Axis of Convenience

Moscow, Beijing, and the New Geopolitics

Author: Bobo Lo

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815701460

Category: Political Science

Page: 277

View: 6947

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Few relationships have been as misunderstood as the "strategic partnership" between Russia and China. Official rhetoric portrays it as the very model of international cooperation: Moscow and Beijing claim that ties are closer and warmer than at any time in history. In reality, however, the picture is highly ambiguous. While both sides are committed to multifaceted engagement, cooperation is complicated by historical suspicions, cultural prejudices, geopolitical rivalries, and competing priorities. For Russia, China is at once the focus of a genuine convergence of interests and the greatest long-term threat to its national security. For China, Russia is a key supplier of energy and weapons, but is frequently dismissed as a self-important power whose rhetoric far outstrips its real influence. A xis of Convenience cuts through the mythmaking and examines the Sino-Russian partnership on its own merits. It steers between the overblown interpretation of an anti-Western (particularly, anti-American) alliance and the complacent assumption that past animosities and competing agendas must always divide the two nations. Their relationship reflects a new geopolitics, one that eschews formal alliances in favor of more flexible and opportunistic arrangements. Ultimately, it is an axis of convenience driven by cold-eyed perceptions of the national interest. In evaluating the current state and future prospects of the relationship, Bobo Lo assesses its impact on the evolving strategic environments in Central and East Asia. He also analyzes the global implications of rapprochement between Moscow and Beijing, focusing in particular on the geopolitics of energy and Russia-China-U.S. triangularism.

Russia-China Relations in the Post-Crisis International Order

Author: Marcin Kaczmarski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317634276

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 9634

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The book explores developments in Russia-China relations in the aftermath of the global economic crisis, arguing that the crisis transformed their bilateral affairs, regional liaisons and, crucially, altered the roles both states play on the international arena. Discussing how Russo-Chinese cooperation has accelerated in energy trade, arms sales and in the Russian Far East, the focus is on how the still mutually advantageous relationship has become more asymmetric than ever, reflecting China’s meteoric rise and Russia’s decline. These dynamics are explored through three perspectives: domestic, regional and global. Domestically, the book traces the role of political coalitions and key interest groups involved in how the two states shape their reciprocal policies. Changes in the regional dimension are examined with particular reference to a new status quo emerging in Central Asia. The book concludes by explaining how the changing relationship is affecting the international order, including the balance of power vis-à-vis the United States as well as Russia and China’s changing attitudes towards global governance.

Russia and China

A political marriage of convenience – stable and successful

Author: Michał Lubina

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3847410725

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 6336

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This book depicts the sophisticated relationship between Russia and China as a pragmatic one, a political “marriage of convenience”. Yet at the same time the relationship is stable, and will remain so. After all, bilateral relations are usually based on pragmatic interests and the pursuit of these interests is the very essence of foreign policy. And, as often happens in life, the most long-lasting marriages are those based on convenience. The highly complex, complicated, ambiguous and yet, indeed, successful relationship between Russia and China throughout the past 25 years is difficult to grasp theoretically. Russian and Chinese elites are hard-core realists in their foreign policies, and the neorealist school in international relations seems to be the most adequate one to research Sino-Russian relations. Realistically, throughout this period China achieved a multidimensional advantage over Russia. Yet, simultaneously Russia-China relations do not follow the patterns of power politics. Beijing knows its limits and does not go into extremes. Rather, China successfully seeks to build a longterm, stable relationship based on Chinese terms, where both sides gain, albeit China gains a little more. Russia in this agenda does not necessary lose; just gains a little less out of this asymmetric deal. Thus, a new model of bilateral relations emerges, which may be called – by paraphrasing the slogan of Chinese diplomacy – as “asymmetric win-win” formula. This model is a kind of “back to the past“ – a contemporary equivalent of the first model of Russia-China relations: the modus vivendi from the 17th century, achieved after the Nerchinsk treaty.

