Behavior-based Robotics

Author: Ronald C. Arkin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262011655

Category: Computers

Page: 491

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foreword by Michael Arbib "Hard to put down and necessary to know -- Arkin's book provides a comprehensive intellectual history of robots and a thorough compilation of robotic organizational paradigms from reflexes through social interaction." -- Chris Brown, Professor of Computer Science, University of Rochester This introduction to the principles, design, and practice of intelligent behavior-based autonomous robotic systems is the first true survey of this robotics field. The author presents the tools and techniques central to the development of this class of systems in a clear and thorough manner. Following a discussion of the relevant biological and psychological models of behavior, he covers the use of knowledge and learning in autonomous robots, behavior-based and hybrid robot architectures, modular perception, robot colonies, and future trends in robot intelligence. The text throughout refers to actual implemented robots and includes many pictures and descriptions of hardware, making it clear that these are not abstract simulations, but real machines capable of perception, cognition, and action.

The Robotics Primer

Author: Maja J. Matarić

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026263354X

Category: Computers

Page: 306

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A broadly accessible introduction to robotics that spans the most basic concepts and the most novel applications; for students, teachers, and hobbyists.

Introduction to AI Robotics

Author: Robin Murphy

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262133838

Category: Computers

Page: 466

View: 3973

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This text covers all the material needed to understand the principles behind the AI approach to robotics and to program an artificially intelligent robot for applications involving sensing, navigation, planning, and uncertainty. Robin Murphy is extremely effective at combining theoretical and practical rigor with a light narrative touch. In the overview, for example, she touches upon anthropomorphic robots from classic films and science fiction stories before delving into the nuts and bolts of organizing intelligence in robots.Following the overview, Murphy contrasts AI and engineering approaches and discusses what she calls the three paradigms of AI robotics: hierarchical, reactive, and hybrid deliberative/reactive. Later chapters explore multiagent scenarios, navigation and path-planning for mobile robots, and the basics of computer vision and range sensing. Each chapter includes objectives, review questions, and exercises. Many chapters contain one or more case studies showing how the concepts were implemented on real robots. Murphy, who is well known for her classroom teaching, conveys the intellectual adventure of mastering complex theoretical and technical material. An Instructor's Manual including slides, solutions, sample tests, and programming assignments is available to qualified professors who are considering using the book or who are using the book for class use.

Robot Shaping

An Experiment in Behavior Engineering

Author: Marco Dorigo,Marco Colombetti

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262041645

Category: Computers

Page: 203

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foreword by Lashon Booker To program an autonomous robot to act reliably in a dynamic environment is a complex task. The dynamics of the environment are unpredictable, and the robots' sensors provide noisy input. A learning autonomous robot, one that can acquire knowledge through interaction with its environment and then adapt its behavior, greatly simplifies the designer's work. A learning robot need not be given all of the details of its environment, and its sensors and actuators need not be finely tuned. Robot Shaping is about designing and building learning autonomous robots. The term "shaping" comes from experimental psychology, where it describes the incremental training of animals. The authors propose a new engineering discipline, "behavior engineering," to provide the methodologies and tools for creating autonomous robots. Their techniques are based on classifier systems, a reinforcement learning architecture originated by John Holland, to which they have added several new ideas, such as "mutespec," classifier system "energy,"and dynamic population size. In the book they present Behavior Analysis and Training (BAT) as an example of a behavior engineering methodology.

Autonomous Robots

From Biological Inspiration to Implementation and Control

Author: George A. Bekey

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262025782

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 577

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An introduction to the science and practice of autonomous robots that reviews over 300 current systems and examines the underlying technology.

