Aviation Social Science: Research Methods in Practice

Author: Mark W. Wiggins,Catherine Stevens

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351956213

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 2890

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This book is a guide that addressees social science research issues within the aviation industry. Studies involving human factors, personality, training systems evaluation, decision-making, crew resource management and situation awareness are used to illustrate not only the process, but also the outcomes that can emerge from social science research. The book describes the principles involved in conceptualising a research problem, obtaining management support, developing an appropriate timeframe, obtaining ethics approval and collecting and managing data. It also provides useful guidelines concerning the publication of research in magazines, academic journals and conference presentations. The topics are illustrated with aviation examples and the principles are deliberately broad. This book will be a useful guide for both novice and experienced researchers, especially pilots, air traffic controllers, maintenance personnel, aviation management, aviation researchers, safety personnel and undergraduate and postgraduate university students.

Human Factors in Aviation

Author: Earl L. Wiener,David C. Nagel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570909

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 684

View: 4106

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Since the 1950s, a number of specialized books dealing with human factors has been published, but very little in aviation. Human Factors in Aviation is the first comprehensive review of contemporary applications of human factors research to aviation. A "must" for aviation professionals, equipment and systems designers, pilots, and managers--with emphasis on definition and solution of specific problems. General areas of human cognition and perception, systems theory, and safety are approached through specific topics in aviation--behavioral analysis of pilot performance, cockpit automation, advancing display and control technology, and training methods.

Advances in Aviation Psychology

Author: Michael A. Vidulich,Pamela S. Tsang,John Flach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317185234

Category: Psychology

Page: 302

View: 9048

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Aviation remains one of the most active and challenging domains for human factors and applied psychology. Since 1981, the biennial International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (ISAP) has been convened for the purposes of (a) presenting the latest research on human performance problems and opportunities within aviation systems, (b) envisioning design solutions that best utilize human capabilities for creating safe and efficient aviation systems, and (c) bringing together scientists, research sponsors, and operators in an effort to bridge the gap between research and application. Though rooted in the presentations of the 17th ISAP, held in 2013 in Dayton, Ohio, Advances in Aviation Psychology is not simply a collection of selected proceeding papers. Based upon the potential impact on emerging trends, current debates or enduring issues present in their work, select authors were invited to expand on their work following the benefit of interactions at the symposium. The invited authors include the featured keynote and plenary speakers who are all leading scientists and prominent researchers that were selected to participate at the symposium. These contributions are supplemented by additional contributors whose work best reflects significant developments in aviation psychology. Consequently the volume includes visions for the next generation of air management and air traffic control, the integration of unmanned (i.e. remotely piloted vehicles) into operational air spaces, and the use of advanced information technologies (e.g. synthetic task environments) for research and training. This book is the first in a series of volumes to be published in conjunction with each subsequent ISAP. The aim of each volume is not only to report the latest findings in aviation psychology but also to suggest new directions for advancing the field.

Advances in Aviation Psychology, Volume 2

Using Scientific Methods to Address Practical Human Factors Needs

Author: Michael A. Vidulich,Pamela S. Tsang,John Flach

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 131718520X

Category: Transportation

Page: 262

View: 7740

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Since 1981, the biennial International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (ISAP) has been convened for the purposes of (a) presenting the latest research on human performance problems and opportunities within aviation systems, (b) envisioning design solutions that best utilize human capabilities for creating safe and efficient aviation systems, and (c) bringing together scientists, research sponsors, and operators in an effort to bridge the gap between research and applications. Though rooted in the presentations of the 18th ISAP, held in 2015 in Dayton, Ohio, Advances in Aviation Psychology is not simply a collection of selected proceedings papers. Based upon the potential impact of emerging trends, current debates or enduring issues present in their work, select authors were invited to expand upon their work following the benefit of interactions at the symposium. Consequently the volume includes discussion of the most pressing research priorities and the latest scientific and technical priorities for addressing them. This book is the second in a series of volumes. The aim of each volume is not only to report the latest findings in aviation psychology but also to suggest new directions for advancing the field.