Russia and the New World Disorder

Author: Bobo Lo

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815725574

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 4997

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The Russian annexation of Crimea was one of the great strategic shocks of the past twenty-five years. For many in the West, Moscow's actions in early 2014 marked the end of illusions about cooperation, and the return to geopolitical and ideological confrontation. Russia, for so long a peripheral presence, had become the central actor in a new global drama. In this groundbreaking book, renowned scholar Bobo Lo analyzes the broader context of the crisis by examining the interplay between Russian foreign policy and an increasingly anarchic international environment. He argues that Moscow's approach to regional and global affairs reflects the tension between two very different worlds—the perceptual and the actual. The Kremlin highlights the decline of the West, a resurgent Russia, and the emergence of a new multipolar order. But this idealized view is contradicted by a world disorder that challenges core assumptions about the dominance of great powers and the utility of military might. Its lesson is that only those states that embrace change will prosper in the twenty-first century. A Russia able to redefine itself as a modern power would exert a critical influence in many areas of international politics. But a Russia that rests on an outdated sense of entitlement may end up instead as one of the principal casualties of global transformation.

Russia-China Relations in the Post-Crisis International Order

Author: Marcin Kaczmarski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317634276

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 2702

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The book explores developments in Russia-China relations in the aftermath of the global economic crisis, arguing that the crisis transformed their bilateral affairs, regional liaisons and, crucially, altered the roles both states play on the international arena. Discussing how Russo-Chinese cooperation has accelerated in energy trade, arms sales and in the Russian Far East, the focus is on how the still mutually advantageous relationship has become more asymmetric than ever, reflecting China’s meteoric rise and Russia’s decline. These dynamics are explored through three perspectives: domestic, regional and global. Domestically, the book traces the role of political coalitions and key interest groups involved in how the two states shape their reciprocal policies. Changes in the regional dimension are examined with particular reference to a new status quo emerging in Central Asia. The book concludes by explaining how the changing relationship is affecting the international order, including the balance of power vis-à-vis the United States as well as Russia and China’s changing attitudes towards global governance.

Inside China's Grand Strategy

The Perspective from the People's Republic

Author: Ye Zicheng

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813126452

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 301

View: 7330

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China's enormous size, vast population, abundant natural resources, robust economy, and modern military demonstrate that the nation has emerged as a great world power. Inside China's Grand Strategy: The Perspective from the People's Republic analyzes China's economic, social, political, and military development, assessing the extent of China's dominance. Highly regarded Chinese scholar Ye Zicheng offers a rare insider's perspective on the country's geopolitical ambitions and strategic thinking. Inside China's Grand Strategy argues that China's primary obstacle to achieving enduring status as a world power is its domestic state of affairs. Ye examines the impact of unemployment, corruption, massive economic gaps between classes, population size, strains on natural and labor resources, environmental degradation, and other issues that impede China's continuing development. Some analysts claim that repressive domestic policies threaten the country's goal of modernization, but Ye points to China's recent inclusion in the G-20 as an indicator of future success. Ye contends that China's progress hinges on many factors: peaceful development, extensive governmental reform with a system of checks and balances, social and economic development on the mainland, and strategies for reunification, especially with Taiwan. Ye asserts that military pressure may be required to integrate Taiwanese separatist forces but advises that development should remain China's primary goal, because it will eventually lead to unification. Although Ye argues that democracy is the only way to repair the corrupt systems that perpetuate economic inequality, he specifies that a Western-style democracy is not what China needs. As the United States' destiny is increasingly bound to China's growth and American policies are being evaluated in the realm of geopolitics, it is important to gauge and understand China's ambitions. An authoritative and up-to-date analysis from within Chinese society, Inside China's Grand Strategy is an indispensible resources for Western scholars, offering a new window on Chinese development.

Energy Transitions

History, Requirements, Prospects

Author: Vaclav Smil

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313381771

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 178

View: 9247

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This bold and controversial argument shows why energy transitions are inherently complex and prolonged affairs, and how ignoring this fact raises unrealistic expectations that the United States and other global economies can be weaned quickly from a primary dependency on fossil fuels. * Includes case studies of energy transitions in eight nations * Presents graphs of energy transitions on global and national scales, showing both common features and idiosyncratic patterns * Features photographs of the containment vessel of America's first nuclear reactor and of a stationary gas turbine * Provides a thorough bibliography

The Chinese Question in Central Asia

Domestic Order, Social Change, and the Chinese Factor

Author: Marlène Laruelle,S©♭bastien Peyrouse

Publisher: Hurst & Company Limited

ISBN: 9781849041799

Category: Political Science

Page: 271

View: 6906

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Since the start of the 2000s, the People's Republic of China has become an increasingly important player on the Central Asian scene, both diplomatically and strategically, in particular through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. At the economic level, China has positioned itself among the largest traders and investors in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. This growing Chinese presence has drastically challenged the traditional influence of Russia and weakened that of the United States and Europe. The purpose of this book is to go beyond a geopolitical analysis by articulating an external influential factor, namely China, and changes in the domestic order in neighboring Central Asia. It engages in an analysis of the contemporary transformations that are occurring within the systems and societies of Central Asia. China has become a subject of public debate, academic and expert knowledge. New cultural mediators, petty traders, lobby groups, migrants, and diasporas, have also emerged. China's rise to power has worked as a catalyst compound of the anxieties and phobias associated with the major social transformations that have occurred in Central Asia over the last two decades. Sinophobia and Sinophilia are now closely associated.

