Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation

Process Fundamentals and Mathematical Models

Author: Pedro J. Alvarez,Walter A. Illman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471738611

Category: Science

Page: 609

View: 3382

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A groundbreaking text and professional resource on natural attenuation technology Natural attenuation is rapidly becoming a widely used approach to manage groundwater and soil contamination by hazardous substances in petroleum-product releases and leachate from hazardous waste sites and landfills. This book provides, under one cover, the current methodologies needed by groundwater scientists and engineers in their efforts to evaluate subsurface contamination problems, to estimate risk to human health and ecosystems through mathematical models, and to design and formulate appropriate remediation strategies. Incorporating the authors' extensive backgrounds as educators, researchers, and consultants in environmental biotechnology and hydrogeology, the text emphasizes new concepts and recent advances in the science, including: Quantification of the role of microbes in natural attenuation Biodegradation and chemical transformation principles Immobilization and phase change Biotransformation mechanisms Groundwater flow and contaminant transport Analytical models for contaminant transport and reaction processes Numerical modeling of contaminant transport, transformation, and degradation Detailed descriptions of fundamental processes, characterization approaches, and analytical and numerical methods tied to relevant real-world applications make Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation: Process Fundamentals and Mathematical Models both a timely course text in hydrogeology and environmental engineering and a valuable reference for anyone in the groundwater or risk assessment professions.

Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface

Author: Todd H. Wiedemeier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471197492

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 617

View: 4940

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This work presents the first in-depth examination of the theory, mechanisms, and application of natural attenuation. Written by four internationally recognized leaders in this approach, the book describes both biotic and abiotic natural attenuation processes, focusing on two of the environmental contaminants most frequently encountered in groundwater - fuels and chlorinated solvents. An indispensable reference for anyone working in environmental remediation, Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface is essential reading for scientists and engineers in a range of industries, as well as state and federal environmental regulators, and professors and graduate students in environmental or chemical engineering.

Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation

Author: Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Intrinsic Remediation,National Research Council,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309069327

Category: Nature

Page: 292

View: 3747

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In the past decade, officials responsible for clean-up of contaminated groundwater have increasingly turned to natural attenuation-essentially allowing naturally occurring processes to reduce the toxic potential of contaminants-versus engineered solutions. This saves both money and headaches. To the people in surrounding communities, though, it can appear that clean-up officials are simply walking away from contaminated sites. When is natural attenuation the appropriate approach to a clean-up? This book presents the consensus of a diverse committee, informed by the views of researchers, regulators, and community activists. The committee reviews the likely effectiveness of natural attenuation with different classes of contaminants-and describes how to evaluate the "footprints" of natural attenuation at a site to determine whether natural processes will provide adequate clean-up. Included are recommendations for regulatory change. The committee emphasizes the importance of the public's belief and attitudes toward remediation and provides guidance on involving community stakeholders throughout the clean-up process. The book explores how contamination occurs, explaining concepts and terms, and includes case studies from the Hanford nuclear site, military bases, as well as other sites. It provides historical background and important data on clean-up processes and goes on to offer critical reviews of 14 published protocols for evaluating natural attenuation.

Natural attenuation of environmental contaminants

the Sixth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium : San Diego, California, June 4-7, 2001

Author: Andrea Leeson

Publisher: Battelle Pr

ISBN: 9781574771121

Category: Science

Page: 307

View: 1269

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The symposium included 600 presentations in 50 sessions on bioremediation and supporting technologies used for a wide range of contaminants already in, or poised to invade, soil, groundwater, and sediment. Three hundred and fifty-two papers were selected and organized into ten volumes. Volume two's articles address the use of natural attenuation to remediate sites with a variety of hydrocarbons and chlorinated compounds contaminating porous media and groundwater. Methods of encouraging naturally occurring microbial activity are discussed, along with sampling, assessment, and long-term monitoring techniques and devices. Articles average eight pages and contain abstracts and references. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR.

Natural and Enhanced Remediation Systems

Author: Suthan S. Suthersan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420033069

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 7147

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Building on the success of bioremediation and phytoremediation technologies, Natural and Enhanced Remediation Systems explores remediation techniques that use the beneficial effects provided by Mother Nature. Written by a leader in the industry, the book provides state-of-the-art information on natural and enhanced remediation techniques such as monitored natural attenuation, in situ reactive zones, bio-augmentation, in situ chemical oxidation, phytoremediation, constructed wetlands, and engineered phyto-covers. It contrasts the new paradigms in remediation with the conventional remedies of the past two decades. It addresses theoretical and design aspects and includes case studies that illustrate implementation and performance details. The appendixes contain substantial information and data usually found scattered in many different books and research papers, making Natural and Enhanced Remediation Systems a comprehensive resource on cutting-edge remediation technologies.

