Becoming Bureaucrats

Socialization at the Front Lines of Government Service

Author: Zachary W. Oberfield

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812246160

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 2754

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Bureaucrats are important symbols of the governments that employ them. Contrary to popular stereotypes, they determine much about the way policy is ultimately enacted and experienced by citizens. While we know a great deal about bureaucrats and their actions, we know little about their development. Are particular types of people drawn to government work, or are government workers forged by the agencies they work in? Put simply, are bureaucrats born, or are they made? In Becoming Bureaucrats, Zachary W. Oberfield traces the paths of two sets of public servants—police officers and welfare caseworkers—from their first day on the job through the end of their second year. Examining original data derived from surveys and in-depth interviews, along with ethnographic observations from the author's year of training and work as a welfare caseworker, Becoming Bureaucrats charts how public-sector entrants develop their bureaucratic identities, motivations, and attitudes. Ranging from individual stories to population-wide statistical analysis, Oberfield's study complicates the long-standing cliché that bureaucracies churn out bureaucrats with mechanical efficiency. He demonstrates that entrants' bureaucratic personalities evolved but remained strongly tied to the views, identities, and motives that they articulated at the outset of their service. As such, he argues that who bureaucrats become and, as a result, how bureaucracies function, depends strongly on patterns of self-selection and recruitment. Becoming Bureaucrats not only enriches our theoretical understanding of bureaucratic behavior but also provides practical advice to elected officials and public managers on building responsive, accountable workforces.

Handbook of American Public Administration

Author: Edmund C. Stazyk,H. George Frederickson

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1786432072

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 512

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This forward-thinking Handbook draws on the expertise of established and emerging scholars to provide a comprehensive review of the current state and future direction of theory and practice in US public administration. Chapters offer a cross-disciplinary, holistic review of the field, pulling together leaders from subfields such as public administration, public and nonprofit management, finance, human resource management, networks, nonprofits, policy, and politics. Chapter authors conclude that the field is intellectually rich and highly nuanced, but also identify numerous opportunities for growth and expansion in the coming years. The Handbook charts an agenda for future research in the field.The Handbook of American Public Administration is geared toward academics, researchers, and advanced graduate students. As an authoritative text on the history and state of US public administration, it proves equally suitable for national and international audiences. Practitioners who may be looking for background information or state-of-the-art knowledge about practice will also benefit from this Handbook.

Frontline Delivery of Welfare-to-Work Policies in Europe

Activating the Unemployed

Author: Rik van Berkel,Dorte Caswell,Peter Kupka,Flemming Larsen

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317439694

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 5405

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Welfare-to-work or activation policies refer to programmes aimed at promoting the employability, labour-market and social participation of benefit recipients of working age. Frontline workers delivering these policies are conceived of as policy implementers, as policy makers, and as actors mediating politics in an arena where conflicting interests are at stake. Frontline work plays a crucial role in determining what welfare-to-work practically means and how it affects the lives of the people it targets. Yet few books have deliberatively focused on comparing what happens when frontline workers, some of whom are professional social workers, meet clients. Pioneering the provision of scholarly reflections on both theoretical and policy relevance of studying frontline practices of delivering activation, internationally renowned researchers present the first comparative analysis of how activation policies are actually delivered by frontline staff in selected EU countries and in the United States. In trying to understand and interpret frontline practices in activation, each contribution provides insights into what ‘activation in practice’ looks like, what services are provided and how they are enacted. This involves examining processes of client selection, monitoring, sanctioning and motivating, as well as the role of external service providers. This book is an important acquisition for scholars and researchers of social policy, public administration, public management, social work and policy implementation.

