argument of the book is that relativism is intellectually disastrous and has fostered intellectual attitudes from which anthropology still suffers.

Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism

Author: Richard Howard Robbins,Rachel Dowty

Publisher: Pearson

ISBN: 9780134732794

Category: Capitalism

Page: 416

View: 375

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NOTE: This edition features the same content as the traditional text in a convenient, three-hole-punched, loose-leaf version. Books a la Carte also offer a great value; this format costs significantly less than a new textbook. Before purchasing, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that you select the correct ISBN. For courses in global issues and cultural anthropology. Examine the development and impact of capitalism on global systems The 7th Edition of Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism follows the path of capitalism from its roots over 500 years ago to its current status in the world. Emerging from Western Europe and expanding to the United States and the rest of the world, capitalism and the systems that have contested it have impacted the economic, political, and social forces that dominate readers' lives. The authors draw on a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, history, economics, sociology, and more, to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of the problems with capitalism and actionable ways to solve them. The 7th Edition provides updated content that reflects the changes in the world since the last edition and introduces the content in a reader-friendly and engaging way.

International Encyclopedia of Public Health

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128037083

Category: Medical

Page: 4470

View: 9134

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International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Second Edition is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the major issues, challenges, methods, and approaches of global public health. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this new edition combines complementary scientific fields of inquiry, linking biomedical research with the social and life sciences to address the three major themes of public health research, disease, health processes, and disciplines. This book helps readers solve real-world problems in global and local health through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. Covering all dimensions of the field, from the details of specific diseases, to the organization of social insurance agencies, the articles included cover the fundamental research areas of health promotion, economics, and epidemiology, as well as specific diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and reproductive health. Additional articles on the history of public health, global issues, research priorities, and health and human rights make this work an indispensable resource for students, health researchers, and practitioners alike. Provides the most comprehensive, high-level, internationally focused reference work available on public health Presents an invaluable resource for both researchers familiar with the field and non-experts requiring easy-to-find, relevant, global information and a greater understanding of the wider issues Contains interdisciplinary coverage across all aspects of public health Incorporates biomedical and health social science issues and perspectives Includes an international focus with contributions from global domain experts, providing a complete picture of public health issues

An Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology

Author: Peter Burns

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134664338

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 5656

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This introductory text explains how anthropology is integral to the study of tourism dynamics. Starting with an overview of the development of anthropology as a social science, the author uses a wealth of international examples, including the UK, USA and Australia, to bring practical relevance to complex theories. With its lucid writing style, summaries, sample questions and suggestions for further reading, this book will be an invaluable teaching resource in this area.

Two-Dimensional Man

An Essay on the Anthropology of Power and Symbolism in Complex Society

Author: Abner Cohen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317400488

Category: Social Science

Page: 170

View: 5229

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Central to this original study, first published in 1974, is that Political Man is also Symbolist Man, that man is two-dimensional. The book explores the possibilities of the systematic study of the dialectical interdependence between power relationships and symbolic action in modern, complex society. The discussion focuses on the processes by which interest groups, that cannot organise themselves formally, manipulate different types of symbolic formations to articulate a number of basic organisational functions: distinctiveness, communication, decision-making, authority, ideology and socialisation. The analysis is worked out in terms of specific case studies of different types of groupings, or ‘invisible organisations’ – ethnic, elitist, religious, ritually secret, cousinhood – which go through processes of cultural metamorphosis, shifting from one symbolic strategy to another, in response to changes in their circumstances. In conclusion, the discussion is brought to bear on the study of stratification in large-scale industrial society generally.

Animism and the Question of Life

Author: Istvan Praet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134500599

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 816

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The central purpose of this book is to help change the terms of the debate on animism, a classic theme in anthropology. It combines some of the finest ethnographic material currently available (including firsthand research on the Chachi of Ecuador) with an unusually broad geographic scope (the Americas, Asia, and Africa). Edward B. Tylor originally defined animism as the first phase in the development of religion. The heyday of cultural evolutionism may be over, but his basic conception is commonly assumed to remain valid in at least one respect: there is still a broad consensus that everything is alive within animism, or at least that more things are alive than a modern scientific observer would allow for (e.g., clouds, rivers, mountains) It is considered self-evident that animism is based on a kind of exaggeration: its adherents are presumed to impute life to this, that and the other in a remarkably generous manner. Against the prevailing consensus, this book argues that if animism has one outstanding feature, it is its peculiar restrictiveness. Animistic notions of life are astonishingly uniform across the globe, insofar as they are restricted rather than exaggerated. In the modern Western cosmology, life overlaps with the animate. Within animism, however, life is always conditional, and therefore tends to be limited to one’s kin, one’s pets and perhaps the plants in one’s garden. Thus it emerges that "our" modern biological concept of life is stranger than generally thought.

Renaissance Man

Author: Ágnes Heller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317403304

Category: Social Science

Page: 492

View: 2554

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Considering such witnesses of the time as Shakespeare, Dante, Petrarch, Michelangelo, Machiavelli, Montaigne, More and Bacon, Agnes Heller looks at both the concept and the image of a Renaissance man. The concept was generalised and accepted by all; its characteristic features were man as a dynamic being, creating and re-creating himself throughout his life. The images of man, however, were very different, having been formed through the ideas and imagination of artists, politicians, philosophers, scientists and theologians and viewed from the different aspects of work, love, fate, death, friendship, devotion and the concepts of space and time. Renaissance Man thus stood as both as a leading protagonist of his time, one who led and formulated the substantial attitudes of his time, and as one who stood as a witness on the sidelines of the discussion. This book, first published in English in 1978, is based on the diverse but equally important sources of autobiographies, works of art and literature, and the writings of philosophers. Although she uses Florence as a starting point, Agnes Heller points out that the Renaissance was a social and cultural phenomenon common to all of Western Europe; her Renaissance Man is thus a figure to be found throughout Europe.

A Dictionary of Sociology

Author: John Scott,Gordon Marshall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199533008

Category: Social Science

Page: 816

View: 7387

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Contains over 2,500 alphabetically arranged entries providing definitions of terms and ideas related to sociology, along with cross-references, and biographical sketches of key individuals in the field.