Bioremediation and Sustainability

Research and Applications

Author: Romeela Mohee,Ackmez Mudhoo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118062841

Category: Science

Page: 407

View: 3893

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"Sustainable development requires the development and promotion of environmental management and a constant search for green technologies to treat a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats contaminated by increasing anthropogenic activities with the main sources of contaminants being the chemical industries. Bioremediation is a technique that uses living organisms in order to degrade or transform contaminants into their less toxic forms. It is based on the existence of microorganisms with capacity to attack the compounds on the enzymatic level. Bioremediation is an increasingly popular low-cost alternative to conventional methods for treating wastes and contaminated media with the possibility to degrade these contaminants using natural microbial activity mediated by different consortia of microbes. Over the last few years, the scientific literature has revealed the progressive emergence of various bioremediation techniques. BIOREMEDIATION AND SUSTAINABILITY: Research and Applications presents an up-to-date and comprehensive collection of chapters prepared in bioremediation technology research and application.The strategies covered in this volume can be applied in situ or ex situ, depending on the site in which they will be applied. In situ is the treatment done in the site of the contamination and ex situ involves the removal of soil or water to subsequent treatment. There is a wide variety of techniques that have been developed in the past and are covered in this volume, such as natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, biosorption, composting, phytoremediation, rhizoremediation and bioleaching"--

In Situ and On-site Bioremediation

Papers from the Fourth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, New Orleans, April 28-May 1, 1997

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 590

View: 596

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Volume 1 includes articles on the natural attenuation and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The volume includes case studies of a number of specific applications as well as review articles summarizing the performance of a variety of remediation systems. Articles on air sparging and related technologies, bioventing applications and extensions, bioslurping, and biopiles examine the performance of these technologies and their application under a variety of environmental conditions to remediate hydrocarbons and free-product contamination. Also addressed are the challenges presented to bioremediation technologies by unusual or extreme environmental conditions, such as subarctic temperatures and recalcitrant organics, and the potential for extensions and integration of these technologies to clean up hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater.

Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation

Author: Ajay Singh,Owen P. Ward

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662057948

Category: Nature

Page: 281

View: 4369

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The huge expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries in the twentieth century has resulted in the production of a vast array of chem ical compounds and materials that have transformed our lives. The associated large-scale manufacturing, processing and handling activi ties have caused a serious deterioration in environmental quality and created threats to human health. These negative impacts have led to responses and regulations requiring remedial action in support of envi ronmental sustainability. of biotechnological methods through bioremediation, Application has gained prominence as an option for soil remediation methods. Bioremediation is a multidisciplinary approach where biologists, chem ists, soil scientists and engineers work as team to develop and imple ment remediation processes. Bioremediation has now been used successfully to remediate many petroleum-contaminated sites. However, there are as yet no commercial technologies commonly used to reme diate the most recalcitrant contaminants. Nevertheless, bioremediation is a rapidly advancing field and new bio-based remedial technologies are continuing to emerge.

In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater

Author: Hans F. Stroo,C. Herb Ward

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387849218

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 3122

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In the late 1970s and early 1980s, our nation began to grapple with the legacy of past disposal practices for toxic chemicals. With the passage in 1980 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, it became the law of the land to remediate these sites. The U. S. Department of Defense (DoD), the nation’s largest industrial organization, also recognized that it too had a legacy of contaminated sites. Historic operations at Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps facilities, ranges, manufacturing sites, shipyards, and depots had resulted in widespread contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediment. While Superfund began in 1980 to focus on remediation of heavily contaminated sites largely abandoned or neglected by the private sector, the DoD had already initiated its Installation Restoration Program in the mid 1970s. In 1984, the DoD began the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) for contaminated site assessment and remediation. Two years later, the U. S. Congress codified the DERP and directed the Secretary of Defense to carry out a concurrent program of research, development, and demonstration of innovative remediation technologies. As chronicled in the 1994 National Research Council report, “Ranking Hazardous-Waste Sites for Remedial Action”, our early estimates on the cost and suitability of existing technologies for cleaning up contaminated sites were wildly optimistic. Original estimates, in 1980, projected an average Superfund cleanup cost of a mere $3.