Statebuilding from the Margins

Between Reconstruction and the New Deal

Author: Carol Nackenoff,Julie Novkov

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812245717

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 3677

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The period between the Civil War and the New Deal was particularly rich and formative for political development. Beyond the sweeping changes and national reforms for which the era is known, Statebuilding from the Margins examines often-overlooked cases of political engagement that expanded the capacities and agendas of the developing American state. With particular attention to gendered, classed, and racialized dimensions of civic action, the chapters explore points in history where the boundaries between public and private spheres shifted, including the legal formulation of black citizenship and monogamy in the postbellum years; the racial politics of Georgia's adoption of prohibition; the rise of public waste management; the incorporation of domestic animal and wildlife management into the welfare state; the creation of public juvenile courts; and the involvement of women's groups in the creation of U.S. housing policy. In many of these cases, private citizens or organizations initiated political action by framing their concerns as problems in which the state should take direct interest to benefit and improve society. Statebuilding from the Margins depicts a republic in progress, accruing policy agendas and the institutional ability to carry them out in a nonlinear fashion, often prompted and powered by the creative techniques of policy entrepreneurs and organizations that worked alongside and outside formal boundaries to get results. These Progressive Era initiatives established models for the way states could create, intervene in, and regulate new policy areas—innovations that remain relevant for growth and change in contemporary American governance. Contributors: James Greer, Carol Nackenoff, Julie Novkov, Susan Pearson, Kimberly Smith, Marek D. Steedman, Patricia Strach, Kathleen Sullivan, Ann-Marie Szymanski.

Effective Implementation In Practice

Integrating Public Policy and Management

Author: Jodi Sandfort,Stephanie Moulton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118775481

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 408

View: 2084

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A unique approach to policy implementation with essential guidance and useful tools Effective Implementation in Practice: Integrating Public Policy and Management presents an instrumental approach to implementation analysis. By spanningpolicy fields, organizations, and frontline conditions in implementation systems, this book provides a robust foundation for policy makers, public and nonprofit managers and leaders. Detailed case studies enable readers to identify key intervention points, become more strategic, and improve outcomes. The engaging style and specific examples provide a bridge to practice, while diagrams, worksheets, and other tools included in the appendix help managers apply these ideas to team meetings, operational planning, and program assessment and refinement. Policy and program implementation is fraught with challenges as public and nonprofit leaders juggle organizational missions and stakeholder expectations while managing policy and program impact and effectiveness. Using their own experience in practice, teaching, and research, the authors empower policy and program implementers to recognize their essential roles within the workplace and help them cultivate the analytical and social skills necessary to change. Understand how program or policy technology constitutes the core of implementation Study a conceptual framework encompassing power dynamics, culture, relationships in the field and the rules that are operating during program and policy implementation Discover a multilevel approach that identifies key points of strategic action at various levels and settings of the implementation system and assesses implementation success The integration of policy and management mindsets gives readers an insightful yet accessible understanding of implementation, allowing them to achieve the potent results desired by the public. For those in senior positions at federal agencies to local staff at nonprofit organizations, Effective Implementation in Practice: Integrating Public Policy and Management provides an invaluable one-stop resource.

Policy Without Politicians

Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Author: Edward Page

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199645132

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 720

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Policy Without Politicians is a comparative study of the everday policy-making role of bureaucrats in six jurisdictions: France, US, Germany, Sweden, the EU, and the UK. It takes as its central focus the decrees and regulations that account for a large proportion of government activity and explores the role of civil servants in their production.

States of Dependency

Welfare, Rights, and American Governance, 1935–1972

Author: Karen M. Tani

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107076846

Category: History

Page: 428

View: 306

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This book recounts the transformation of American poor relief in the decades spanning the New Deal and the War on Poverty.

Handbook of Public Administration

Concise Paperback Edition

Author: B Guy Peters,Jon Pierre

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446204782

Category: Political Science

Page: 408

View: 3193

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The past two decades have been marked by a period of substantial and often fundamental change in public administration. Critically reflecting on the utility of scholarly theory and the extent to which government practices inform the development of this theory, the Handbook of Public Administration was a landmark publication which served as an essential guide for both the practice of public administration today and its on-going development as an academic discipline. The Concise Paperback Edition provides a selection of 30 of the original articles in an accessible paperback format and includes a new introduction by B. Guy Peters and Jon Pierre. It is an essential point of reference for all students of public administration.