The Multitasking Myth

Handling Complexity in Real-World Operations

Author: Dr Immanuel Barshi,Dr Loukia D Loukopoulos,Dr R Key Dismukes

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409485919

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 202

View: 7235

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Despite growing concern with the effects of concurrent task demands on human performance, and research demonstrating that these demands are associated with vulnerability to error, so far there has been only limited research into the nature and range of concurrent task demands in real-world settings. This book presents a set of NASA studies that characterize the nature of concurrent task demands confronting airline flight crews in routine operations, as opposed to emergency situations. The authors analyze these demands in light of what is known about cognitive processes, particularly those of attention and memory, with the focus upon inadvertent omissions of intended actions by skilled pilots. The studies reported within the book employed several distinct but complementary methods: ethnographic observations, analysis of incident reports submitted by pilots, and cognitive task analysis. They showed that concurrent task management comprises a set of issues distinct from (though related to) mental workload, an area that has been studied extensively by human factors researchers for more than 30 years. This book will be of direct relevance to aviation psychologists and to those involved in aviation training and operations. It will also interest individuals in any domain that involves concurrent task demands, for example the work of emergency room medical teams. Furthermore, the countermeasures presented in the final chapter to reduce vulnerability to errors associated with concurrent task demands can readily be adapted to work in diverse domains.

Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design, Second Edition

Author: Kim-Phuong L. Vu,Robert W. Proctor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439825955

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 794

View: 2757

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The Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design covers basic human factors issues relating to screen design, input devices, and information organization and processing, as well as addresses newer features which will become prominent in the next generation of Web technologies. These include multimodal interfaces, wireless capabilities, and agents that can improve convenience and usability. Written by leading researchers and/or practitioners in the field, this volume reflects the varied backgrounds and interests of individuals involved in all aspects of human factors and Web design and includes chapters on a full range of topics. Divided into 12 sections, this book covers: historical backgrounds and overviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) specific subfields of HFE issues involved in content preparation for the Web information search and interactive information agents designing for universal access and specific user populations the importance of incorporating usability evaluations in the design process task analysis, meaning analysis, and performance modeling specific Web applications in academic and industrial settings Web psychology and information security emerging technological developments and applications for the Web the costs and benefits of incorporating human factors for the Web and the state of current guidelines The Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design is intended for researchers and practitioners concerned with all aspects of Web design. It could also be used as a text for advanced courses in computer science, industrial engineering, and psychology.

Cognition, Assessment and Debriefing in Aviation

Author: Wolff-Michael Roth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351807021

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 3834

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Debriefing is a major component of the job in many high-risk industries where errors can have considerable, often deadly consequences, including combat, surgery, and aviation. Although there exists considerable literature on debriefing, recent reviews of the literature suggest (a) shortcomings in the topics researched, (b) paucity of related theory, (c) limitations in the number of empirical studies, and (d) problems in research design. There are also recent suggestions that "there are surprisingly studies in the scholarly literature that show how to debrief, how to teach or learn to debrief, what methods of debriefing exists and how effective they are at achieving learning objectives and goals" Meta-analyses reveal substantial variations in research findings—e.g., on the use of video as a means of debriefing—that can be traced to the problems. This book redresses these problems in that it provides a detailed look at debriefing and assessment, the functions of different cognitive artifacts used, and a theoretical framework that accounts for the complexity of flying an aircraft and for the debriefing of the pilots’ experiences, especially under the high-stakes condition of their bi-annual evaluation for licensing purposes. The book provides detailed investigation of flight examiners’ methods to arrive at assessments of aviation pilot performance. It shows and theoretically models why there are good reasons for lower than desired inter-rater agreements. It offers detailed scenarios of how debriefing can be made to draw maximum benefit for pilot learning, that is, for the take-home messages that will make them better pilots. The theoretical framework includes objective factors that determine performance and the subjective experience pilots have while undergoing training and testing in flight simulators

