Atmospheric Aerosols

Properties and Climate Impacts

Author: Olivier Boucher

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401796491

Category: Science

Page: 311

View: 5848

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This textbook aims to be a one stop shop for those interested in aerosols and their impact on the climate system. It starts with some fundamentals on atmospheric aerosols, atmospheric radiation and cloud physics, then goes into techniques used for in-situ and remote sensing measurements of aerosols, data assimilation, and discusses aerosol-radiation interactions, aerosol-cloud interactions and the multiple impacts of aerosols on the climate system. The book aims to engage those interested in aerosols and their impacts on the climate system: graduate and PhD students, but also post-doctorate fellows who are new to the field or would like to broaden their knowledge. The book includes exercises at the end of most chapters. Atmospheric aerosols are small (microscopic) particles in suspension in the atmosphere, which play multiple roles in the climate system. They interact with the energy budget through scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation. They also serve as cloud condensation and ice nuclei with impacts on the formation, evolution and properties of clouds. Finally aerosols also interact with some biogeochemical cycles. Anthropogenic emissions of aerosols are responsible for a cooling effect that has masked part of the warming due to the increased greenhouse effect since pre-industrial time. Natural aerosols also respond to climate changes as shown by observations of past climates and modelling of the future climate.

Atmospheric Aerosol Properties

Formation, Processes and Impacts

Author: Kirill Ya. Kondratyev,Lev S. Ivlev,Vladimir F. Krapivin,Costas A. Varostos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540376984

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 929

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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of how aerosols form in the atmosphere through in situ processes as well as via transport from the surface (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, forest fires etc.). Such an analysis has been followed by the consideration of both observation data (various field observational experiments) and numerical modeling results to assess climate impacts of aerosols bearing in mind that these impacts are the most significant uncertainty in studying natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change.

Infrared Observation of Earths Atmosphere

Author: Hervé Herbin,Philippe Dubuisson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119018501

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 244

View: 1393

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This book is designed to provide the theoretical, but most of all, the practical bases needed for the achievement of atmospheric composition analyses from infrared remote sensing.

Aerosol Optics

Light Absorption and Scattering by Particles in the Atmosphere

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540499091

Category: Science

Page: 148

View: 7383

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This new text offers experienced students a comprehensive review of available techniques for the remote sensing of aerosols. These small particles influence both atmospheric visibility and the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. They are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvests, human health problems and ecological disasters. Thus, this detailed study of aerosol properties on a global scale could not be more timely.

Keine Probleme mit Inversen Problemen

Eine Einführung in ihre stabile Lösung

Author: Andreas Rieder

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322802345

Category: Computers

Page: 300

View: 5849

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Inverse Probleme treten in der heutigen Hochtechnologie häufig auf. Immer wenn man von einer beobachteten (gemessenen) WIRKUNG auf deren URSACHE schließen möchte, liegt ein inverses Problem vor. So wird in der Computer-Tomographie die Abminderung von Röntgenstrahlen gemessen beim Durchgang durch ein Objekt (z.B. menschlicher Körper). Die Ursache der Abminderung ist die Dichte des Objekts. Ein anderes Beispiel stellt die Ultraschall-Tomographie dar: Hier wird die Streuung von Schallwellen an einem Objekt beobachtet, hervorgerufen durch die Form des Objekts, auf die man schließen möchte. Aus mathematischer Sicht bestehen inverse Probleme darin, Operatorgleichungen zu lösen. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch führt umfassend ein in die mathematischen Grundlagen zur stabilen Lösung inverser Probleme, zielt dabei aber auch auf konkrete Anwendungen ab.