Sensors for Mobile Robots

Author: H.R. Everett

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439863482

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

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The author compiles everything a student or experienced developmental engineer needs to know about the supporting technologies associated with the rapidly evolving field of robotics. From the table of contents: Design Considerations * Dead Reckoning * Odometry Sensors * Doppler and Inertial Navigation * Typical Mobility Configurations * Tactile and Proximity Sensing * Triangulation Ranging * Stereo Disparity * Active Triangulation * Active Stereoscopic * Hermies * Structured Light * Known Target Size * Time of Flight * Phase-Shift Measurement * Frequency Modulation * Interferometry * Range from Focus * Return Signal Intensity * Acoustical Energy * Electromagnetic Energy * Optical Energy * Microwave Radar * Collision Avoidance * Guidepath Following * Position-Location Systems * Ultrasonic and Optical Position-Location Systems * Wall, Doorway, andCeiling Referencing * Application-Specific Mission Sensors

Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence

Theories, Methods, and Technologies

Author: Dario Floreano,Claudio Mattiussi

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262062712

Category: Computers

Page: 659

View: 1071

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New approaches to artificial intelligence spring from the idea that intelligence emerges as much from cells, bodies, and societies as it does from evolution, development, and learning. Traditionally, artificial intelligence has been concerned with reproducing the abilities of human brains; newer approaches take inspiration from a wider range of biological structures that that are capable of autonomous self-organization. Examples of these new approaches include evolutionary computation and evolutionary electronics, artificial neural networks, immune systems, biorobotics, and swarm intelligence -- to mention only a few. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of biologically inspired artificial intelligence that can be used as an upper-level text or as a reference for researchers. Each chapter presents computational approaches inspired by a different biological system; each begins with background information about the biological system and then proceeds to develop computational models that make use of biological concepts. The chapters cover evolutionary computation and electronics; cellular systems; neural systems, including neuromorphic engineering; developmental systems; immune systems; behavioral systems -- including several approaches to robotics, including behavior-based, bio-mimetic, epigenetic, and evolutionary robots; and collective systems, including swarm robotics as well as cooperative and competitive co-evolving systems. Chapters end with a concluding overview and suggested reading.

Multiagent Systems

Author: Gerhard Weiss

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262018896

Category: Computers

Page: 867

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This is the first comprehensive introduction to multiagent systems and contemporary distributed artificial intelligence that is suitable as a textbook.

Robot Ethics

The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics

Author: Patrick Lin,Keith Abney,George A. Bekey

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262297752

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 3057

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Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society -- and ethics -- change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field.Starting with an overview of the issues and relevant ethical theories, the topics flow naturally from the possibility of programming robot ethics to the ethical use of military robots in war to legal and policy questions, including liability and privacy concerns. The contributors then turn to human-robot emotional relationships, examining the ethical implications of robots as sexual partners, caregivers, and servants. Finally, they explore the possibility that robots, whether biological-computational hybrids or pure machines, should be given rights or moral consideration.Ethics is often slow to catch up with technological developments. This authoritative and accessible volume fills a gap in both scholarly literature and policy discussion, offering an impressive collection of expert analyses of the most crucial topics in this increasingly important field.

Probabilistic Robotics

Author: Sebastian Thrun,Wolfram Burgard,Dieter Fox

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262201623

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 647

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Probablistic robotics is a growing area in the subject, concerned with perception and control in the face of uncertainty and giving robots a level of robustness in real-world situations. This book introduces techniques and algorithms in the field.

Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots

Author: Roland Siegwart,Illah Reza Nourbakhsh,Davide Scaramuzza

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262015358

Category: Computers

Page: 453

View: 4006

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Machine generated contents note: |g 1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.2. |t An Overview of the Book -- |g 2. |t Locomotion -- |g 2.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.1.1. |t Key issues for locomotion -- |g 2.2. |t Legged Mobile Robots -- |g 2.2.1. |t Leg configurations and stability -- |g 2.2.2. |t Consideration of dynamics -- |g 2.2.3. |t Examples of legged robot locomotion -- |g 2.3. |t Wheeled Mobile Robots -- |g 2.3.1. |t Wheeled locomotion: The design space -- |g 2.3.2. |t Wheeled locomotion: Case studies -- |g 2.4. |t Aerial Mobile Robots -- |g 2.4.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.4.2. |t Aircraft configurations -- |g 2.4.3. |t State of the art in autonomous VTOL -- |g 2.5. |t Problems -- |g 3. |t Mobile Robot Kinematics -- |g 3.1. |t Introduction -- |g 3.2. |t Kinematic Models and Constraints -- |g 3.2.1. |t Representing robot position -- |g 3.2.2. |t Forward kinematic models -- |g 3.2.3. |t Wheel kinematic constraints -- |g 3.2.4. |t Robot kinematic constraints -- |g 3.g 3.3. |t Mobile Robot Maneuverability -- |g 3.3.1. |t Degree of mobility -- |g 3.3.2. |t Degree of steerability -- |g 3.3.3. |t Robot maneuverability -- |g 3.4. |t Mobile Robot Workspace -- |g 3.4.1. |t Degrees of freedom -- |g 3.4.2. |t Holonomic robots -- |g 3.4.3. |t Path and trajectory considerations -- |g 3.5. |t Beyond Basic Kinematics -- |g 3.6. |t Motion Control (Kinematic Control) -- |g 3.6.1. |t Open loop control (trajectory-following) -- |g 3.6.2. |t Feedback control -- |g 3.7. |t Problems -- |g 4. |t Perception -- |g 4.1. |t Sensors for Mobile Robots -- |g 4.1.1. |t Sensor classification -- |g 4.1.2. |t Characterizing sensor performance -- |g 4.1.3. |t Representing uncertainty -- |g 4.1.4. |t Wheel/motor sensors -- |g 4.1.5. |t Heading sensors -- |g 4.1.6. |t Accelerometers -- |g 4.1.7. |t Inertial measurement unit (IMU) -- |g 4.1.8. |t Ground beacons -- |g 4.1.9. |t Active ranging -- |g 4.1.10. |t Motion/speed sensors -- |g 4.1.11. |t Vision sensors -- |g 4.2. |t Fundameng 4.2.5. |t Structure from stereo -- |g 4.2.6. |t Structure from motion -- |g 4.2.7. |t Motion and optical flow -- |g 4.2.8. |t Color tracking -- |g 4.3. |t Fundamentals of Image Processing -- |g 4.3.1. |t Image filtering -- |g 4.3.2. |t Edge detection -- |g 4.3.3. |t Computing image similarity -- |g 4.4. |t Feature Extraction -- |g 4.5. |t Image Feature Extraction: Interest Point Detectors -- |g 4.5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.5.2. |t Properties of the ideal feature detector -- |g 4.5.3. |t Corner detectors -- |g 4.5.4. |t Invariance to photometric and geometric changes -- |g 4.5.5. |t Blob detectors -- |g 4.6. |t Place Recognition -- |g 4.