Appropriating the Weather

Vilhelm Bjerknes and the Construction of a Modern Meteorology

Author: Robert Marc Friedman

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501731106

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 388

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In this book, Robert Marc Friedman analyzes the revolution in the theory and practice of meteorology during the first quarter of the twentieth century, initiated by Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862–1951) and his collaborators. In contrast to the approach that had dominated meteorology since the late nineteenth century, their weather models and forecasting techniques marked a decisive turn to a dynamical–physical understanding of the atmosphere. Using a wide range of sources, both published and unpublished, Friedman traces the emergence of the new, so-called Bergen methodology and the process by which it transformed first Norwegian and then worldwide weather forecasting. The establishment of the new meteorology, he argues, was the result of a complaex interaction of scientific, social, and technological factors, and he gives special emphasis to the way in which Bjerknes adapted his mechanical physics of the atmosphere to benefit commercial purposes. By providing more reliable forecasts for farmers, fishermen, and especially for aviators, Bjerknes was able to nurture a school of disciples that could evert a profound influence on the international meteorological community, thereby increasing his own authority and that of the discipline he sought to shape. Friedman does an unusually subtle job of integrating the often opposing methods of the history and the sociology of science. He explains in detail how Bjerknes, a theoretical physicist, and his collaborators developed a new model of cyclone evolution and the first clear physical explanation of how weather happens. At the same time, Friedman demonstrates how conceptual change was interconnected with the Bergen school's striving to obtain political support at home and to dominate professional meteorology abroad. Appropriating the Weather is an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the processes in which scientific, institutional, and social factors interact to form scientific disciplines. It deserves wide readership among historians and sociologists of science and science policy makers, as well as meteorologists and other geophysical scientists.

Instrumente in Kunst und Wissenschaft

Zur Architektonik kultureller Grenzen im 17. Jahrhundert

Author: Helmar Schramm,Ludger Schwarte,Jan Lazardzig

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110199947

Category: Science

Page: 655

View: 8867

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This volume presents a collection of original papers at the intersection of philosophy, the history of science, cultural and theatrical studies. Based on a series of case studies on the 17th century, it contributes to an understanding of the role played by instruments at the interface of science and art. The papers pursue the hypothesis that the development and construction of instruments make a substantive contribution to the opening up of new fields of knowledge and to the development of new cultural practices, but also to the delineation of particular genres, methods and disciplines.

Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

Author: Virginia Trimble,Thomas R. Williams,Katherine Bracher,Richard Jarrell,Jordan D. Marché,F. Jamil Ragep

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387304002

Category: Science

Page: 1348

View: 6947

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The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. The two volumes include approximately 1550 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of about 400 authors edited by an editorial board of 9 historians and astronomers, and provides additional details on the nature of an entry and some summary statistics on the content of entries. This new reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the superluminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo’s acolyte, Mario Guiducci. A comprehensive contributor index helps researchers to identify the authors of important scientific topics and treatises.

Storm Watchers

The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El Niño

Author: John D. Cox

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471444862

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 511

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A lively, inspiring account of the pioneers who sought toaccurately predict the weather Benjamin Franklin . . . James P. Espy . . . Cleveland Abbe . . .Carl-Gustaf Rossby . . . Jule G. Charney . . . just a few of theremarkable individuals who struggled against formidable odds tounderstand the atmosphere and predict the weather. Where they sawpatterns and processes, others saw randomness and tumult-and yetthey strove to make their voices heard, often saving lives in theprocess. Storm Watchers takes you on a fascinating journey through time thatcaptures the evolution of weather forecasting. From the age whenmeteorology was considered one step removed from sorcery to themodern-day wizardry of supercomputers, John Cox introduces you tothe pioneering scientists whose work fulfilled an ancient dream andmade it possible to foretell the future. He tells the little-knownstories of these weathermen, such as Ptolemy's weather predictionsbased on astrology, John Finley's breakthrough research inidentifying tornadoes, and Tor Bergeron's new techniques of weatherforecasting, which contributed to its final worldwideacceptance. Filled with extraordinary tales of bravery and sacrifice, StormWatchers will make you think twice the next time you turn on thelocal news to catch the weather report.

Fortune Tellers

The Story of America's First Economic Forecasters

Author: Walter Friedman

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849861

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 8228

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The period leading up to the Great Depression witnessed the rise of the economic forecasters, pioneers who sought to use the tools of science to predict the future, with the aim of profiting from their forecasts. This book chronicles the lives and careers of the men who defined this first wave of economic fortune tellers, men such as Roger Babson, Irving Fisher, John Moody, C. J. Bullock, and Warren Persons. They competed to sell their distinctive methods of prediction to investors and businesses, and thrived in the boom years that followed World War I. Yet, almost to a man, they failed to predict the devastating crash of 1929. Walter Friedman paints vivid portraits of entrepreneurs who shared a belief that the rational world of numbers and reason could tame--or at least foresee--the irrational gyrations of the market. Despite their failures, this first generation of economic forecasters helped to make the prediction of economic trends a central economic activity, and shed light on the mechanics of financial markets by providing a range of statistics and information about individual firms. They also raised questions that are still relevant today. What is science and what is merely guesswork in forecasting? What motivates people to buy forecasts? Does the act of forecasting set in motion unforeseen events that can counteract the forecast made? Masterful and compelling, Fortune Tellers highlights the risk and uncertainty that are inherent to capitalism itself.