Spoiled Rotten

How the Politics of Patronage Corrupted the Once Noble Democratic Party and Now Threatens the American Republic

Author: Jay Cost

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062041169

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 9056

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A popular columnist for The Weekly Standard, conservative journalist Jay Cost now offers a lively, candid, diligently researched revisionist history of the Democratic Party. In Spoiled Rotten, Cost reveals that the national political organization, first formed by Andrew Jackson in 1824, that has always prided itself as the party of the poor, the working class, the little guy is anything but that—rather, it’s a corrupt tool of special interest groups that feed off of the federal government. A remarkable book that belongs on every politically aware American’s bookshelf next to Jonah Goldberg’s Liberal Fascism and The Forgotten Man by Amity Shlaes, Spoiled Rotten exposes the Democratic Party as a modern-day national Tammany Hall and indisputably demonstrates why it can no longer be trusted with the power of government.

When the State Meets the Street

Public Service and Moral Agency

Author: Bernardo Zacka

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674545540

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 320

View: 8225

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Street level discretion -- Three pathologies: the indifferent, the enforcer, and the caregiver -- A gymnastics of the self: coping with the everyday pressures of street-level work -- When the rules run out: informal taxonomies and peer-level accountability -- Impossible situations: on the breakdown of moral integrity at the frontlines of public service

Moral Mazes

The World of Corporate Managers

Author: Robert Jackall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199729883

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 294

View: 370

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This classic study of ethics in business presents an eye-opening account of how corporate managers think the world works, and how big organizations shape moral consciousness. Robert Jackall takes the reader inside a topsy-turvy world where hard work does not necessarily lead to success, but sharp talk, self-promotion, powerful patrons, and sheer luck might. What sort of everyday rules-in-use do people play by when there are no fixed standards to explain why some succeed and others fail? In the words of one corporate manager, those rules boil down to this maxim: "What is right in the corporation is what the guy above you wants from you. That's what morality is in the corporation." This brilliant, disturbing, funny look at the ethos of the corporate world presents compelling real life stories of the men and women charged with running the businesses of America. This anniversary edition includes an afterword by the author linking the themes of Moral Mazes to the financial tsunami that engulfed the world economy in 2008.

Political Order in Changing Societies

Author: Samuel P. Huntington

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300116205

Category: Political Science

Page: 488

View: 2631

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This now classic examination of the development of viable political institutions in emerging nations is an enduring contribution to modern political analysis. The foreword by Fukuyama assesses Huntingdon's achievement.

Street-Level Bureaucracy

The Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service

Author: Michael Lipsky

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610443624

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 4117

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Street-Level Bureaucracy is an insightful study of how public service workers, in effect, function as policy decision makers, as they wield their considerable discretion in the day-to-day implementation of public programs.

Are Charters Different?

Public Education, Teachers, and the Charter School Debate

Author: Zachary W. Oberfield,Jeffrey R. Henig

Publisher: Education Politics and Policy

ISBN: 9781682530702

Category: Education

Page: 253

View: 4214

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Award-winning author Zachary Oberfield examines public schools and charters schools through a political science lens, asking whether there are organizational variances between the schools that foster dissimilar teaching climates. Are Charters Different? presents a fascinating example of how privatization affects the delivery of public services and provides valuable insights that can inform public policy in education. Drawing on the literature in public policy and organizational theory, Oberfield notes that one of the key rationales for the charter movement was the belief that public and private organizations have distinct characteristics. The book finds that while charters have made strides toward their initial goals (more autonomy for teachers, opportunities for innovation and leadership, and less red tape) there are also real costs (lower credentials, longer hours and more students per teacher). In addition, Oberfield compares the teachers' experiences in traditional public and charter schools based on a series of large-scale, longitudinal surveys. He draws a nuanced portrait of the distinctions that emerge and discusses patterns of change over time. Oberfield looks closely at variations in the survey findings within the charter sector to investigate whether changes in the organizational status or contexts of charter schools influence school culture. Are Charters Different? provides a unique analysis on the much debated charter school movement. Oberfield recognizes that there are different models of schooling, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses, and that we have to weigh the tradeoffs involved in choosing one over the other--Provided by publisher.

