Axis of Convenience

Moscow, Beijing, and the New Geopolitics

Author: Bobo Lo

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815701460

Category: Political Science

Page: 277

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Few relationships have been as misunderstood as the "strategic partnership" between Russia and China. Official rhetoric portrays it as the very model of international cooperation: Moscow and Beijing claim that ties are closer and warmer than at any time in history. In reality, however, the picture is highly ambiguous. While both sides are committed to multifaceted engagement, cooperation is complicated by historical suspicions, cultural prejudices, geopolitical rivalries, and competing priorities. For Russia, China is at once the focus of a genuine convergence of interests and the greatest long-term threat to its national security. For China, Russia is a key supplier of energy and weapons, but is frequently dismissed as a self-important power whose rhetoric far outstrips its real influence. A xis of Convenience cuts through the mythmaking and examines the Sino-Russian partnership on its own merits. It steers between the overblown interpretation of an anti-Western (particularly, anti-American) alliance and the complacent assumption that past animosities and competing agendas must always divide the two nations. Their relationship reflects a new geopolitics, one that eschews formal alliances in favor of more flexible and opportunistic arrangements. Ultimately, it is an axis of convenience driven by cold-eyed perceptions of the national interest. In evaluating the current state and future prospects of the relationship, Bobo Lo assesses its impact on the evolving strategic environments in Central and East Asia. He also analyzes the global implications of rapprochement between Moscow and Beijing, focusing in particular on the geopolitics of energy and Russia-China-U.S. triangularism.

Russia and China

A political marriage of convenience – stable and successful

Author: Michał Lubina

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3847410725

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 4609

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This book depicts the sophisticated relationship between Russia and China as a pragmatic one, a political “marriage of convenience”. Yet at the same time the relationship is stable, and will remain so. After all, bilateral relations are usually based on pragmatic interests and the pursuit of these interests is the very essence of foreign policy. And, as often happens in life, the most long-lasting marriages are those based on convenience. The highly complex, complicated, ambiguous and yet, indeed, successful relationship between Russia and China throughout the past 25 years is difficult to grasp theoretically. Russian and Chinese elites are hard-core realists in their foreign policies, and the neorealist school in international relations seems to be the most adequate one to research Sino-Russian relations. Realistically, throughout this period China achieved a multidimensional advantage over Russia. Yet, simultaneously Russia-China relations do not follow the patterns of power politics. Beijing knows its limits and does not go into extremes. Rather, China successfully seeks to build a longterm, stable relationship based on Chinese terms, where both sides gain, albeit China gains a little more. Russia in this agenda does not necessary lose; just gains a little less out of this asymmetric deal. Thus, a new model of bilateral relations emerges, which may be called – by paraphrasing the slogan of Chinese diplomacy – as “asymmetric win-win” formula. This model is a kind of “back to the past“ – a contemporary equivalent of the first model of Russia-China relations: the modus vivendi from the 17th century, achieved after the Nerchinsk treaty.

Russia-China Relations in the Post-Crisis International Order

Author: Marcin Kaczmarski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317634276

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 6093

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The book explores developments in Russia-China relations in the aftermath of the global economic crisis, arguing that the crisis transformed their bilateral affairs, regional liaisons and, crucially, altered the roles both states play on the international arena. Discussing how Russo-Chinese cooperation has accelerated in energy trade, arms sales and in the Russian Far East, the focus is on how the still mutually advantageous relationship has become more asymmetric than ever, reflecting China’s meteoric rise and Russia’s decline. These dynamics are explored through three perspectives: domestic, regional and global. Domestically, the book traces the role of political coalitions and key interest groups involved in how the two states shape their reciprocal policies. Changes in the regional dimension are examined with particular reference to a new status quo emerging in Central Asia. The book concludes by explaining how the changing relationship is affecting the international order, including the balance of power vis-à-vis the United States as well as Russia and China’s changing attitudes towards global governance.

