Bayesian Methods in Cosmology

Author: Michael P. Hobson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521887941

Category: Mathematics

Page: 303

View: 7017

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Comprehensive introduction to Bayesian methods in cosmological studies, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology, astrophysics and applied statistics.

Bayesian Astrophysics

Author: Andrés Asensio Ramos,Íñigo Arregui

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107102138

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 4464

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Provides an overview of the fundamentals of Bayesian inference and its applications within astrophysics, for graduate students and researchers.

Bayesian Models for Astrophysical Data

Using R, JAGS, Python, and Stan

Author: Joseph M. Hilbe,Rafael S. de Souza,Emille E. O. Ishida

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108210740

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 7644

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This comprehensive guide to Bayesian methods in astronomy enables hands-on work by supplying complete R, JAGS, Python, and Stan code, to use directly or to adapt. It begins by examining the normal model from both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives and then progresses to a full range of Bayesian generalized linear and mixed or hierarchical models, as well as additional types of models such as ABC and INLA. The book provides code that is largely unavailable elsewhere and includes details on interpreting and evaluating Bayesian models. Initial discussions offer models in synthetic form so that readers can easily adapt them to their own data; later the models are applied to real astronomical data. The consistent focus is on hands-on modeling, analysis of data, and interpretations that address scientific questions. A must-have for astronomers, its concrete approach will also be attractive to researchers in the sciences more generally.

Modern Statistical Methods for Astronomy

With R Applications

Author: Eric D. Feigelson,G. Jogesh Babu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052176727X

Category: Science

Page: 476

View: 9235

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"Modern astronomical research is beset with a vast range of statistical challenges, ranging from reducing data from megadatasets to characterizing an amazing variety of variable celestial objects or testing astrophysical theory. Yet most astronomers still use a narrow suite of traditional statistical methods. Linking astronomy to the world of modern statistics, this volume is a unique resource, introducing astronomers to advanced statistics through ready-to-use code in the public-domain R statistical software environment"--

Lectures on Cosmology

Accelerated Expansion of the Universe

Author: Georg Wolschin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 364210598X

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 329

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The lectures that four authors present in this volume investigate core topics related to the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Accelerated expansion occured in the ?36 very early Universe – an exponential expansion in the in ationary period 10 s after the Big Bang. This well-established theoretical concept had rst been p- posed in 1980 by Alan Guth to account for the homogeneity and isotropy of the observable universe, and simultaneously by Alexei Starobinski, and has since then been developed by many authors in great theoretical detail. An accelerated expansion of the late Universe at redshifts z

Astrostatistical Challenges for the New Astronomy

Author: Joseph M. Hilbe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461435080

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

View: 6950

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Astrostatistical Challenges for the New Astronomy presents a collection of monographs authored by several of the disciplines leading astrostatisticians, i.e. by researchers from the fields of statistics and astronomy-astrophysics, who work in the statistical analysis of astronomical and cosmological data. Eight of the ten monographs are enhancements of presentations given by the authors as invited or special topics in astrostatistics papers at the ISI World Statistics Congress (2011, Dublin, Ireland). The opening chapter, by the editor, was adapted from an invited seminar given at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2011) on the history and current state of the discipline; the second chapter by Thomas Loredo was adapted from his invited presentation at the Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy V conference (2011, Pennsylvania State University), presenting insights regarding frequentist and Bayesian methods of estimation in astrostatistical analysis. The remaining monographs are research papers discussing various topics in astrostatistics. The monographs provide the reader with an excellent overview of the current state astrostatistical research, and offer guidelines as to subjects of future research. Lead authors for each chapter respectively include Joseph M. Hilbe (Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Arizona State Univ); Thomas J. Loredo (Dept of Astronomy, Cornell Univ); Stefano Andreon (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy); Martin Kunz ( Institute for Theoretical Physics, Univ of Geneva, Switz); Benjamin Wandel ( Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie, France); Roberto Trotta (Astrophysics Group, Dept of Physics, Imperial College London, UK); Phillip Gregory (Dept of Astronomy, Univ of British Columbia, Canada); Marc Henrion (Dept of Mathematics, Imperial College, London, UK); Asis Kumar Chattopadhyay (Dept of Statistics, Univ of Calcutta, India); Marisa March (Astrophysics Group, Dept of Physics, Imperial College, London, UK)./body

Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution

Author: Vicent J. Martinez,Enn Saar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420036165

Category: Mathematics

Page: 456

View: 3948

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Over the last decade, statisticians have developed new statistical tools in the field of spatial point processes. At the same time, observational efforts have yielded a huge amount of new cosmological data to analyze. Although the main tools in astronomy for comparing theoretical results with observation are statistical, in recent years, cosmologists have not been generally aware of the developments in statistics and vice versa. Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution describes both the available observational data on the distribution of galaxies and the applications of spatial statistics in cosmology. It gives a detailed derivation of the statistical methods used to study the galaxy distribution and the cosmological physics needed to formulate the statistical models. Because the prevalent approach in cosmological statistics has been frequentist, the authors focus on the most widely used of these methods, but they also explore Bayesian techniques that have become popular in large-scale structure studies. Describing the most popular methods, their latest applications, and the necessary mathematical and astrophysical background, this groundbreaking book presents the state of the art in the statistical description of the large-scale structure of the Universe. Cosmology's well-defined and growing data sets represent an important challenge for the statistical analysis, and therefore for the statistics community. Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution presents a unique opportunity for researchers in both fields to strengthen the connection between them and, using a common language, explore the statistical description of the universe.

Bayesian Theory and Applications

Author: David A. Stephens

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199695601

Category: Mathematics

Page: 702

View: 1705

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This volume guides the reader along a statistical journey that begins with the basic structure of Bayesian theory, and then provides details on most of the past and present advances in this field.

Bayesian Logical Data Analysis for the Physical Sciences

A Comparative Approach with Mathematica® Support

Author: Phil Gregory

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113944428X

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 3385

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Bayesian inference provides a simple and unified approach to data analysis, allowing experimenters to assign probabilities to competing hypotheses of interest, on the basis of the current state of knowledge. By incorporating relevant prior information, it can sometimes improve model parameter estimates by many orders of magnitude. This book provides a clear exposition of the underlying concepts with many worked examples and problem sets. It also discusses implementation, including an introduction to Markov chain Monte-Carlo integration and linear and nonlinear model fitting. Particularly extensive coverage of spectral analysis (detecting and measuring periodic signals) includes a self-contained introduction to Fourier and discrete Fourier methods. There is a chapter devoted to Bayesian inference with Poisson sampling, and three chapters on frequentist methods help to bridge the gap between the frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Supporting Mathematica® notebooks with solutions to selected problems, additional worked examples, and a Mathematica tutorial are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521150125.

Data Analysis in High Energy Physics

A Practical Guide to Statistical Methods

Author: Olaf Behnke,Kevin Kröninger,Grégory Schott,Thomas Schörner-Sadenius

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527653430

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 6057

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This practical guide covers the essential tasks in statistical data analysis encountered in high energy physics and provides comprehensive advice for typical questions and problems. The basic methods for inferring results from data are presented as well as tools for advanced tasks such as improving the signal-to-background ratio, correcting detector effects, determining systematics and many others. Concrete applications are discussed in analysis walkthroughs. Each chapter is supplemented by numerous examples and exercises and by a list of literature and relevant links. The book targets a broad readership at all career levels - from students to senior researchers. An accompanying website provides more algorithms as well as up-to-date information and links. * Free solutions manual available for lecturers at www.wiley-vch.de/supplements/

Bayesian Inference in Dynamic Econometric Models

Author: Luc Bauwens,Michel Lubrano,Jean-François Richard

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191588464

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 366

View: 4993

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book contains an up-to-date coverage of the last twenty years advances in Bayesian inference in econometrics, with an emphasis on dynamic models. It shows how to treat Bayesian inference in non linear models, by integrating the useful developments of numerical integration techniques based on simulations (such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods), and the long available analytical results of Bayesian inference for linear regression models. It thus covers a broad range of rather recent models for economic time series, such as non linear models, autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic regressions, and cointegrated vector autoregressive models. It contains also an extensive chapter on unit root inference from the Bayesian viewpoint. Several examples illustrate the methods.