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.6.2. |t From bag of features to visual words -- |g 4.6.3. |t Efficient location recognition by using an inverted file -- |g 4.6.4. |t Geometric verification for robust place recognition -- |g 4.6.5. |t Applications -- |g 4.6.6. |t Other image representations for place recognition -- |g 4.7. |t Feature Extraction Based ong 4.7.3. |t Range histogram features -- |g 4.7.4. |t Extracting other geometric features -- |g 4.8. |t Problems -- |g 5. |t Mobile Robot Localization -- |g 5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.2. |t The Challenge of Localization: Noise and Aliasing -- |g 5.2.1. |t Sensor noise -- |g 5.2.2. |t Sensor aliasing -- |g 5.2.3. |t Effector noise -- |g 5.2.4. |t An error model for odometric position estimation -- |g 5.3. |t To Localize or Not to Localize: Localization-Based Navigation Versus Programmed Solutions -- |g 5.4. |t Belief Representation -- |g 5.4.1. |t Single-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.4.2. |t Multiple-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.5. |t Map Representation -- |g 5.5.1. |t Continuous representations -- |g 5.5.2. |t Decomposition strategies -- |g 5.5.3. |t State of the art: Current challenges in map representation -- |g 5.6. |t Probabilistic Map-Based Localization -- |g 5.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.6.2. |t The robot localization problem -- |g 5.6.3. |t Basic concepts of probability theory -- |gg 5.6.6. |t Classification of localization problems -- |g 5.6.7. |t Markov localization -- |g 5.6.8. |t Kalman filter localization -- |g 5.7. |t Other Examples of Localization Systems -- |g 5.7.1. |t Landmark-based navigation -- |g 5.7.2. |t Globally unique localization -- |g 5.7.3. |t Positioning beacon systems -- |g 5.7.4. |t Route-based localization -- |g 5.8. |t Autonomous Map Building -- |g 5.8.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.8.2. |t SLAM: The simultaneous localization and mapping problem -- |g 5.8.3. |t Mathematical definition of SLAM -- |g 5.8.4. |t Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM -- |g 5.8.5. |t Visual SLAM with a single camera -- |g 5.8.6. |t Discussion on EKF SLAM -- |g 5.8.7. |t Graph-based SLAM -- |g 5.8.8. |t Particle filter SLAM -- |g 5.8.9. |t Open challenges in SLAM -- |g 5.8.10. |t Open source SLAM software and other resources -- |g 5.9. |t Problems -- |g 6. |t Planning and Navigation -- |g 6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 6.2. |t Competences for Navigation: Planning and Reactig 6.4. |t Obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.1. |t Bug algorithm -- |g 6.4.2. |t Vector field histogram -- |g 6.4.3. |t The bubble band technique -- |g 6.4.4. |t Curvature velocity techniques -- |g 6.4.5. |t Dynamic window approaches -- |g 6.4.6. |t The Schlegel approach to obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.7. |t Nearness diagram -- |g 6.4.8. |t Gradient method -- |g 6.4.9. |t Adding dynamic constraints -- |g 6.4.10. |t Other approaches -- |g 6.4.11. |t Overview -- |g 6.5. |t Navigation Architectures -- |g 6.5.1. |t Modularity for code reuse and sharing -- |g 6.5.2. |t Control localization -- |g 6.5.3. |t Techniques for decomposition -- |g 6.5.4. |t Case studies: tiered robot architectures -- |g 6.6. |t Problems -- |t Bibliography -- |t Books -- |t Papers -- |t Referenced Webpages.

