Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation

Process Fundamentals and Mathematical Models

Author: Pedro J. Alvarez,Walter A. Illman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471738611

Category: Science

Page: 609

View: 7417

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A groundbreaking text and professional resource on naturalattenuation technology Natural attenuation is rapidly becoming a widely used approachto manage groundwater and soil contamination by hazardoussubstances in petroleum-product releases and leachate fromhazardous waste sites and landfills. This book provides, under onecover, the current methodologies needed by groundwater scientistsand engineers in their efforts to evaluate subsurface contaminationproblems, to estimate risk to human health and ecosystems throughmathematical models, and to design and formulate appropriateremediation strategies. Incorporating the authors' extensive backgrounds as educators,researchers, and consultants in environmental biotechnology andhydrogeology, the text emphasizes new concepts and recent advancesin the science, including: Quantification of the role of microbes in naturalattenuation Biodegradation and chemical transformation principles Immobilization and phase change Biotransformation mechanisms Groundwater flow and contaminant transport Analytical models for contaminant transport and reactionprocesses Numerical modeling of contaminant transport, transformation,and degradation Detailed descriptions of fundamental processes, characterizationapproaches, and analytical and numerical methods tied to relevantreal-world applications make Bioremediation and NaturalAttenuation: Process Fundamentals and Mathematical Models botha timely course text in hydrogeology and environmental engineeringand a valuable reference for anyone in the groundwater or riskassessment professions.

Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation

Author: Ajay Singh,Owen P. Ward

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662057948

Category: Nature

Page: 281

View: 5668

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The huge expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries in the twentieth century has resulted in the production of a vast array of chem ical compounds and materials that have transformed our lives. The associated large-scale manufacturing, processing and handling activi ties have caused a serious deterioration in environmental quality and created threats to human health. These negative impacts have led to responses and regulations requiring remedial action in support of envi ronmental sustainability. of biotechnological methods through bioremediation, Application has gained prominence as an option for soil remediation methods. Bioremediation is a multidisciplinary approach where biologists, chem ists, soil scientists and engineers work as team to develop and imple ment remediation processes. Bioremediation has now been used successfully to remediate many petroleum-contaminated sites. However, there are as yet no commercial technologies commonly used to reme diate the most recalcitrant contaminants. Nevertheless, bioremediation is a rapidly advancing field and new bio-based remedial technologies are continuing to emerge.

Bioremediation and Sustainability

Research and Applications

Author: Romeela Mohee,Ackmez Mudhoo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118062841

Category: Science

Page: 407

View: 7033

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"Sustainable development requires the development and promotion of environmental management and a constant search for green technologies to treat a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats contaminated by increasing anthropogenic activities with the main sources of contaminants being the chemical industries. Bioremediation is a technique that uses living organisms in order to degrade or transform contaminants into their less toxic forms. It is based on the existence of microorganisms with capacity to attack the compounds on the enzymatic level. Bioremediation is an increasingly popular low-cost alternative to conventional methods for treating wastes and contaminated media with the possibility to degrade these contaminants using natural microbial activity mediated by different consortia of microbes. Over the last few years, the scientific literature has revealed the progressive emergence of various bioremediation techniques. BIOREMEDIATION AND SUSTAINABILITY: Research and Applications presents an up-to-date and comprehensive collection of chapters prepared in bioremediation technology research and application.The strategies covered in this volume can be applied in situ or ex situ, depending on the site in which they will be applied. In situ is the treatment done in the site of the contamination and ex situ involves the removal of soil or water to subsequent treatment. There is a wide variety of techniques that have been developed in the past and are covered in this volume, such as natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, biosorption, composting, phytoremediation, rhizoremediation and bioleaching"--

Microbial Bioremediation of Non-metals

Current Research

Author: Anna-Irini Koukkou

Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press

ISBN: 1904455832

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 1718

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Microbial biodegradation of non-metals pollutants plays a pivotal role in the bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. Such pollutants include chloroethenes, steroids, organophosphorus compounds, alkanes, PAHs, and PCBs. In this important book, international experts exhaustively review this topic from a biochemical and genetic viewpoint, providing a timely overview of current research. Topics covered include: enzymatic biodegradation reactions * the impact of bioturbation on hydrocarbon dynamics in marine sediments * the structure, function, and biodiversity of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases involved in PAH biodegradation * strategies to engineer PCB-degrading bacteria * PCB-degrading plant-microbe systems strategies * the structure, regulation, and diversity of microbial genes encoding biodegradative enzymes. In addition, there are excellent reviews detailing the application of the state-of-the-art molecular technologies to study biodegradative processes. The technologies covered are community fingerprinting, molecular detection of degradative genes, and metagenomics for the analysis and monitoring of microorganisms in situ. These are complemented well by the fascinating reviews of the catabolic plasmids and mobile genetic elements involved in bioremediation, including discussions on the origin and evolution of these catabolic pathways to different genera. In addition, the best procedures for the evaluation and design of relevant in situ remediation strategies are examined and classical ex-situ technologies such Landfarming, Composting, Biopiling, and Slurry-phase bioremediation are described. This book is a vital reference resource for research scientists, graduate students, and other specialists interested on microbial bioremediation of organic pollutants, and it is recommended reading for environmental microbiologists, chemists, and engineers.

Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Author: Surajit Das

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128004827

Category: Science

Page: 642

View: 1121

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Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation brings together experts in relevant fields to describe the successful application of microbes and their derivatives for bioremediation of potentially toxic and relatively novel compounds. This single-source reference encompasses all categories of pollutants and their applications in a convenient, comprehensive package. Our natural biodiversity and environment is in danger due to the release of continuously emerging potential pollutants by anthropogenic activities. Though many attempts have been made to eradicate and remediate these noxious elements, every day thousands of xenobiotics of relatively new entities emerge, thus worsening the situation. Primitive microorganisms are highly adaptable to toxic environments, and can reduce the load of toxic elements by their successful transformation and remediation. Describes many novel approaches of microbial bioremediation including genetic engineering, metagenomics, microbial fuel cell technology, biosurfactants and biofilm-based bioremediation Introduces relatively new hazardous elements and their bioremediation practices including oil spills, military waste water, greenhouse gases, polythene wastes, and more Provides the most advanced techniques in the field of bioremediation, including insilico approach, microbes as pollution indicators, use of bioreactors, techniques of pollution monitoring, and more

Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface

Author: Todd H. Wiedemeier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471197492

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 617

View: 5318

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This work presents the first in-depth examination of the theory, mechanisms, and application of natural attenuation. Written by four internationally recognized leaders in this approach, the book describes both biotic and abiotic natural attenuation processes, focusing on two of the environmental contaminants most frequently encountered in groundwater - fuels and chlorinated solvents. An indispensable reference for anyone working in environmental remediation, Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface is essential reading for scientists and engineers in a range of industries, as well as state and federal environmental regulators, and professors and graduate students in environmental or chemical engineering.

Natural Attenuation of Hazardous Wastes

Author: Rao Y. Surampalli,Say Kee Ong,Eric Seagren,Julio Nuno,Shankha Banerji

Publisher: ASCE Publications

ISBN: 9780784475522

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 256

View: 9009

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Sponsored by the Natural Attenuation Task Committee of the Environmental and Multi-Media Council of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of ASCE. This report provides the regulatory framework, scientific and engineering principles, and applications of natural attenuation for the remediation of contaminated sites. Natural attenuation is a process that relies on the natural assimilative capacity of a site to reduce or stabilize contaminates to desirable levels. It is becoming an increasingly popular, cost-effective remedial alternative for many contaminated sites. The report describes in detail sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and MTBE, chlorinated solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, and radioactive wastes. Topics include: Ømajor pollutants; Øextensive review of literature; Øexamples of applications of natural attenuation; Øsite characterization and monitoring requirements and procedures; and Øbasic scientific principles on physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental engineers and scientists will find this book full of information on basic principles to summaries of natural attenuation applications.

Produced Water

Environmental Risks and Advances in Mitigation Technologies

Author: Kenneth Lee,Jerry Neff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461400462

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 608

View: 8863

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A state-of-the-art review of scientific knowledge on the environmental risk of ocean discharge of produced water and advances in mitigation technologies. In offshore oil and gas operations, produced water (the water produced with oil or gas from a well) accounts for the largest waste stream (in terms of volume discharged). Its discharge is continuous during oil and gas production and typically increases in volume over the lifetime of an offshore production platform. Produced water discharge as waste into the ocean has become an environmental concern because of its potential contaminant content. Environmental risk assessments of ocean discharge of produced water have yielded different results. For example, several laboratory and field studies have shown that significant acute toxic effects cannot be detected beyond the "point of discharge" due to rapid dilution in the receiving waters. However, there is some preliminary evidence of chronic sub-lethal impacts in biota associated with the discharge of produced water from oil and gas fields within the North Sea. As the composition and concentration of potential produced water contaminants may vary from one geologic formation to another, this conference also highlights the results of recent studies in Atlantic Canada.