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols

17th International Conference, Galway, Ireland, 2007

Author: Colin D. O'Dowd,Paul E. Wagner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402064748

Category: Science

Page: 1256

View: 6382

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Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions

Die Stratosphäre

Phänomene, Geschichte, Relevanz

Author: Karin Labitzke

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642599893

Category: Science

Page: 178

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In diesem Buch wird einerseits die spannende Entdeckung der Stratosphäre selbst und verschiedener unerwarteter Phänomene in der Stratosphäre beschrieben: ein bemannter Ballonflug im Jahr 1901 bis in 11 km Höhe; eine Expedition zum Victoriasee im Jahr 1908; die Entdeckung der Ozonschicht um 1930, des "Berliner Phänomens" im Jahr 1952, des Einflusses von Vulkaneruptionen im Jahr 1982, des Ozonlochs im Jahr 1985 und des Einflusses der Sonnenaktivität im Jahr 1987. Andererseits wird gezeigt, wie diese Erscheinungen miteinander verknüpft sind und wie sie anthropogene und natürliche Schwankungen in unserem Klimasystem verursachen. Am Beispiel der Stratosphäre soll das Buch zum Verständnis der Erforschung komplizierter Zusammenhänge in der Natur beitragen.

Das Werden Der Welten

Author: Svante Arrhenius

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3864446783

Category:

Page: 220

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Ein Werk des Nobelpreistr gers Svante Arrhenius, Nachdruck des Originals von 1908.

Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES)

Highlights from a Priority Program

Author: Franz-Josef Lübken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400743483

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 4495

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CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some important research topics from the Sun to climate. Solar related processes are studied including the evolution of solar radiation with relevance to climate. Results regarding the influence of the Sun on the terrestrial atmosphere from the troposphere to the thermosphere are presented including stratospheric ozone, mesospheric ice clouds, geomagnetic effects, and their relevance to climate. Several chapters highlight the importance of coupling mechanisms within the atmosphere, covering transport mechanisms of photochemically active species, dynamical processes such as gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves, and feedback mechanisms between the thermal and dynamical structure of the atmosphere. Special attention is paid to climate signals in the middle and upper atmosphere and their significance relative to natural variability.

Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Author: Ian Barnes,Krzysztof J. Rudzinski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402042329

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 7709

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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.

Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing Over Land

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky,Gerrit de Leeuw

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540693971

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 5134

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Aerosols have a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget, but there is considerable uncertainty about the magnitude of their effect on the Earth's climate. Currently, satellite remote sensing is being increasingly utilized to improve our understanding of the effect of atmospheric aerosols on the climate system. Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing Over Land is the only book that brings together in one volume the most up-to-date research and advances in this discipline. As well as describing the current academic theory, the book presents practical applications, utilizing state-of-the-art instrumentation, invaluable to the work of environmental scientists. With contributions by an international group of experts and leaders of correspondent aerosol retrieval groups, the book is an essential tool for all those working in the field of climate change.

Regional Climate Variability and its Impacts in the Mediterranean Area

Author: A. Mellouki,A.R. Ravishankara

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402064292

Category: Science

Page: 316

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This book details the findings and suggestions from a NATO workshop that examined regional climate variability and its impacts in the Mediterranean area, which was held in Marrakech, Morocco, November 2006. This NATO workshop was set up to discuss the issues facing the region in general and the influence of chemical emissions and transformation in particular.

Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Author: Robert J. Delmas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642511724

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 2498

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The analysis of polar ice cores has proven to be very instructive about past environmental conditions on the time scale of several climatic cycles, and recent drilling operations have provided information of great value for global change issues. The book presents the most recent data extracted from Greenland ice cores and surface experiments and compares them with former Antarctic results. It contains background articles, original contributions and group reports of interest to scientists, climatologists, atmospheric chemists, and glaciologists involved in global change research.