China's Foreign Policy

Challenges and Prospects

Author: Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814719048

Category: Political Science

Page: 644

View: 513

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This volume examines the Chinese foreign policy framework today and traces its evolution since the post-Mao era. Through the consideration of China's relations with the major powers and its management of various challenges ranging from territorial disputes to energy security, it investigates China's pursuit of major power status and influence in peaceful international scenarios. The author critically analyzes China's foreign policy from Chinese leaders' evolving worldview of the changing international environment. As China emerges as a major power and the second largest economy in the world, anyone interested in international politics and scenarios as well as China's foreign policy needs a basic, insightful reference book like this. Contents:China's Foreign Policy: Coping with the Challenge of PowerOverall Framework:The Evolution of China's Foreign Policy in the Post-Mao Era: From Anti-Hegemony to Modernization DiplomacyChina's Foreign Policy in the Mid–1990sChina's Foreign Policy Since the Seventeenth Party CongressConvincing the World of China's Tradition to Pursue Universal HarmonyChina's Significant Bilateral Relations:China's Peaceful Rise and the .U.S — Mutual Perceptions, Mutual Trust and Planning for Future ScenariosChinese Perceptions of Russian Foreign Policy During the Two Putin Administration: U.S.–Russia Relations and "Strategic Triangle" ConsiderationsChina's Japan Policy: Seeking Stability and Improvement in Uncertainties and ConflictsChina's India Policy: Balancing Global and Bilateral IssuesSino–Vietnamese Relations in the Early Twenty-first Century: Economics in Command?China's Iran Policy: Balancing Interests and Managing ExpectationsChina's Management of Various Challenges:A Chinese View of China's Energy SecurityBattle Ready? Developing a Blue-water Navy: China's Strategic DilemmaChina's Ocean Development Strategy and Its Handling of the Territorial Conflicts in the South China SeaFrom Non-interference to a Responsible Major Power: China's Engagement in DarfurChina's Approach to Intervention in the Syrian Crisis: The Challenge of Working through the United Nations System Readership: Academics, undergraduate and graduates students, professionals and policy makers interested in China's Foreign Policy. Key Features:The most updated and comprehensive book on Chinese foreign policyAnalyzes the Chinese perspective critically and objectivelyStudies China's relations with key countries and its various significant global challenges

Great Games, Local Rules

The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia

Author: Alexander Cooley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978581

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 3545

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The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.

A Framework for Efficient Government Investment

Author: Mr. Andrew M. Warner

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1616359374

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 22

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Welfare economics, scope and performance of government, externalities, public goods, cost-benefit analysis, subsidies economize on spending without losing effectiveness by modifying the conceptual framework guiding state expenditures. The familiar framework says that state intervention is justified when the spending provides public goods or when the intervention addresses externalities, provided the social return is above a threshold. This paper argues that another consideration needs to be brought into the mix - whether, in spite of the externalities, the private sector has an incentive to undertake the activity. It is argued that these two considerations together define a more efficient framework under which to justify state intervention. According to this modified framework, even a benign state interested in social welfare would not in fact address every externality nor necessarily select expenditures with the highest social returns. These points are summarized in a graph which is then used to analyze policy rules, subsidies and effective interaction between the state and the private sector. It is hoped that this paper points to the kind of information that needs to be collected and acted upon so that states may achieve their goals more effectively.

Mao’s China and the Sino-Soviet Split

Ideological Dilemma

Author: Mingjiang Li

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136455434

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 724

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The Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s was one of the most significant events of the Cold War. Why did the Sino-Soviet alliance, hailed by its creators as "unbreakable", "eternal", and as representing "brotherly solidarity", break up? Why did their relations eventually evolve into open hostility and military confrontation? With the publication of several works on the subject in the past decade, we are now in a better position to understand and explain the origins of the Sino-Soviet split. But at the same time new questions and puzzles have also emerged. The scholarly debate on this issue is still fierce. This book, the result of extensive research on declassified documents at the Chinese Foreign Ministry, and on numerous other new Chinese materials, sheds new light on the problem and makes a significant contribution to the debate. More than simply an empirical case study, by theorising the concept of the ideological dilemma, Mingjiang Li’s book attempts to address the relationship between ideology and foreign policy and discusses such pressing questions as why it is that an ideology can sometimes effectively dictate foreign policy, whilst at other times exercises almost no significant influence at all. This book will be of essential reading to anyone interested in Chinese-Soviet history, Cold War history, International Relations and the theory of ideology.