Microbial Biodegradation

Genomics and Molecular Biology

Author: Eduardo Díaz

Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press

ISBN: 1904455174

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 9175

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In this timely book, expert international authors critically review all of the most important topics in this exciting field. This book is unique in that it is the first to review the area from a molecular biology and genomics perspective. Topics covered include: aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds; molecular detection methods (e.g. microautoradiography, mRNA analyses, etc.); genome-based predictive modeling; elucidation of regulatory networks; bioavailability; chemotaxis and transport issues; functional genomic analyses; natural attenuation; community fingerprinting and metagenomics; biotreatment; and biocatalysts engineering. The book will be essential reading for microbial degradation and bioremediation scientists, and of general interest for microbiologists working in field of environmental microbiology.

Bioremediation and Sustainability

Research and Applications

Author: Romeela Mohee,Ackmez Mudhoo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118062841

Category: Science

Page: 407

View: 3077

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"Sustainable development requires the development and promotion of environmental management and a constant search for green technologies to treat a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats contaminated by increasing anthropogenic activities with the main sources of contaminants being the chemical industries. Bioremediation is a technique that uses living organisms in order to degrade or transform contaminants into their less toxic forms. It is based on the existence of microorganisms with capacity to attack the compounds on the enzymatic level. Bioremediation is an increasingly popular low-cost alternative to conventional methods for treating wastes and contaminated media with the possibility to degrade these contaminants using natural microbial activity mediated by different consortia of microbes. Over the last few years, the scientific literature has revealed the progressive emergence of various bioremediation techniques. BIOREMEDIATION AND SUSTAINABILITY: Research and Applications presents an up-to-date and comprehensive collection of chapters prepared in bioremediation technology research and application.The strategies covered in this volume can be applied in situ or ex situ, depending on the site in which they will be applied. In situ is the treatment done in the site of the contamination and ex situ involves the removal of soil or water to subsequent treatment. There is a wide variety of techniques that have been developed in the past and are covered in this volume, such as natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, biosorption, composting, phytoremediation, rhizoremediation and bioleaching"--

Bioremediation and Bioeconomy

Author: M.N.V Prasad

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128028726

Category: Science

Page: 730

View: 2049

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Bioremediation and Bioeconomy provides a common platform for scientists from various backgrounds to find sustainable solutions to environmental issues, including the ever-growing lack of water resources which are under immense pressure due to land degradation, pollution, population explosion, urbanization, and global economic development. In addition, large amounts of toxic waste have been dispersed in thousands of contaminated sites and bioremediation is emerging as an invaluable tool for environmental clean-up. The book addresses these challenge by presenting innovative and cost-effective solutions to decontaminate polluted environments, including usage of contaminated land and waste water for bioproducts such as natural fibers, biocomposites, and fuels to boost the economy. Users will find a guide that helps scientists from various backgrounds find sustainable solutions to these environmental issues as they address the topical issues crucial for understanding new and innovative approaches for sustainable development. Provides a compilation of new information on phytoremediation not found in other books in the present market The first book to link phytoremediation and the bioeconomy Includes strategies to utilize contaminated soils for producing bioresources and co-generation of value chain and value additions products

Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Author: Surajit Das

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128004827

Category: Science

Page: 642

View: 3722

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Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation brings together experts in relevant fields to describe the successful application of microbes and their derivatives for bioremediation of potentially toxic and relatively novel compounds. This single-source reference encompasses all categories of pollutants and their applications in a convenient, comprehensive package. Our natural biodiversity and environment is in danger due to the release of continuously emerging potential pollutants by anthropogenic activities. Though many attempts have been made to eradicate and remediate these noxious elements, every day thousands of xenobiotics of relatively new entities emerge, thus worsening the situation. Primitive microorganisms are highly adaptable to toxic environments, and can reduce the load of toxic elements by their successful transformation and remediation. Describes many novel approaches of microbial bioremediation including genetic engineering, metagenomics, microbial fuel cell technology, biosurfactants and biofilm-based bioremediation Introduces relatively new hazardous elements and their bioremediation practices including oil spills, military waste water, greenhouse gases, polythene wastes, and more Provides the most advanced techniques in the field of bioremediation, including insilico approach, microbes as pollution indicators, use of bioreactors, techniques of pollution monitoring, and more

Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils

Author: Rebecca Hamon,Mike McLaughlin,Enzo Lombi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420042832