Fatigue in Aviation: A Guide to Staying Awake at the Stick

Author: John A. Caldwell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351936948

Category: Transportation

Page: 176

View: 8861

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This overview of fatigue includes fatigue definitions, the measurement / assessment of fatigue, and the performance, mood, and safety problems associated with fatigue in the operational setting. The physiological bases of fatigue are discussed, so the reader understands that fatigue is a physiological phenomenon that is not "just a state of mind". Scientifically-valid countermeasures are discussed and data from a variety of sources are included to provide readers with a "toolbox" from which they can choose solutions to fatigue-related problems. The book is of interest to aviation crews in both civilian and military sectors, managers as well as aviators, flight deck as well as maintenance crews. It aims to be 'user-friendly', although scientific information is included to help the reader understand why certain behaviours occur.

Risk Management and Corporate Sustainability in Aviation

Author: Triant G. Flouris,Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317062825

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 6033

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Sustainability factors should be considered by managers like any other business risk issue; these factors are expected to have a substantial impact on corporate management. Air transport corporations need a strong sustainability management framework to effectively manage economic, environmental and social risks to achieve their corporate sustainability objectives, and to meet their stakeholders' demands. This book offers a new Enterprise Sustainability Risk Management (ESRM) model to fulfill these requirements. In the model presented, the triple bottom line (TBL) agenda is incorporated into the companies' sustainability management. ESRM deals with the environmental, social, and ecological risks as well as the strategic, economic, operational, and threat risks of companies. The best corporate sustainability strategies and management approaches require the consideration of all corporate risks in both a holistic and systematic way. Flouris and Kucuk Yilmaz present an effective way to manage sustainability risks via a new, well-designed, integrated, dynamic and flexible framework. It introduces an opportunity for turning risks into potential corporate advantages. Risk Management and Corporate Sustainability in Aviation is addressed to professionals, students and researchers within air transportation business management and risk management.

Decision Making in Aviation

Author: Don Harris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351570048

Category: Transportation

Page: 488

View: 3998

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Decision making pervades every aspect of life: people make hundreds of decisions every day. The vast majority of these are trivial and without a right or wrong answer. In some respects there is also nothing extraordinary about pilot decision making. It is only the setting that is different - the underlying cognitive processes are just the same. However, it is the context and the consequences of a poor decision which serve to differentiate aeronautical decision making. Decisions on the flight deck are often made with incomplete information and while under time pressure. The implications for inadequate performance is much more serious than in many other professions. Poor decisions are implicated in over half of all aviation accidents. This volume contains key papers published over the last 25 years providing an overview of the major paradigms by which aeronautical decision making has been investigated. Furthermore, decision making does not occur in isolation. It is a joint function of the flight tasks; knowledge; equipment on the flight deck and other stressors. In this volume of collected papers, works from leading authors in the field consider all these aspects of aeronautical decision making.

Human Factors Models for Aviation Accident Analysis and Prevention

Author: Thomas G.C. Griffin,Mark S. Young,Neville A. Stanton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317120108

Category: Transportation

Page: 226

View: 505

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The investigation and modelling of aviation accident causation is dominated by linear models. Aviation is, however, a complex system and as such suffers from being artificially manipulated into non-complex models and methods. This book addresses this issue by developing a new approach to investigating aviation accident causation through information networks. These networks centralise communication and the flow of information as key indicators of a system’s health and risk. This holistic approach focuses on the system environment, the activity that takes place within it, the strategies used to conduct this activity, the way in which the constituent parts of the system (both human and non-human) interact and the behaviour required. Each stage of this book identifies and expands upon the potential of the information network approach, maintaining firm focus on the overall health of a system. The book’s new model offers many potential developments and some key areas are studied in this research. Through the centralisation of barriers and information nodes the method can be applied to almost any situation. The application of Bayesian mathematics to historical data populations provides scope for studying error migration and barrier manipulation. The book also provides application of these predictions to a flight simulator study for the purposes of validation. Beyond this it also discusses the applicability of the approach to industry. Through working with a legacy airline the methods discussed are used as the basis for a new and prospective safety management system.