Engineering Physics

Author: Dipak Chandra Ghosh,Nripesh Chandra Ghosh,Prabir Kumar Haldar

Publisher: Firewall Media

ISBN: 9788131803660

Category: Mathematical physics

Page: 465

View: 8534

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Acoustics and Psychoacoustics

Author: David Howard,Jamie Angus

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136124934

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 5890

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Acoustics and Psychoacoustics is ideal for students of music technology, sound recording, traditional music and acoustics, as well as engineers studying audio, multimedia and communications systems. Gain a practical understanding of how real musical sounds behave and are perceived in real spaces with this accessible and interesting read. This third edition offers a CD of audio examples, crucial for a clear understanding of the concepts discussed. Visit the book's supporting website at http://books.elsevier.com/0240519957 for additional resources such as: * Questions and exercises to test your knowledge * Web links for further resources and research * Audio clips * Calculation facilities (eg. adding decibel values and converting between frequency ratio and cents/semitones) This website can also be reached via www.focalpress.com

CAD/CAM in Practice

A Manager’s Guide to Understanding and Using CAD/CAM

Author: A.J. Medland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401171203

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 228

View: 5955

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Little more than a decade ago computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) was a very esoteric field indeed, not one that was of much practical concern to a manager or industrialist unless his business was on the scale of, say, a major automobile manufacturer or in a field of high technology such as aerospace. Like so much else, this situation was revo lutionized by the invention of the silicon chip, the arrival of the micro processor and the dramatic fall in the cost of computer hardware. Today, CAD/CAM has spread down the market, and down the price scale, to the point at which it is both a feasible and an affordable technology for a wide range of small-and medium-sized companies in areas as various as architec ture and general engineering, plastic moulding and consumer electronics. But the explosion - there is no other word for it - in the variety and capabilities of CAD/CAM systems, and their spectacular climb to the top of the hi-tech hit parade, has placed the potential purchaser and user of the new technology in a difficult position. On the one hand he is assured, not least by the manufacturers of CAD/CAM equipment, that a failure to invest in it will leave his company stranded in the industrial Stone Age.

Mr. Putin

Operative in the Kremlin

Author: Fiona Hill,Clifford G. Gaddy

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 081572618X

Category: Political Science

Page: 533

View: 6406

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From the KGB to the Kremlin: a multidimensional portrait of the man at war with the West. Where do Vladimir Putin's ideas come from? How does he look at the outside world? What does he want, and how far is he willing to go? The great lesson of the outbreak of World War I in 1914 was the danger of misreading the statements, actions, and intentions of the adversary. Today, Vladimir Putin has become the greatest challenge to European security and the global world order in decades. Russia's 8,000 nuclear weapons underscore the huge risks of not understanding who Putin is. Featuring five new chapters, this new edition dispels potentially dangerous misconceptions about Putin and offers a clear-eyed look at his objectives. It presents Putin as a reflection of deeply ingrained Russian ways of thinking as well as his unique personal background and experience. Praise for the first edition If you want to begin to understand Russia today, read this book. —Sir John Scarlett, former chief of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) For anyone wishing to understand Russia's evolution since the breakup of the Soviet Union and its trajectory since then, the book you hold in your hand is an essential guide.—John McLaughlin, former deputy director of U.S. Central Intelligence Of the many biographies of Vladimir Putin that have appeared in recent years, this one is the most useful. —Foreign Affairs This is not just another Putin biography. It is a psychological portrait. —The Financial Times Q: Do you have time to read books? If so, which ones would you recommend? "My goodness, let's see. There's Mr. Putin, by Fiona Hill and Clifford Gaddy. Insightful." —Vice President Joseph Biden in Joe Biden: The Rolling Stone Interview.