Great Games, Local Rules

The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia

Author: Alexander Cooley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978581

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 7211

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The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.

Mao’s China and the Sino-Soviet Split

Ideological Dilemma

Author: Mingjiang Li

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136455434

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 6283

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The Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s was one of the most significant events of the Cold War. Why did the Sino-Soviet alliance, hailed by its creators as "unbreakable", "eternal", and as representing "brotherly solidarity", break up? Why did their relations eventually evolve into open hostility and military confrontation? With the publication of several works on the subject in the past decade, we are now in a better position to understand and explain the origins of the Sino-Soviet split. But at the same time new questions and puzzles have also emerged. The scholarly debate on this issue is still fierce. This book, the result of extensive research on declassified documents at the Chinese Foreign Ministry, and on numerous other new Chinese materials, sheds new light on the problem and makes a significant contribution to the debate. More than simply an empirical case study, by theorising the concept of the ideological dilemma, Mingjiang Li’s book attempts to address the relationship between ideology and foreign policy and discusses such pressing questions as why it is that an ideology can sometimes effectively dictate foreign policy, whilst at other times exercises almost no significant influence at all. This book will be of essential reading to anyone interested in Chinese-Soviet history, Cold War history, International Relations and the theory of ideology.

The Undertaking

A Novel

Author: Audrey Magee

Publisher: Open Road + Grove/Atlantic

ISBN: 0802192610

Category: Fiction

Page: 228

View: 4584

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“From a remarkable new talent in Irish fiction comes a terrifyingly intimate story of a war marriage caught up in the calamity of World War II, a much anticipated debut which has garnered prepublication praise from Colm Toibin, Hugo Hamilton, A.D. Miller, and Chris Cleave. In a desperate bid to escape the trenches of the Eastern front, Peter Faber, an ordinary German soldier, marries Katharina Spinell, a woman he has never met, in a marriage of convenience that promises honeymoon’ leave for him and a pension for her should he die in the war. With ten days’ leave secured, Peter visits his new wife in Berlin and both are surprised by the passion that develops between them. When Peter returns to the horror of the front, it is only the dream of Katharina that sustains him as he approaches Stalingrad. Back in Berlin, Katharina, goaded on by her desperate and delusional parents, ruthlessly works her way into Nazi high society, wedding herself, her young husband, and her unborn child to the regime. But when the tide of war turns and Berlin falls, Peter and Katharina find their simple dream of family cast in tragic light and increasingly hard to hold on to. Reminiscent of Bernard Schlink’s “The Reader”, this is an unforgettable novel of marriage, ambition, and the brutality of war, which heralds the arrival of a breathtaking new voice in international fiction.

Preferred Movement Patterns in Cycling

It's the Skill That Makes the Sport

Author: Brian A. Maldonado

Publisher: Hillcrest Publishing Group

ISBN: 1934938769

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 134

View: 1872

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For cyclists looking for an edge, a great place to start is with a training routine which focuses on the fundamentals.The concept of preferred movement patterns represents a fundamental transformation of conventional mindsets—the passive cyclist becomes, instead, a dynamic one.The result is greater speed, improved power output, and better performance.Using techniques such as the Trunk Pelvic Roll and Sidebend Hip Hike, author Brian Maldonado boldly challenges the preconception that the pelvis is fixed on the saddle, with hands and feet fixed on the handlebars and pedals.With detailed tips, exercises, and biomechanical analysis, this book gives coaches and athletes valuable movement patterns that can help them conquer their performance plateaus.Placed within a scientific context, the material remains easily applicable to the needs of those striving for the highest levels of performance.The result--a versatile program to bridge the gap from beginner to elite athlete--is in your hands.