Aviation Mental Health

Psychological Implications for Air Transportation

Author: Todd Hubbard,Dr Robert Bor

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409484912

Category: Transportation

Page: 376

View: 2879

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This book provides an authoritative and practical guide to the assessment, management, treatment and care of pilots and other professional groups within aviation; covering a range of relevant topics, for health and human resources practitioners working in the airline industry. Pilot mental health has, hitherto, been regarded as a specialist topic in aviation medicine. Consequently, practitioners and researchers alike have been forced to consult specialist journals or seek out a relevant chapter on this topic in a general textbook to develop or update their understanding of the relevant issues. This book seeks to remedy this situation by gathering together all of the relevant insights into a single authoritative source gathered from the leading specialists in the field. It aims to cover all of the main relevant issues including the assessment, care, management and treatment of mental health problems, as well as the prevention of mental health problems among this occupational group.

Human Factors Methods

A Practical Guide for Engineering and Design

Author: Dr Chris Baber,Dr Daniel P Jenkins,Dr Guy H Walker,Dr Laura A Rafferty,Professor Paul M Salmon,Professor Neville A Stanton

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472408152

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 650

View: 4924

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This second edition of Human Factors Methods: A Practical Guide for Engineering and Design now presents 107 design and evaluation methods including numerous refinements to those that featured in the original. The book acts as an ergonomics methods manual, aiding both students and practitioners. Offering a 'how-to' text on a substantial range of ergonomics methods, the eleven sections represent the different categories of ergonomics methods and techniques that can be used in the evaluation and design process.

Crew Resource Management

Author: Earl L. Wiener,Barbara G. Kanki,Robert L. Helmreich

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080959009

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 625

View: 7807

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The new edition of Crew Resource Management continues to focus on CRM in the cockpit, but also emphasizes that the concepts and training applications provide generic guidance and lessons learned for a wide variety of "crews" in the aviation system as well as in the complex and high-risk operations of many non-aviation settings. Long considered the "bible" in this field, much of the basic style and structure of the previous edition of Crew Resource Management is retained in the new edition. Textbooks are often heavily supplemented with or replaced entirely by course packs in advanced courses in the aviation field, as it is essential to provide students with cutting edge information from academic researchers, government agencies (FAA), pilot associations, and technology (Boeing, ALION). This edited textbook offers ideal coverage with first-hand information from each of these perspectives. Case examples, which are particularly important given the dangers inherent in real world aviation scenarios, are liberally supplied. An image collection and test bank make this the only text on the market with ancillary support. New material includes: international and cultural aspects of CRM; design and implementation of Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT); airline applications beyond the cockpit; spaceflight resource management; non-aviation applications; AQP; LOSA; and special issues pertaining to low-cost airline carriers. The second edition editors offer essential breath of experience in aviation human factors from multiple perspectives (academia, government, and private enterprise) and the contributors have all been chosen as experts in their fields who represent the diversity of the research of activities and organisational experience of CRM. The only CRM text on the market offering an up-to-date synthesis of primary source material New edition thoroughly updated and revised to include major new findings, complete with discussion of the international and cultural aspects of CRM, the design and implementation of LOFT Instructor website with testbank and image collection Liberal use of case examples