Developmental Robotics

From Babies to Robots

Author: Angelo Cangelosi,Matthew Schlesinger,Linda B. Smith

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262028018

Category: Computers

Page: 432

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A comprehensive overview of an interdisciplinary approach to robotics that takes direct inspiration from the developmental and learning phenomena observed in children's cognitive development.

Intelligent Robots and Systems

Author: V. Graefe

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080534856

Category: Computers

Page: 744

View: 4626

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Of the 300 papers presented during IROS '94, 48 were selected because they are particularly significant and characteristic for the present state of the technology of intelligent robots and systems. This book contains the selected papers in a revised and expanded form. Robotics and intelligent systems constitute a very wide and truly interdisciplinary field. The papers have been grouped into the following categories: – Sensing and Perception – Learning and Planning – Manipulation – Telerobotics and Space Robotics – Multiple Robots – Legged Locomotion – Mobile Robot Systems – Robotics in Medicine Other additional fields covered include; control, navigation and simulation. Since many researchers in robotics are now apparently interested in some combination of learning, mobile robots and robot vision, most of the articles included relate to at least one of these fields.

Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots

Author: Ronald Arkin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420085952

Category: Computers

Page: 256

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Expounding on the results of the author’s work with the US Army Research Office, DARPA, the Office of Naval Research, and various defense industry contractors, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots explores how to produce an "artificial conscience" in a new class of robots, humane-oids, which are robots that can potentially perform more ethically than humans in the battlefield. The author examines the philosophical basis, motivation, theory, and design recommendations for the implementation of an ethical control and reasoning system in autonomous robot systems, taking into account the Laws of War and Rules of Engagement. The book presents robot architectural design recommendations for Post facto suppression of unethical behavior, Behavioral design that incorporates ethical constraints from the onset, The use of affective functions as an adaptive component in the event of unethical action, and A mechanism that identifies and advises operators regarding their ultimate responsibility for the deployment of autonomous systems. It also examines why soldiers fail in battle regarding ethical decisions; discusses the opinions of the public, researchers, policymakers, and military personnel on the use of lethality by autonomous systems; provides examples that illustrate autonomous systems’ ethical use of force; and includes relevant Laws of War. Helping ensure that warfare is conducted justly with the advent of autonomous robots, this book shows that the first steps toward creating robots that not only conform to international law but outperform human soldiers in their ethical capacity are within reach in the future. It supplies the motivation, philosophy, formalisms, representational requirements, architectural design criteria, recommendations, and test scenarios to design and construct an autonomous robotic system capable of ethically using lethal force. Ron Arkin was quoted in a November 2010 New York Times article about robots in the military.

Intelligent Behavior in Animals and Robots

Author: David McFarland,Tom Bösser

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262132930

Category: Computers

Page: 308

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Intelligence takes many forms. This exciting study explores the novel insight, basedon well-established ethological principles, that animals, humans, and autonomous robots can all beanalyzed as multi-task autonomous control systems. Biological adaptive systems, the authors argue,can in fact provide a better understanding of intelligence and rationality than that provided bytraditional AI.In this technically sophisticated, clearly written investigation of robot-animalanalogies, McFarland and Bösser show that a bee's accuracy in navigating on a cloudy day and amoth's simple but effective hearing mechanisms have as much to teach us about intelligent behavioras human models. In defining intelligent behavior, what matters is the behavioral outcome, not thenature of the mechanism by which the outcome is achieved. Similarly, in designing robots capable ofintelligent behavior, what matters is the behavioral outcome.McFarland and Bösser address theproblem of how to assess the consequences of robot behavior in a way that is meaningful in terms ofthe robot's intended role, comparing animal and robot in relation to rational behavior, goalseeking, task accomplishment, learning, and other important theoretical issues.David McFarland isReader in Animal Behaviour at the University of Oxford. Thomas Bösser is Head of the Man MachineResearch Group at Westfälische Wilhelms Universität, in Münster, and a partner in the consultingfirm Advanced Concepts.

Detecting and Mitigating Robotic Cyber Security Risks

Author: Kumar, Raghavendra,Pattnaik, Prasant Kumar,Pandey, Priyanka

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522521550

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

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Risk detection and cyber security play a vital role in the use and success of contemporary computing. By utilizing the latest technological advances, more effective prevention techniques can be developed to protect against cyber threats. Detecting and Mitigating Robotic Cyber Security Risks is an essential reference publication for the latest research on new methodologies and applications in the areas of robotic and digital security. Featuring extensive coverage on a broad range of topics, such as authentication techniques, cloud security, and mobile robotics, this book is ideally designed for students, researchers, scientists, and engineers seeking current research on methods, models, and implementations of optimized security in digital contexts.