Atmospheric aerosols

characterization, chemistry, modeling, and climate

Author: Kalliat T. Valsaraj,Raghava R Kommalapati,Raghava Rao Kommalapati,American Chemical Society. Division of Environmental Chemistry,American Chemical Society. Meeting,American Geophysical Union. Meeting

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780841269736

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 1359

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Atmospheric aerosols play a large role in air pollution in urban areas and in regulating climate. They also play a role in the ongoing debate on global warming potentials of various species. To understand the proper roles of aerosols in the atmosphere, we need data on their physical characterization, their chemistry and appropriate models to project into the future. Apart from general discussions in textbooks, there are not very many monographs devoted to the aspects outlined above. This symposium series book will describe the characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, the chemistry of aerosols, and finally the interplay between aerosol modeling and global climate changes using specific case studies. The book is organized into three sections: Characterization, Chemistry and Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols. The characterization section of the book includes three chapters. The chapters include: The role of morphology on aerosol particle reactivity; The chemistry portion of the book covers several interesting topics including secondary aerosols and the chapters include: Surface activity of perfluorinated compounds at the air-water interface; Atmospheric chemistry of urban surface films; Photochemistry of secondary organic aerosol formed from oxidation of monoterpenes; Finally the modeling section of the book includes two very interesting chapters; Understanding climatic effects of aerosols: modeling radiative effects of aerosols; Environmental effects to residential New Orleans following hurricane katrina: indoor sediment, vapor-phase and aerosolized contaminants.

Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation

A Scientific Review

Author: Zev Levin,William R. Cotton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402086908

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 8883

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Life on Earth is critically dependent upon the continuous cycling of water between oceans, continents and the atmosphere. Precipitation (including rain, snow, and hail) is the primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere back to the Earth’s surface. It is also the key physical process that links aspects of climate, weather, and the global hydrological cycle. Changes in precipitation regimes and the frequency of extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, severe ice/snow storms, monsoon fluctuations and hurricanes are of great potential importance to life on the planet. One of the factors that could contribute to precipitation modification is aerosol pollution from various sources such as urban air pollution and biomass burning. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric aerosols might have important implications for precipitation by influencing the hydrological cycle, which in turn could feed back to climate changes. From an Earth Science perspective, a key question is how changes expected in climate will translate into changes in the hydrological cycle, and what trends may be expected in the future. We require a much better understanding and hence predictive capability of the moisture and energy storages and exchanges among the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, continents and biological systems. This book is a review of our knowledge of the relationship between aerosols and precipitation reaching the Earth's surface and it includes a list of recommendations that could help to advance our knowledge in this area.

Perspectives on Atmospheric Sciences

Author: Theodore Karacostas,Alkiviadis Bais,Panagiotis T. Nastos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319350951

Category: Science

Page: 1259

View: 4731

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This book provides the proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics (COMECAP 2016) that is held in Thessaloniki from 19 to 21 September 2016. The Conference addresses fields of interest for researchers, professionals and students related to the following topics: Agricultural Meteorology and Climatology, Air Quality (Indoor and Outdoor), Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Applications of Meteorology in the Energy sector, Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry, Atmospheric Radiation, Atmospheric Boundary layer, Biometeorology and Bioclimatology, Climate Dynamics, Climatic Changes, Cloud Physics, Dynamic and Synoptic Μeteorology, Extreme Events, Hydrology and Hydrometeorology, Mesoscale Meteorology, Micrometeorology-Urban Microclimate, Remote Sensing- Satellite Meteorology and Climatology, Weather Analysis and Forecasting. The book includes all papers that have been accepted after peer review for presentation in the conference.

Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model

A Modeling Tool for the Climate Change Research Community

Author: Tianjun Zhou,Yongqiang Yu,Yimin Liu,Bin Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642418015

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 4111

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Coupled climate system models are of central importance for climate studies. A new model known as FGOALS ( the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model), has been developed by the Sate Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (LASG/IAP, CAS), a first-tier national geophysical laboratory. It serves as a powerful tool, both for deepening our understanding of fundamental mechanisms of the climate system and for making decadal prediction and scenario projections of future climate change. "Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: A Modeling Tool for the Climate Change Research Community” is the first book to offer systematic evaluations of this model’s performance. It is comprehensive in scope, covering both developmental and application-oriented aspects of this climate system model. It also provides an outlook of future development of FGOALS and offers an overview of how to employ the model. It represents a valuable reference work for researchers and professionals working within the related areas of climate variability and change. Prof. Tianjun Zhou, Yongqiang Yu, Yimin Liu and Bin Wang work at LASG, the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.