Russia

The Challenges of Transformation

Author: Piotr Dutkiewicz,Dmitri Trenin

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814744125

Category: Social Science

Page: 509

View: 8148

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In Russia, a group of leading Russian intellectuals and social scientists join with top researchers from around the world to examine the social, political, and economic transformation in Russia. This timely and important book of orginal essays makes clear that neither politics nor economics alone holds the key to Russia's future, presenting critical perspectives on challenges facing Russia, both in its domestic policies and in its international relations. It also explores how global order—or disorder—may develop over the coming decades.Contributors include: Oleg Atkov, Timothy J. Colton, Georgi Derluguian, Mikhail K. Gorshkov, Leonid Grigoriev, Nur Kirabaev, Andrew C. Kuchins, Bobo Lo, Roderic Lyne, Vladimir Popov, Alexander Rahr, Richard Sakwa, Guzel Ulumbekova, Vladimir I. Yakunin, Rustem Zhangozha.

Security and Profit in China’s Energy Policy

Hedging Against Risk

Author: Øystein Tunsjø

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535430

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 884

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China has developed sophisticated hedging strategies to insure against risks in the international petroleum market. It has managed a growing net oil import gap and supply disruptions by maintaining a favorable energy mix, pursuing overseas equity oil production, building a state-owned tanker fleet and strategic petroleum reserve, establishing cross-border pipelines, and diversifying its energy resources and routes. Though it cannot be "secured," China's energy security can be "insured" by marrying government concern with commercial initiatives. This book comprehensively analyzes China's domestic, global, maritime, and continental petroleum strategies and policies, establishing a new theoretical framework that captures the interrelationship between security and profit. Arguing that hedging is central to China's energy-security policy, this volume links government concerns about security of supply to energy companies' search for profits, and by drawing important distinctions between threats and risks, peacetime and wartime contingencies, and pipeline and seaborne energy-supply routes, the study shifts scholarly focus away from securing and toward insuring an adequate oil supply and from controlling toward managing any disruptions to the sea lines of communication. The book is the most detailed and accurate look to date at how China has hedged its energy bets and how its behavior fits a hedging pattern.

Authority, Ascendancy, and Supremacy

China, Russia, and the United States' Pursuit of Relevancy and Power

Author: Gregory O. Hall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136501819

Category: Political Science

Page: 188

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Authority, Ascendancy, and Supremacy examines the American, Chinese, and Russian (Big 3) competition for power and influence in the Post-Cold War Era. With the ascension of regional powers such as India, Iran, Brazil, and Turkey, the Big 3 dynamic is an evolving one, which cannot be ignored because of its effect to not only reshape regional security, but also control influence and power in world affairs. How does one define a "global" or "regional" power in the Post-Cold War Era? How does the relationships among the Big 3 influence regional actors? Gregory O. Hall utilizes country data from primary and secondary sources to reveal that since the early 1990s, competition for influence and power among the Big 3 has intensified and could result in armed confrontation among the major powers. He assesses the state of affairs in each country’s economic, resource, military, social/demographic, and political spheres. In addition, events data, which focuses on international interactions, facilitates identifying trends in Big 3 interactions as well as their concerns and affairs with regional players. Opinion data, drawn from policy makers, scholarly interviews, and survey research data, identifies foreign policy interests among the Big 3, as well non-Big 3 foreign policy behaviors. With its singular focus on American, Chinese, and Russian interactions, policy interests, and behaviors, Authority, Ascendancy, and Supremacy represents a significant contribution for understanding and managing Post-Cold War conflicts and promises to be an important book.

The Obama Doctrine

American Grand Strategy Today

Author: Colin Dueck

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190202645

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 1443

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By mid-2015, the Obama presidency will be entering its final stages, and the race among the successors in both parties will be well underway. And while experts have already formed a provisional understanding of the Obama administration's foreign policy goals, the shape of the "Obama Doctrine" is finally coming into full view. It has been consistently cautious since Obama was inaugurated in 2009, but recent events in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and the Far East have led an increasingly large number of foreign policy experts to conclude that caution has transformed into weakness. In The Obama Doctrine, Colin Dueck analyzes and explains what the Obama Doctrine in foreign policy actually is, and maps out the competing visions on offer from the Republican Party. Dueck, a leading scholar of US foreign policy, contends it is now becoming clear that Obama's policy of international retrenchment is in large part a function of his emphasis on achieving domestic policy goals. There have been some successes in the approach, but there have also been costs. For instance, much of the world no longer trusts the US to exert its will in international politics, and America's adversaries overseas have asserted themselves with increasing frequency. The Republican Party will target these perceived weaknesses in the 2016 presidential campaign and develop competing counter-doctrines in the process. Dueck explains that within the Republican Party, there are two basic impulses vying with each other: neo-isolationism and forceful internationalism. Dueck subdivides each impulse into the specific agenda of the various factions within the party: Tea Party nationalism, neoconservatism, conservative internationalism, and neo-isolationism. He favors a realistic but forceful US internationalism, and sees the willingness to disengage from the world by some elements of the party as dangerous. After dissecting the various strands, he articulates an agenda of forward-leaning American realism--that is, a policy in which the US engages with the world and is willing to use threats of force for realist ends. The Obama Doctrine not only provides a sharp appraisal of foreign policy in the Obama era; it lays out an alternative approach to marshaling American power that will help shape the foreign policy debate in the run-up to the 2016 elections.