The Challenge to Change

Reforming Health Care on the Front Line in the United States and the United Kingdom

Author: Rebecca Kolins Givan

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501706020

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 217

View: 9672

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There is constant pressure on hospitals to improve health care delivery and increase cost effectiveness. New initiatives are the order of the day in the dramatically different health care systems of the United States and Great Britain. Often, as we know all too well, these efforts are not successful. In The Challenge to Change, Rebecca Kolins Givan analyzes the successes and failures of efforts to improve hospitals and explains what factors make it likely that the implementation of reforms will be rewarded by positive transformation in a particular institution's day-to-day operation. Givan's in-depth qualitative case studies of both top-down initiatives and changes first suggested by staff on the front lines of care point clearly to the importance of all hospital workers in effecting change and even influencing national policy. Givan illuminates the critical role of workers, managers, and unions in enabling or constraining changes in policies and procedures and ensuring their implementation. Givan spotlights an Anglo-American model of hospital care and work organization, even while these countries retain their differences in access and payment. Entrenched professional roles, hierarchical workplace organization, and the sometimes-detached view of policymakers all shape the prospects for change in hospitals. Givan provides important examples of how the dedication and imagination of the people who work in hospitals can make all the difference when it comes to providing quality health care even in a challenging economic environment.

5 Steps to a 5 AP U.S. Government and Politics Flashcards

Author: Pamela K. Lamb

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071775137

Category: Study Aids

Page: 608

View: 9766

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Skill-building flashcards that provide 600 essential AP terms for easy memorization using the convenience of on-the-go study 5 Steps to a 5: AP U.S. Government and Politics Flashcards features 600 key terms that expert author Pamela Lamb has selected as ones that frequently appear on AP U.S. Government and Politics exams. This extra tool increases your knowledge and helps you achieve up to a maximum 5 score. You now have an additional way to master the key terms that are the basis of AP U.S. Government and Politics success, delivered in a format that is convenient for your lifestyle. Features: One term per card, so you can put the words in the order you desire Bulleted list of key information for each term Topics include: Architecture and Development of U.S. Government • Federalism • Political Culture • Political Parties • Voting and Elections • Interest Groups and the Mass Media • The Legislative Branch • The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy • The National Judiciary • Civil Liberties and Civil Rights • The Politics and Public Policymaking

If We Can Put a Man on the Moon--

Getting Big Things Done in Government

Author: William D. Eggers,John O'Leary

Publisher: Harvard Business Press

ISBN: 1422166368

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 4068

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The American people are frustrated with their government-dismayed by a series of high-profile failures (Iraq, Katrina, the financial meltdown) that seems to just keep getting longer. Yet the US has a proud history of great achievements: victory in World War II, the national highway system, welfare reform, the moon landing. The US need more successes like these to reclaim the government's legacy of competence. In If We Can Put a Man on the Moon, William Eggers and John O'Leary explain how to do it. The key? Understand-and avoid-the common pitfalls that trip up public-sector leaders during the journey from idea to results. The authors recount surprisingly entertaining stories of public policy initiatives that succeeded beyond all imagination, including the Marshall Plan, the 1996 welfare reform and London’s Congestion Charge. They also find lessons in failures, including Boston’s Big Dig and the Challenger disaster. If We Can Put a Man on the Moonshows how government really works with an optimistic and non-partisan look at the kinds of large government endeavors that have shaped US history and that are unfolding in the news right now. Ultimately, however, the authors show us that good ideas are just the beginning of a successful initiative. With proper design, commitment, implementation and re-evaluation, our leaders can once again accomplish big things. The authors identify pitfalls including: The Partial Map Trap: Fumbling handoffs throughout project execution The Tolstoy Syndrome: Seeing only the possibilities you want to see Design-Free Design: Designing policies for passage through the legislature, not for implementation The Overconfidence Trap: Creating unrealistic budgets and timelines The Complacency Trap: Failing to recognize that a program needs change At a time of unprecedented challenges, this book, with its abundant examples and hands-on advice, is the essential guide to making government work better. A must-read for every public official, this book will be of interest to anyone who cares about the future of democracy.

