Archaelogical Chemistry #968

Analytical Techniques and Archaeological Interpretation

Author: Michael D. Glascock,Robert J. Speakman,Rachel S. Popelka-Filcoff

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 9780841274136

Category: Social Science

Page: 584

View: 9843

This book brings together 28 papers that address how various analytical techniques can be used to address specific archaeological questions.

The Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Ceramic Analysis

Author: Alice M. W Hunt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191503754

Category: Social Science

Page: 600

View: 1106

The Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Ceramic Analysis draws together topics and methodologies essential for the socio-cultural, mineralogical, and geochemical analysis of archaeological ceramic. Ceramic is one of the most complex and ubiquitous archaeomaterials in the archaeological record: it occurs around the world and through time in almost every culture and context, from building materials and technological installations to utilitarian wares and votive figurines. For more than 100 years, archaeologists have used ceramic analysis to answer complex questions about economy, subsistence, technological innovation, social organization, and dating. The volume is structured around the themes 'Research design and data analysis', 'Foundational concepts', 'Evaluating ceramic provenance', 'Investigating ceramic manufacture', 'Assessing vessel function', and 'Dating ceramic assemblages'. It provides a common vocabulary and offers practical tools and guidelines for ceramic analysis using techniques and methodologies ranging from network analysis and typology to rehydroxylation dating and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each chapter provides the theoretical background and practical guidelines, such as cost and destructiveness of analysis, for each technique, as well as detailed case studies illustrating the application and interpretation of analytical data for answering anthropological questions.

Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration

Paintings, Textiles, Fossils, Wood, Stones, Metals, and Glass

Author: Johannes Karl Fink

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119418917

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 6940

Before the 1970s, most information concerning the conservation and restoration of paintings, wood, and archaeological artefacts were focused on the history of the artefacts, previous attempts of conservation, and the future use of these artefacts. The technical methods of how the restoration and conservation were made were dealt with only very briefly. Today, sophisticated methods of scientific analysis such as DNA are common place, and this encourages conservators and scientists to work together to work out the development of new methods for analysis and conservation of artefacts. This book focuses on the chemicals used for conservation and restoration of various artefacts in artwork and archaeology, as well as special applications of these materials. Also the methods used, both methods for cleaning, conservation and restoration, as well as methods for the analysis of the state of the respective artefacts. Topics include oil paintings, paper conservation, textiles and dyes for them, archaeological wood, fossils, stones, metals and metallic coins, and glasses, including church windows.

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage

An Introduction to the Application of Materials Science to Archaeometry and Conservation Science

Author: Gilberto Artioli

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199548269

Category: Art

Page: 536

View: 6791

Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

New Technologies for Archaeology

Multidisciplinary Investigations in Palpa and Nasca, Peru

Author: Markus Reindel,Günther A. Wagner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540874380

Category: Social Science

Page: 512

View: 2236

This heavily-illustrated book covers recent developments in archaeometry and offers a multidisciplinary approach to reconstructing complex cultural histories. It also presents a detailed history of human development in South America’s Nasca region.

Mesoamerican Plazas

Arenas of Community and Power

Author: Kenichiro Tsukamoto,Takeshi Inomata

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816530580

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 3856

"This is the first book to examine the roles of plazas in ancient Mesoamerica. It argues persuasively that physical interactions among people in communal events were not the outcomes of political machinations held behind the scenes, but were the actual political processes through which people created, negotiated, and subverted social realities"--

Mass Spectrometry Handbook

Author: Mike S. Lee

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047053673X

Category: Science

Page: 1340

View: 391

Due to its enormous sensitivity and ease of use, mass spectrometry has grown into the analytical tool of choice in most industries and areas of research. This unique reference provides an extensive library of methods used in mass spectrometry, covering applications of mass spectrometry in fields as diverse as drug discovery, environmental science, forensic science, clinical analysis, polymers, oil composition, doping, cellular research, semiconductor, ceramics, metals and alloys, and homeland security. The book provides the reader with a protocol for the technique described (including sampling methods) and explains why to use a particular method and not others. Essential for MS specialists working in industrial, environmental, and clinical fields.

X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) in Geoarchaeology

Author: M. Steven Shackley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441968869

Category: Social Science

Page: 231

View: 9915

Since the 1960s, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), both wavelength and energy-dispersive have served as the workhorse for non-destructive and destructive analyses of archaeological materials. Recently eclipsed by other instrumentation such as LA-ICP-MS, XRF remains the mainstay of non-destructive chemical analyses in archaeology, particularly for volcanic rocks, and most particularly for obsidian. In a world where heritage and repatriation issues drive archaeological method and theory, XRF remains an important tool for understanding the human past, and will remain so for decades to come. Currently, there is no comprehensive book in XRF applications in archaeology at a time when the applications of portable XRF and desktop XRF instrumentation are exploding particularly in anthropology and archaeology departments worldwide. The contributors to this volume are the experts in the field, and most are at the forefront of the newest applications of XRF to archaeological problems. It covers all relevant aspects of the field for those using the newest XRF technologies to deal with very current issues in archaeology.

Accelerated Aging

Photochemical and Thermal Aspects

Author: Robert L. Feller

Publisher: Getty Publications

ISBN: 0892361255

Category: Art

Page: 296

View: 1941

Accelerated Aging: Photochemical and Thermal Aspects represents the culmination of more than 40 years of research by noted scientist Robert L. Feller. The book focuses on the long-term performance of materials such as wool, dyes, and organic compounds; their resistance to change when exposed to environmental factors such as oxygen, ozone, moisture, heat, and light; and their physical durability with handling and use over time. Processes of deterioration are discussed based on speeded-up laboratory studies designed to clarify the chemical reactions involved and their physical consequences.

Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research

The Use of Publication and Patent Statistics in Studies of S&T Systems

Author: Henk F. Moed,Wolfgang Glänzel,Ulrich Schmoch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402027550

Category: Computers

Page: 800

View: 7431

This handbook offers a state-of-the-art overview of quantitative science and technology research. It focuses on the development and application of indicators derived from data on scientific or scholarly publications and patents. It comprises 34 chapters written by leading specialists in the various sub-domains. These chapters deal with theoretical and methodological issues, illustrate applications, and highlight their policy context and relevance. Authors present a survey of the research topics they address, and show their most recent achievements. The 34 chapters are arranged into 5 parts: Disciplinary Approaches; General Methodology; The Science System; The Technology System; and The Science–Technology Interface. The Editor’s Introduction provides a further specification of the handbook’s scope and of the main topics addressed in its chapters. This handbook aims at four distinct groups of readers: – practitioners in the field of science and technology studies; – research students in this field; – scientists, scholars and technicians who are interested in a systematic, thorough analysis of their activities; – policy makers and administrators who wish to be informed about the potentialities and limitations of the various approaches and about their results.

Archaeological Chemistry VIII

Author: Ruth Ann Armitage,James Hutson Burton

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: 9780841229242

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 3316

The 12th Archaeological Chemistry Symposium was held as part of the Spring ACS National Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, April 7-11, 2013. This volume is a compilation of presentations from the Symposium, the latest in a long tradition that began at the ACS National Meeting in Philadelphia in 1950. The papers herein show that archaeological chemistry today is more than the usual studies of trace elements in pottery and lithics, which continue to contribute to our understanding of human behavior in the past. New areas of research include more focus on portability to analyze pigments in situ and artifacts in museums, nascent developments in non- and minimally destructive chemical characterization, new applications of isotopic analyses, and an increasing interest in archaeological biomolecules. This volume is divided into sections that roughly follow those of the Symposium: Pigments, Residues and Material Analysis, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, and Isotopes in Archaeology. The first section, Pigments and Dyes, begins with a review of manuscript pigments by Dr. Mary Virginia Orna, the organizer of the 9th Archaeological Chemistry Symposium and Editor of Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis (2). Each of the following sections begins with a review paper from one of the invited speakers. Dr. Valerie Steele, now at the University of Bradford in the Department of Archaeological Science, provides an overview of the state - for better and for worse - of analyses of archaeological residues. Portable X-ray fluorescence instruments are becoming extremely common in archaeological chemistry investigations; Dr. Aaron Shugar of Buffalo State University provides in his chapter some perspectives and warnings against the indiscriminate use of this technology. Finally, Dr. Matthew Sponheimer gives an overview of the contributions of stable carbon isotope and trace metal studies in understanding early hominin diets. The final chapter of the book provides a perspective on the earliest work in archaeological chemistry in the 18th century and brings us up to today's challenges.

The American Southwest and Mesoamerica

Systems of Prehistoric Exchange

Author: Jonathon E. Ericson,Timothy G. Baugh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306441783

Category: History

Page: 302

View: 6578

Summarizes the knowledge of prehistoric regional exchange in the American Southwest and Mesoamerica. Suitable for anthropologists and archaeologists, this volume presents data for comparative analysis of regional systems relative to sociopolitical organization.

Organic Mass Spectrometry in Art and Archaeology

Author: Prof Maria Perla Colombini,Prof Francesca Modugno

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470741929

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 800

Offers an overview of the analysis of art and archaeological materials using techniques based on mass spectrometry Illustrates basic principles, procedures and applications of mass spectrometric techniques. Fills a gap in the field of application on destructive methods in the analysis of museum objects Edited by a world-wide respected specialists with extensive experience of the GC/MS analysis of art objects Such a handbook has been long-awaited by scientists, restorers and other experts in the analysis of art objects

Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage

Author: Rocco Mazzeo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319528041

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 3776

The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience.Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.

Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory

Author: Michael B Schiffer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483214834

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1301

Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume 8 is a collection of papers that discusses postprocessual archaeology, bone technology, and tree-ring dating in Eastern North America. One paper discriminates between the process and norm, and eliminates the dichotomy by locating human agency and the active. It focuses on monitoring individuals as being in the center of social theory. Another paper discuses the physical model and the textual model that describe the basic components of an archaeological record. For example, the first model implies that archaeological inferences move from material components of the record to material phenomena in the past. The second model assumes that archaeological inference should move from material phenomena to mental phenomena, from material symbols to the ideas and beliefs they encode. Another paper explains the use of analogy as a useful tool in archaeological considerations. One paper investigates bones as a material for study, including the analysis of carnivore-induced fractures or hominid-induced modifications from using bones as tools. The collection is suitable for sociologists, anthropologist, professional or amateur archaeologists, and museum curators studying archaeological artifacts.

Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation Science

Author: Michele R. Derrick,Dusan Stulik,James M. Landry

Publisher: Getty Publications

ISBN: 0892364696

Category: Art

Page: 248

View: 3247

This book provides practical information on the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy for the analysis of materials found in cultural objects. Designed for scientists and students in the fields of archaeology, art conservation, microscopy, forensics, chemistry, and optics, the book discusses techniques for examining the microscopic amounts of complex, aged components in objects such as paintings, sculptures, and archaeological fragments. Chapters include the history of infrared spectroscopy, the basic parameters of infrared absorption theory, IR instrumentation, analysis methods, sample collection and preparation, and spectra interpretation. The authors cite several case studies, such as examinations of Chumash Indian paints and the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Institute’s Tools for Conservation series provides practical scientific procedures and methodologies for the practice of conservation. The series is specifically directed to conservation scientists, conservators, and technical experts in related fields.