In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater

Author: Hans F. Stroo,C. Herb Ward

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387849218

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 9511

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In the late 1970s and early 1980s, our nation began to grapple with the legacy of past disposal practices for toxic chemicals. With the passage in 1980 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, it became the law of the land to remediate these sites. The U. S. Department of Defense (DoD), the nation’s largest industrial organization, also recognized that it too had a legacy of contaminated sites. Historic operations at Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps facilities, ranges, manufacturing sites, shipyards, and depots had resulted in widespread contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediment. While Superfund began in 1980 to focus on remediation of heavily contaminated sites largely abandoned or neglected by the private sector, the DoD had already initiated its Installation Restoration Program in the mid 1970s. In 1984, the DoD began the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) for contaminated site assessment and remediation. Two years later, the U. S. Congress codified the DERP and directed the Secretary of Defense to carry out a concurrent program of research, development, and demonstration of innovative remediation technologies. As chronicled in the 1994 National Research Council report, “Ranking Hazardous-Waste Sites for Remedial Action”, our early estimates on the cost and suitability of existing technologies for cleaning up contaminated sites were wildly optimistic. Original estimates, in 1980, projected an average Superfund cleanup cost of a mere $3.

MTBE Remediation Handbook

Author: Ellen Moyer,Paul T. Kostecki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461500214

Category: Science

Page: 670

View: 8549

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Here is a comprehensive and up-to date compendium of the technology and management of MTBE contamination, exploring the myths which impede successful clean-up techniques, and offering effective solutions. Section I looks at the history, properties, occurrence and assessment of MTBE. Section II discusses applicable remediation technologies. Section III offers remediation case studies.

Urban Groundwater Management and Sustainability

Author: John H. Tellam,Michael O. Rivett,Rauf G. Israfilov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402051751

Category: Science

Page: 490

View: 832

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The forty papers in this book explore the state of sustainable groundwater management in a wide range of countries and cultures, climates, and geologies. They are organized in topic areas covering flow, chemical water quality, biological water quality, remediation, engineering, and socio-economics. An introductory section presents a range of integrated regional-scale studies. This volume will interest groundwater specialists in industry and research, and will provide insight for other urban specialists, including planners.

Superfund's Future

What Will It Cost

Author: Katherine Probst

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136523812

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 328

View: 5978

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Reauthorization of the Superfund law continues to be a major source of controversy among political leaders and environmental activists. Some seek a major overhaul of the statute, arguing that considerable cleanup still needs to be done. Others oppose major changes, asserting that cleanup is almost complete. One of the most contentious issues in the debate is whether the taxes that once stocked the Superfund Trust Fund need to be reinstated. The answer depends in large part on how much money EPA will need to implement the Superfund program. To inform this discussion, the U.S. Congress asked Resources for the Future (RFF) to estimate the program's future costs. The results of this research are included in Superfund's Future, a book that will become an essential reference for all participants in the debate about one of the nation's most controversial environmental programs.

Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Intrinsic Remediation

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309132800

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 3130

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In the past decade, officials responsible for clean-up of contaminated groundwater have increasingly turned to natural attenuation-essentially allowing naturally occurring processes to reduce the toxic potential of contaminants-versus engineered solutions. This saves both money and headaches. To the people in surrounding communities, though, it can appear that clean-up officials are simply walking away from contaminated sites. When is natural attenuation the appropriate approach to a clean-up? This book presents the consensus of a diverse committee, informed by the views of researchers, regulators, and community activists. The committee reviews the likely effectiveness of natural attenuation with different classes of contaminants-and describes how to evaluate the "footprints" of natural attenuation at a site to determine whether natural processes will provide adequate clean-up. Included are recommendations for regulatory change. The committee emphasizes the importance of the public's belief and attitudes toward remediation and provides guidance on involving community stakeholders throughout the clean-up process. The book explores how contamination occurs, explaining concepts and terms, and includes case studies from the Hanford nuclear site, military bases, as well as other sites. It provides historical background and important data on clean-up processes and goes on to offer critical reviews of 14 published protocols for evaluating natural attenuation.

Intrinsic Bioremediation

Author: Robert Eric Hinchee,John Thomas Wilson,Douglas C. Downey

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 1449

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An international group of researchers and engineers discuss using natural attenuation to degrade contaminants and thereby remediate soils and groundwater. This volume describes laboratory studies and field demonstrations in support of subsurface remediation at military, manufactured gas plant, landfill, petroleum spill, and other sites. The contaminants of concern include benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX); naphthalene; trichloroethene; trichlorethane; and perchloroethylene. Analytical methods for assessing the potential for natural attenuation (passive bioremediation) at a given site and for confirming and documenting efficacy are discussed.

Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils

Author: Donald L. Wise

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824703332

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 920

View: 2340

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This volume focuses on innovative bioremediation techniques and applications for the cleanup of contaminated media and sites. It includes quantitative and design methods that elucidate the relationships among various operational parameters, and waste chemistry that defines the cost effectiveness of bioremediation projects. It also presents numerical models.