Proving History

Bayes's Theorem and the Quest for the Historical Jesus

Author: Richard C. Carrier

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1616145609

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 9901

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This in-depth discussion of New Testament scholarship and the challenges of history as a whole proposes Bayes’s Theorem, which deals with probabilities under conditions of uncertainty, as a solution to the problem of establishing reliable historical criteria. The author demonstrates that valid historical methods—not only in the study of Christian origins but in any historical study—can be described by, and reduced to, the logic of Bayes’s Theorem. Conversely, he argues that any method that cannot be reduced to this theorem is invalid and should be abandoned. Writing with thoroughness and clarity, the author explains Bayes’s Theorem in terms that are easily understandable to professional historians and laypeople alike, employing nothing more than well-known primary school math. He then explores precisely how the theorem can be applied to history and addresses numerous challenges to and criticisms of its use in testing or justifying the conclusions that historians make about the important persons and events of the past. The traditional and established methods of historians are analyzed using the theorem, as well as all the major "historicity criteria" employed in the latest quest to establish the historicity of Jesus. The author demonstrates not only the deficiencies of these approaches but also ways to rehabilitate them using Bayes’s Theorem. Anyone with an interest in historical methods, how historical knowledge can be justified, new applications of Bayes’s Theorem, or the study of the historical Jesus will find this book to be essential reading. From the Hardcover edition.

Bayesian Statistics from Methods to Models and Applications

Research from BAYSM 2014

Author: Sylvia Frühwirth-Schnatter,Angela Bitto,Gregor Kastner,Alexandra Posekany

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319162381

Category: Mathematics

Page: 167

View: 3342

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Second Bayesian Young Statisticians Meeting (BAYSM 2014) and the research presented here facilitate connections among researchers using Bayesian Statistics by providing a forum for the development and exchange of ideas. WU Vienna University of Business and Economics hosted BAYSM 2014 from September 18th to the 19th. The guidance of renowned plenary lecturers and senior discussants is a critical part of the meeting and this volume, which follows publication of contributions from BAYSM 2013. The meeting's scientific program reflected the variety of fields in which Bayesian methods are currently employed or could be introduced in the future. Three brilliant keynote lectures by Chris Holmes (University of Oxford), Christian Robert (Université Paris-Dauphine), and Mike West (Duke University), were complemented by 24 plenary talks covering the major topics Dynamic Models, Applications, Bayesian Nonparametrics, Biostatistics, Bayesian Methods in Economics, and Models and Methods, as well as a lively poster session with 30 contributions. Selected contributions have been drawn from the conference for this book. All contributions in this volume are peer-reviewed and share original research in Bayesian computation, application, and theory.

String Theory and the Scientific Method

Author: Richard Dawid

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107067588

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 7057

DOWNLOAD NOW »
String theory has played a highly influential role in theoretical physics for nearly three decades and has substantially altered our view of the elementary building principles of the Universe. However, the theory remains empirically unconfirmed, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. So why do string theorists have such a strong belief in their theory? This book explores this question, offering a novel insight into the nature of theory assessment itself. Dawid approaches the topic from a unique position, having extensive experience in both philosophy and high-energy physics. He argues that string theory is just the most conspicuous example of a number of theories in high-energy physics where non-empirical theory assessment has an important part to play. Aimed at physicists and philosophers of science, the book does not use mathematical formalism and explains most technical terms.

An Introduction to Modern Cosmology

Author: Andrew Liddle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118690273

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 2725

DOWNLOAD NOW »
An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observational situation. This fully revised edition of a bestseller takes an approach which is grounded in physics with a logical flow of chapters leading the reader from basic ideas of the expansion described by the Friedman equations to some of the more advanced ideas about the early universe. It also incorporates up-to-date results from the Planck mission, which imaged the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation over the whole sky. The Advanced Topic sections present subjects with more detailed mathematical approaches to give greater depth to discussions. Student problems with hints for solving them and numerical answers are embedded in the chapters to facilitate the reader’s understanding and learning. Cosmology is now part of the core in many degree programs. This current, clear and concise introductory text is relevant to a wide range of astronomy programs worldwide and is essential reading for undergraduates and Masters students, as well as anyone starting research in cosmology. Supplementary material, including full-colour images, updates and links for students and instructors, is available on the author’s website: http://www.roe.ac.uk/~arl/.

Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy

Author: Michael J. Way,Jeffrey D. Scargle,Kamal M. Ali,Ashok N. Srivastava

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439841748

Category: Computers

Page: 744

View: 9314

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy documents numerous successful collaborations among computer scientists, statisticians, and astronomers who illustrate the application of state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining techniques in astronomy. Due to the massive amount and complexity of data in most scientific disciplines, the material discussed in this text transcends traditional boundaries between various areas in the sciences and computer science. The book’s introductory part provides context to issues in the astronomical sciences that are also important to health, social, and physical sciences, particularly probabilistic and statistical aspects of classification and cluster analysis. The next part describes a number of astrophysics case studies that leverage a range of machine learning and data mining technologies. In the last part, developers of algorithms and practitioners of machine learning and data mining show how these tools and techniques are used in astronomical applications. With contributions from leading astronomers and computer scientists, this book is a practical guide to many of the most important developments in machine learning, data mining, and statistics. It explores how these advances can solve current and future problems in astronomy and looks at how they could lead to the creation of entirely new algorithms within the data mining community.

Data Analysis

A Bayesian Tutorial

Author: Devinderjit Sivia,John Skilling

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191546704

Category: Mathematics

Page: 264

View: 6479

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The Copernicus Complex

Our Cosmic Significance in a Universe of Planets and Probabilities

Author: Caleb Scharf

Publisher: Scientific American / Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 0374709467

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2636

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Longlisted for the 2015 PEN/E.O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award Short-listed for Physics World's Book of the Year The Sunday Times (UK) Best Science Book of 2014 A Publishers Weekly Top 10 Science Book of Fall 2014 An NBC News Top Science and Tech Book of 2014 A Politics & Prose 2014 Staff Pick In the sixteenth century, Nicolaus Copernicus dared to go against the establishment by proposing that Earth rotates around the Sun. Having demoted Earth from its unique position in the cosmos to one of mediocrity, Copernicus set in motion a revolution in scientific thought. This perspective has influenced our thinking for centuries. However, recent evidence challenges the Copernican Principle, hinting that we do in fact live in a special place, at a special time, as the product of a chain of unlikely events. But can we be significant if the Sun is still just one of a billion trillion stars in the observable universe? And what if our universe is just one of a multitude of others-a single slice of an infinity of parallel realities? In The Copernicus Complex, the renowned astrophysicist Caleb Scharf takes us on a scientific adventure, from tiny microbes within the Earth to distant exoplanets, probability theory, and beyond, arguing that there is a solution to this contradiction, a third way of viewing our place in the cosmos, if we weigh the evidence properly. As Scharf explains, we do occupy an unusual time in a 14-billion-year-old universe, in a somewhat unusual type of solar system surrounded by an ocean of unimaginable planetary diversity: hot Jupiters with orbits of less than a day, planet-size rocks spinning around dead stars, and a wealth of alien super-Earths. Yet life here is built from the most common chemistry in the universe, and we are a snapshot taken from billions of years of biological evolution. Bringing us to the cutting edge of scientific discovery, Scharf shows how the answers to fundamental questions of existence will come from embracing the peculiarity of our circumstance without denying the Copernican vision. With characteristic verve, Scharf uses the latest scientific findings to reconsider where we stand in the balance between cosmic significance and mediocrity, order and chaos. Presenting a compelling and bold view of our true status, The Copernicus Complex proposes a way forward in the ultimate quest: determining life's abundance, not just across this universe but across all realities.

Bayesian Probability Theory

Applications in the Physical Sciences

Author: Wolfgang von der Linden,Volker Dose,Udo von Toussaint

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107035902

Category: Mathematics

Page: 649

View: 3606

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Covering all aspects of probability theory, statistics and data analysis from a Bayesian perspective for graduate students and researchers.

Practical Statistics for Astronomers

Author: J. V. Wall,C. R. Jenkins

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521456166

Category: Mathematics

Page: 277

View: 4722

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Presents the most relevant statistical and probabilistic machinery for use in observational astronomy.