The European Antarctic

Science and Strategy in Scandinavia and the British Empire

Author: P. Roberts

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230337902

Category: History

Page: 266

View: 7493

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This is the first transnational study of British, Norwegian, and Swedish engagement with the Antarctic. Rather than charting how Europeans unveiled the Antarctic, it uses the history of Antarctic activity as a window into the political and cultural worlds of twentieth-century Britain and Scandinavia.

Eye of the Storm

Inside the World's Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards

Author: Jeffrey O. Rosenfeld

Publisher: Plenum Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 308

View: 4985

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Explores the history of storm science, discusses the forces behind tornadoes, hurricanes, and other deadly storms, and introduces the scientists who have devoted their careers to understanding the weather

Earth Sciences History

Journal of the History of the Earth Sciences Society

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Earth sciences

Page: N.A

View: 9737

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Physikalische Hydrodynamik

Mit Anwendung auf die Dynamische Meteorologie

Author: V. Bjerknes,J. Bjerknes,H. Solberg,T. Bergeron

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642526160

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 797

View: 6213

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Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Hydrodynamik

Author: Etienne Guyon,Jean-Pierre Hulin,Luc Petit

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322898318

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 466

View: 7193

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Neben der Herleitung und Darstellung der fundamentalen Gleichungen enthält dieses Lehrbuch sehr viele Beispiele und Anwendungen, so z.B. eine genaue Diskussion des Flugmechanismus sowie der Wirkung der verschiedenen Klappen an Flügeln, und ist daher auch für Dozenten eine Fundgrube zur anschaulichen Auflockerung der Vorlesung. Neben den beiden üblichen Schwerpunktthemen "Dynamik idealer Fluide" und "Verhalten sehr viskoser Fluide" wird das wichtige Thema "Grenzschichten" besonders behandelt. Ein Anhang über suprafluides Helium - ein Beispiel für ein ideales Fluid - rundet das Stoffgebiet ab.

Wissenschaft, die Grenzen schafft

Geschlechterkonstellationen im disziplinären Vergleich

Author: Bettina Heintz,Martina Merz,Christina Schumacher

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Sex discrimination in science

Page: 317

View: 6868

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Klimatologie

Klimaforschung im 21. Jahrhundert - Herausforderung für Natur- und Sozialwissenschaften

Author: Martin Kappas

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3827422426

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 8441

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Die Klimatologie ist in den letzten Jahren zu einer globalen „Systemwissenschaft“ des Klimasystems bzw. des Erdsystems als Ganzes geworden und stellt heute eine hoch interdisziplinäre und extrem problemgetriebene „Mega-Science“ dar. Dieses neue Lehrbuch greift diese Entwicklung auf. Es besteht aus drei gleichmäßig gewichteten Kernbereichen – Teil I: Basiswissen Klimatologie, Teil II: Klimawandel / Global Change, Teil III: Klima und Politik / Gesellschaft – und zielt auf die Vermittlung der Zusammenhänge von Klimafaktoren – Klimawandel – Gesellschaft – Politik ab. Anders als bisherige Lehrbücher der Klimatologie geht es sehr ausführlich auf das hochaktuelle Themenfeld „Global Change“ ein und verdeutlicht die gesellschaftliche Relevanz der Klimaforschung. In dem es einen klaren Zusammenhang zwischen den „natürlichen“ Grundlagen – klassische Klimatologie, Global Change – und den Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaften der Erde herstellt, geht es über die eigentliche Kernklientel eines Lehrbuchs für Klimatologen/Meteorologen hinaus und spricht einen sehr breiten Leserkreis an. Insofern ist das Buch auf dem deutschen Markt ein Novum.

Auf Schneeschuhen durch Grönland (1894)

2. Band, mit 159 Abbildungen

Author: Fridtjof Nansen

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3954274973

Category: Transportation

Page: 464

View: 4313

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Mit der berühmten Grönland-Expedition, durchgeführt in den Jahren 1888 und 1889, gelang Nansen erstmals der Beweis, dass Grönland vollständig mit Eis überzogen ist. Dieses von ihm selbst verfasste Buch über die Expedition aus dem Jahre 1894 war seinerzeit eine Sensation und ist auch heute noch an Authentizität schwer zu überbieten.