Flight Control Systems

Practical Issues in Design and Implementation

Author: Roger Pratt

Publisher: IET

ISBN: 9780852967669

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 382

View: 5633

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Annotation Bridging the gap between academic research and real-world applications, this reference on modern flight control methods for fixed-wing aircraft deals with fundamentals of flight control systems design, then concentrates on applications based on the modern control methods used in the latest aircraft. The book is written for practicing engineers who are new to the aviation industry, postgraduate students in strategic or applied research, and advanced undergraduates. Some knowledge of classical control is assumed. Pratt is a member of IEEE and is UK Member for AIAA's Technical Committee on Guidance, Navigation and Control. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

Politics of Convenience!

Upset the Balance of Power

Author: Go Pal

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1463442939

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 1315

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This book reflects my continued interest in the Volunteering and Community services. I was a member on the Board of the Harbor foundation for the retarded; The Rotary Clubs of the cities I resided in, The Battered Woman's Aid group, and The Art Center. I was also keenly involved in and organized the 50th birthday of the city of Palos Verdes, and 10th anniversary of the formation of the city of Ranch Palos Verdes. From that I catapulted to Politics and was in the inner circle of the Republican followed by Democratic Party. The chapters like the Politics of Convenience Upset the Balance of Power; the Pendulum Theory; and the Cyclical Theory are the products of what the real situations were.

Smart Grid

Communication-Enabled Intelligence for the Electric Power Grid

Author: Stephen F. Bush

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111882024X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 5450

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This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory. Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the "traditional" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication networking. It shows the complexity and operational requirements of the evolving power grid, the so-called "smart grid," to the communication networking engineer; and similarly, it shows the complexity and operational requirements for communications to the power systems engineer. The book is divided into three parts. Part One discusses the basic operation of the electric power grid, covering fundamental knowledge that is assumed in Parts Two and Three. Part Two introduces communications and networking, which are critical enablers for the smart grid. It also considers how communication and networking will evolve as technology develops. This lays the foundation for Part Three, which utilizes communication within the power grid. Part Three draws heavily upon both the embedded intelligence within the power grid and current research, anticipating how and where computational intelligence will be implemented within the smart grid. Each part is divided into chapters and each chapter has a set of questions useful for exercising the readers' understanding of the material in that chapter. Key Features: Bridges the gap between power systems and communications experts Addresses the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will likely evolve tomorrow Explores the smart grid from the perspective of traditional power systems as well as from communications Discusses power systems, communications, and machine learning that all define the smart grid It introduces the new field of power system information theory

Consumption Patterns and Lifeworlds: Using the Example of Convenience Food

Author: Florian Schleicher

Publisher: Anchor Academic Publishing (aap_verlag)

ISBN: 3954892472

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 70

View: 9017

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This paper offers remarkable insights into the German food market and its consumers. A solid theoretical foundation is laid by classical as well as modern authors. The works of these authors form the basis for the theoretical analysis on a social determination of taste. In the following, the field of sociology of consumption is taken into account and analysed. In the practical part, consumers are researched using lifeworlds as a tool of categorization of German households. In the market research economy, lifeworlds are widely perceived as an appropriate tool for researching present and future market developments. The analysed empirical data on purchasing behaviour was provided by the market research study Typology of Desires 2010. Results in the direction of a social determination of taste offer valuable perceptions for theorists and practitioners alike.