Safety Management Systems in Aviation

Author: Alan J. Stolzer,John J. Goglia

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317059832

Category: Transportation

Page: 396

View: 4629

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Although aviation is among the safest modes of transportation in the world today, accidents still happen. In order to further reduce accidents and improve safety, proactive approaches must be adopted by the aviation community. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has mandated that all of its member states implement Safety Management System (SMS) programs in their aviation industries. While some countries (the United States, Australia, Canada, members of the European Union and New Zealand, for example) have been engaged in SMS for a few years, it is still non-existent in many other countries. This unique and comprehensive book has been designed as a textbook for the student of aviation safety, and as an invaluable reference tool for the SMS practitioner in any segment of aviation. It discusses the quality management underpinnings of SMS, the four components, risk management, reliability engineering, SMS implementation, and the scientific rigor that must be designed into proactive safety. The authors introduce a hypothetical airline-oriented safety scenario at the beginning of the book and conclude it at the end, engaging the reader and adding interest to the text. To enhance the practical application of the material, the book also features numerous SMS in Practice commentaries by some of the most respected names in aviation safety. In this second edition of Safety Management Systems in Aviation, the authors have extensively updated relevant sections to reflect developments since the original book of 2008. New sections include: a brief history of FAA initiatives to establish SMS, data-driven safety studies, developing a system description, SMS in a flight school, and measuring SMS effectiveness.

Practical Human Factors for Pilots

Author: Capt. David Moriarty

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128007869

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 2957

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Practical Human Factors for Pilots bridges the divide between human factors research and one of the key industries that this research is meant to benefit—civil aviation. Human factors are now recognized as being at the core of aviation safety and the training syllabus that flight crew trainees have to follow reflects that. This book will help student pilots pass exams in human performance and limitations, successfully undergo multi-crew cooperation training and crew resource management (CRM) training, and prepare them for assessment in non-technical skills during operator and license proficiency checks in the simulator, and during line checks when operating flights. Each chapter begins with an explanation of the relevant science behind that particular subject, along with mini-case studies that demonstrate its relevance to commercial flight operations. Of particular focus are practical tools and techniques that students can learn in order to improve their performance as well as "training tips" for the instructor. Provides practical, evidence-based guidance on issues often at the root of aircraft accidents Uses international regulatory material Includes concepts and theories that have practical relevance to flight operations Covers relevant topics in a step-by-step manner, describing how they apply to flight operations Demonstrates how human decision-making has been implicated in air accidents and equips the reader with tools to mitigate these risks Gives instructors a reliable knowledge base on which to design and deliver effective training Summarizes the current state of human factors, training, and assessment

Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences

Author: Deborah L. Bandalos

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462532136

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 661

View: 3008

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Which types of validity evidence should be considered when determining whether a scale is appropriate for a given measurement situation? What about reliability evidence? Using clear explanations illustrated by examples from across the social and behavioral sciences, this engaging text prepares students to make effective decisions about the selection, administration, scoring, interpretation, and development of measurement instruments. Coverage includes the essential measurement topics of scale development, item writing and analysis, and reliability and validity, as well as more advanced topics such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, diagnostic classification models, test bias and fairness, standard setting, and equating. End-of-chapter exercises (with answers) emphasize both computations and conceptual understanding to encourage readers to think critically about the material.

A Human Error Approach to Aviation Accident Analysis

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System

Author: Professor Scott A Shappell,Professor Douglas A Wiegmann

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409463036

Category: Transportation

Page: 182

View: 6053

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This comprehensive book provides the knowledge and tools required to conduct a human error analysis of accidents. Serving as an excellent reference guide for many safety professionals and investigators already in the field.

Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics

Author: Gavriel Salvendy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470528389

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1732

View: 6947

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"This is the fourth edition of the market-leading reference for human factors and ergonomics researchers, academics, and professionals. Editor Gavriel Salvendy, a well-known and respected authority, has assembled the top thinkers and practitioners from throughout the world to update this volume. It features new coverage of voice communication, multi-modal design, human-robot communication, call center design and operation, design of electronic games, and much more.Plus new and expanded coverage of Human Error and Human Reliability Analysis"--Provided by publisher.