An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis with R

Author: Brian Everitt,Torsten Hothorn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441996503

Category: Mathematics

Page: 274

View: 7101

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The majority of data sets collected by researchers in all disciplines are multivariate, meaning that several measurements, observations, or recordings are taken on each of the units in the data set. These units might be human subjects, archaeological artifacts, countries, or a vast variety of other things. In a few cases, it may be sensible to isolate each variable and study it separately, but in most instances all the variables need to be examined simultaneously in order to fully grasp the structure and key features of the data. For this purpose, one or another method of multivariate analysis might be helpful, and it is with such methods that this book is largely concerned. Multivariate analysis includes methods both for describing and exploring such data and for making formal inferences about them. The aim of all the techniques is, in general sense, to display or extract the signal in the data in the presence of noise and to find out what the data show us in the midst of their apparent chaos. An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis with R explores the correct application of these methods so as to extract as much information as possible from the data at hand, particularly as some type of graphical representation, via the R software. Throughout the book, the authors give many examples of R code used to apply the multivariate techniques to multivariate data.

Living in Information

Responsible Design for Digital Places

Author: Jorge Arango

Publisher: Two Waves Books

ISBN: 9781933820651

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 7858

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Websites and apps are places where critical parts of our lives happen. We shop, bank, learn, gossip, and select our leaders there. But many of these places weren't intended to support these activities. Instead, they're designed to capture your attention and sell it to the highest bidder. Living in Information draws upon architecture as a way to design information environments that serve our humanity.

Unholy Alliance

The Agenda Iran, Russia, and Jihadists Share for Conquering the World

Author: Jay Sekulow

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501141023

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 681

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Offers an examination of the forces of intolerant, radical Islam as a great danger to American liberty, as well as how the governments of Iran, Syria, and Russia continue to be serious threats to America and the world.

Consumption patterns and lifeworlds: using the example of convenience food

Author: Florian Schleicher

Publisher: diplom.de

ISBN: 3954897474

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 66

View: 3845

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This paper offers remarkable insights into the German food market and its consumers. A solid theoretical foundation is laid by classical as well as modern authors. The works of these authors form the basis for the theoretical analysis on a social determination of taste. In the following, the field of sociology of consumption is taken into account and analysed. In the practical part, consumers are researched using lifeworlds as a tool of categorization of German households. In the market research economy, lifeworlds are widely perceived as an appropriate tool for researching present and future market developments. The analysed empirical data on purchasing behaviour was provided by the market research study Typology of Desires 2010. Results in the direction of a social determination of taste offer valuable perceptions for theorists and practitioners alike.

Trade-Off

Why Some Things Catch On, and Others Don't

Author: Kevin Maney

Publisher: Crown Pub

ISBN: 0385525958

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 217

View: 3259

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A Fresh and Important New Way to Understand Why We Buy Why did the RAZR ultimately ruin Motorola? Why does Wal-Mart dominate rural and suburban areas but falter in large cities? Why did Starbucks stumble just when it seemed unstoppable? The answer lies in the ever-present tension between fidelity (the quality of a consumer’s experience) and convenience (the ease of getting and paying for a product). InTrade-Off,Kevin Maney shows how these conflicting forces determine the success, or failure, of new products and services in the marketplace. He shows that almost every decision we make as consumers involves a trade-off between fidelity and convenience–between the products we love and the products we need. Rock stars sell out concerts because the experience is high in fidelity-–it can’t be replicated in any other way, and because of that, we are willing to suffer inconvenience for the experience. In contrast, a downloaded MP3 of a song is low in fidelity, but consumers buy music online because it’s superconvenient. Products that are at one extreme or the other–those that are high in fidelity or high in convenience–-tend to be successful. The things that fall into the middle-–products or services that have moderate fidelity and convenience-–fail to win an enthusiastic audience. Using examples from Amazon and Disney to People Express and the invention of the ATM, Maney demonstrates that the most successful companies skew their offerings to either one extreme or the other-–fidelity or convenience-–in shaping products and building brands. From the Hardcover edition.

Politics of Convenience!

Upset the Balance of Power

Author: Go Pal

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1463442939

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 2535

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This book reflects my continued interest in the Volunteering and Community services. I was a member on the Board of the Harbor foundation for the retarded; The Rotary Clubs of the cities I resided in, The Battered Woman's Aid group, and The Art Center. I was also keenly involved in and organized the 50th birthday of the city of Palos Verdes, and 10th anniversary of the formation of the city of Ranch Palos Verdes. From that I catapulted to Politics and was in the inner circle of the Republican followed by Democratic Party. The chapters like the Politics of Convenience Upset the Balance of Power; the Pendulum Theory; and the Cyclical Theory are the products of what the real situations were.