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 9402

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Understanding attenuation processes is important not only for predicting the behavior of contaminants in soil and formulating remediation strategies, but also for mitigating and enhancing the availability of micronutrients in soil for agricultural applications. Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils brings together pioneering researchers who discuss their cutting-edge work in this area. The first chapters focus on practical analytical techniques for the measurement and the biological assessment of natural attenuation of trace elements. The following chapters analyze the processes that occur in the natural attenuation of contaminants and nutrients, covering the structural dynamics of mineral surfaces, partitioning, diffusion, fixation, biological and redox processes, and the reversibility of these processes. The remaining chapters consider the impact and implications of natural attenuation in terms of risk assessment, remediation of inorganic contaminants, and bioavailability of essential nutrients. Offering a concise, well-rounded perspective, Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils demonstrates how attenuation processes can significantly impact strategies for soil remediation and serve as a basis for environmental regulations.

Bioremediation: Applications for Environmental Protection and Management

Author: Sunita J. Varjani,Avinash Kumar Agarwal,Edgard Gnansounou,Baskar Gurunathan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811074852

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 411

View: 6958

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This book examines bioremediation technologies as a tool for environmental protection and management. It provides global perspectives on recent advances in the bioremediation of various environmental pollutants. Topics covered include comparative analysis of bio-gas electrification from anaerobic digesters, mathematical modeling in bioremediation, the evaluation of next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental monitoring in wastewater abatement; and the impact of diverse wastewater remediation techniques such as the use of nanofibers, microbes and genetically modified organisms; bioelectrochemical treatment; phytoremediation; and biosorption strategies. The book is targeted at scientists and researchers working in the field of bioremediation.

Intrinsic Bioremediation

Author: Robert Eric Hinchee,John Thomas Wilson,Douglas C. Downey

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 5648

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An international group of researchers and engineers discuss using natural attenuation to degrade contaminants and thereby remediate soils and groundwater. This volume describes laboratory studies and field demonstrations in support of subsurface remediation at military, manufactured gas plant, landfill, petroleum spill, and other sites. The contaminants of concern include benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX); naphthalene; trichloroethene; trichlorethane; and perchloroethylene. Analytical methods for assessing the potential for natural attenuation (passive bioremediation) at a given site and for confirming and documenting efficacy are discussed.

Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation

Author: Bernard H. Kueper,Hans F. Stroo,Catherine M. Vogel,C. Herb Ward

Publisher: Springer Science & Business

ISBN: 1461469228

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 713

View: 2651

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The purpose of this book is to help engineers and scientists better understand dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination of groundwater and the methods and technology used for characterization and remediation. Remediation of DNAPL source zones is very difficult and controversial and must be based on state-of-the-art knowledge of the behavior (transport and fate) of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and site specific geology, chemistry and hydrology. This volume is focused on the characterization and remediation of nonaqueous phase chlorinated solvents and it is hoped that mid-level engineers and scientists will find this book helpful in understanding the current state-of-practice of DNAPL source zone management and remediation.

Microbial Bioremediation of Non-metals

Current Research

Author: Anna-Irini Koukkou

Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press

ISBN: 1904455832

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 7217

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Microbial biodegradation of non-metals pollutants plays a pivotal role in the bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. Such pollutants include chloroethenes, steroids, organophosphorus compounds, alkanes, PAHs, and PCBs. In this important book, international experts exhaustively review this topic from a biochemical and genetic viewpoint, providing a timely overview of current research. Topics covered include: enzymatic biodegradation reactions * the impact of bioturbation on hydrocarbon dynamics in marine sediments * the structure, function, and biodiversity of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases involved in PAH biodegradation * strategies to engineer PCB-degrading bacteria * PCB-degrading plant-microbe systems strategies * the structure, regulation, and diversity of microbial genes encoding biodegradative enzymes. In addition, there are excellent reviews detailing the application of the state-of-the-art molecular technologies to study biodegradative processes. The technologies covered are community fingerprinting, molecular detection of degradative genes, and metagenomics for the analysis and monitoring of microorganisms in situ. These are complemented well by the fascinating reviews of the catabolic plasmids and mobile genetic elements involved in bioremediation, including discussions on the origin and evolution of these catabolic pathways to different genera. In addition, the best procedures for the evaluation and design of relevant in situ remediation strategies are examined and classical ex-situ technologies such Landfarming, Composting, Biopiling, and Slurry-phase bioremediation are described. This book is a vital reference resource for research scientists, graduate students, and other specialists interested on microbial bioremediation of organic pollutants, and it is recommended reading for environmental microbiologists, chemists, and engineers.