Just Mercy

A Story of Justice and Redemption

Author: Bryan Stevenson

Publisher: Spiegel & Grau

ISBN: 0812994531

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 2511

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#1 New York Times Bestseller | Named one of the Best Books of the Year by The New York Times • The Washington Post • The Boston Globe • The Seattle Times • Esquire • Time Winner of the Carnegie Medal for Nonfiction | Winner of the NAACP Image Award for Nonfiction | Winner of a Books for a Better Life Award | Finalist for the Los Angeles Book Prize | Finalist for the Kirkus Reviews Prize | An American Library Association Notable Book A powerful true story about the potential for mercy to redeem us, and a clarion call to fix our broken system of justice—from one of the most brilliant and influential lawyers of our time Bryan Stevenson was a young lawyer when he founded the Equal Justice Initiative, a legal practice dedicated to defending those most desperate and in need: the poor, the wrongly condemned, and women and children trapped in the farthest reaches of our criminal justice system. One of his first cases was that of Walter McMillian, a young man who was sentenced to die for a notorious murder he insisted he didn’t commit. The case drew Bryan into a tangle of conspiracy, political machination, and legal brinksmanship—and transformed his understanding of mercy and justice forever. Just Mercy is at once an unforgettable account of an idealistic, gifted young lawyer’s coming of age, a moving window into the lives of those he has defended, and an inspiring argument for compassion in the pursuit of true justice. Praise for Just Mercy “Every bit as moving as To Kill a Mockingbird, and in some ways more so . . . a searing indictment of American criminal justice and a stirring testament to the salvation that fighting for the vulnerable sometimes yields.”—David Cole, The New York Review of Books “Searing, moving . . . Bryan Stevenson may, indeed, be America’s Mandela.”—Nicholas Kristof, The New York Times “You don’t have to read too long to start cheering for this man. . . . The message of this book . . . is that evil can be overcome, a difference can be made. Just Mercy will make you upset and it will make you hopeful.”—Ted Conover, The New York Times Book Review “Inspiring . . . a work of style, substance and clarity . . . Stevenson is not only a great lawyer, he’s also a gifted writer and storyteller.”—The Washington Post “As deeply moving, poignant and powerful a book as has been, and maybe ever can be, written about the death penalty.”—The Financial Times “Brilliant.”—The Philadelphia Inquirer “Not since Atticus Finch has a fearless and committed lawyer made such a difference in the American South. Though larger than life, Atticus exists only in fiction. Bryan Stevenson, however, is very much alive and doing God’s work fighting for the poor, the oppressed, the voiceless, the vulnerable, the outcast, and those with no hope. Just Mercy is his inspiring and powerful story.”—John Grisham “Bryan Stevenson is one of my personal heroes, perhaps the most inspiring and influential crusader for justice alive today, and Just Mercy is extraordinary. The stories told within these pages hold the potential to transform what we think we mean when we talk about justice.”—Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow

Mission Mystique

Belief Systems in Public Agencies

Author: Charles T. Goodsell

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1483305295

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 7724

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In an era filled with mistrust for big government and big business, Charles Goodsell goes against this grain to draw attention to public agencies admired for what they do and how well they do it. In his groundbreaking new book, Goodsell places renewed focus on organizational mission and its potential to be a strong energizing force in government—one that animates a workforce internally and attracts admiration and talent externally. He offers a normative template for the mystique that underlies this phenomenon and highlights—in six rich case studies—a driving sense of purpose, a cultural and motivational richness, and a capacity for tolerating dissent while still innovating and learning. Analyzing what works best (and what doesn’t), Goodsell provides a metric through which agency mystique can be evaluated and modeled. Goodsell’s fresh take on public agencies not only defines good public administration in terms of ethical conduct, constitutional accountability, and performance effectiveness, but argues that the field must add the crucial standard of institutional vitality.