Mobile Microrobotics

Author: Metin Sitti

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262341018

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

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Progress in micro- and nano-scale science and technology has created a demand for new microsystems for high-impact applications in healthcare, biotechnology, manufacturing, and mobile sensor networks. The new robotics field of microrobotics has emerged to extend our interactions and explorations to sub-millimeter scales. This is the first textbook on micron-scale mobile robotics, introducing the fundamentals of design, analysis, fabrication, and control, and drawing on case studies of existing approaches.The book covers the scaling laws that can be used to determine the dominant forces and effects at the micron scale; models forces acting on microrobots, including surface forces, friction, and viscous drag; and describes such possible microfabrication techniques as photo-lithography, bulk micromachining, and deep reactive ion etching. It presents on-board and remote sensing methods, noting that remote sensors are currently more feasible; studies possible on-board microactuators; discusses self-propulsion methods that use self-generated local gradients and fields or biological cells in liquid environments; and describes remote microrobot actuation methods for use in limited spaces such as inside the human body. It covers possible on-board powering methods, indispensable in future medical and other applications; locomotion methods for robots on surfaces, in liquids, in air, and on fluid-air interfaces; and the challenges of microrobot localization and control, in particular multi-robot control methods for magnetic microrobots. Finally, the book addresses current and future applications, including noninvasive medical diagnosis and treatment, environmental remediation, and scientific tools.

Understanding Intelligence

Author: Rolf Pfeifer,Christian Scheier

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262250795

Category: Computers

Page: 700

View: 7092

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By the mid-1980s researchers from artificial intelligence, computer science, brain and cognitive science, and psychology realized that the idea of computers as intelligent machines was inappropriate. The brain does not run "programs"; it does something entirely different. But what? Evolutionary theory says that the brain has evolved not to do mathematical proofs but to control our behavior, to ensure our survival. Researchers now agree that intelligence always manifests itself in behavior -- thus it is behavior that we must understand. An exciting new field has grown around the study of behavior-based intelligence, also known as embodied cognitive science, "new AI," and "behavior-based AI."This book provides a systematic introduction to this new way of thinking. After discussing concepts and approaches such as subsumption architecture, Braitenberg vehicles, evolutionary robotics, artificial life, self-organization, and learning, the authors derive a set of principles and a coherent framework for the study of naturally and artificially intelligent systems, or autonomous agents. This framework is based on a synthetic methodology whose goal is understanding by designing and building.The book includes all the background material required to understand the principles underlying intelligence, as well as enough detailed information on intelligent robotics and simulated agents so readers can begin experiments and projects on their own. The reader is guided through a series of case studies that illustrate the design principles of embodied cognitive science.

Robot Programming

A Practical Guide to Behavior-Based Robotics

Author: Joe Jones,Daniel Roth

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071708502

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 293

View: 7737

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* Teaches the concepts of behavior-based programming through text, programming examples, and a unique online simulator robot * Explains how to design new behaviors by manipulating old ones and adjusting programming * Does not assume reader familiarity with robotics or programming languages * Includes a section on designing your own behavior-based system from scratch

Multiagent Robotic Systems

Author: Jiming Liu,Jianbing Wu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420038834

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 328

View: 5941

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Providing a guided tour of the pioneering work and major technical issues, Multiagent Robotic Systems addresses learning and adaptation in decentralized autonomous robots. Its systematic examination demonstrates the interrelationships between the autonomy of individual robots and the emerged global behavior properties of a group performing a cooperative task. The author also includes descriptions of the essential building blocks of the architecture of autonomous mobile robots with respect to their requirement on local behavioral conditioning and group behavioral evolution. After reading this book you will be able to fully appreciate the strengths and usefulness of various approaches in the development and application of multiagent robotic systems. It covers: Why and how to develop and experimentally test the computational mechanisms for learning and evolving sensory-motor control behaviors in autonomous robots How to design and develop evolutionary algorithm-based group behavioral learning mechanisms for the optimal emergence of group behaviors How to enable group robots to converge to a finite number of desirable task states through group learning What are the effects of the local learning mechanisms on the emergent global behaviors How to use decentralized, self-organizing autonomous robots to perform cooperative tasks in an unknown environment Earlier works have focused primarily on how to navigate in a spatially unknown environment, given certain predefined motion behaviors. What is missing, however, is an in-depth look at the important issues on how to effectively obtain such behaviors in group robots and how to enable behavioral learning and adaptation at the group level. Multiagent Robotic Systems examines the key methodological issues and gives you an understanding of the underlying computational models and techniques for multiagent systems.