Black Athena Revisited

Author: Mary R. Lefkowitz,Guy MacLean Rogers

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469620324

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 4243

Was Western civilization founded by ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians? Can the ancient Egyptians usefully be called black? Did the ancient Greeks borrow religion, science, and philosophy from the Egyptians and Phoenicians? Have scholars ignored the Afroasiatic roots of Western civilization as a result of racism and anti-Semitism? In this collection of twenty essays, leading scholars in a broad range of disciplines confront the claims made by Martin Bernal in Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. In that work, Bernal proposed a radical reinterpretation of the roots of classical civilization, contending that ancient Greek culture derived from Egypt and Phoenicia and that European scholars have been biased against the notion of Egyptian and Phoenician influence on Western civilization. The contributors to this volume argue that Bernal's claims are exaggerated and in many cases unjustified. Topics covered include race and physical anthropology; the question of an Egyptian invasion of Greece; the origins of Greek language, philosophy, and science; and racism and anti-Semitism in classical scholarship. In the conclusion to the volume, the editors propose an entirely new scholarly framework for understanding the relationship between the cultures of the ancient Near East and Greece and the origins of Western civilization. The contributors are: John Baines, professor of Egyptology, University of Oxford Kathryn A. Bard, assistant professor of archaeology, Boston University C. Loring Brace, professor of anthropology and curator of biological anthropology in the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan John E. Coleman, professor of classics, Cornell University Edith Hall, lecturer in classics, University of Reading, England Jay H. Jasanoff, Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Linguistics, Cornell University Richard Jenkyns, fellow and tutor, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, and university lecturer in classics, University of Oxford Mary R. Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities, Wellesley College Mario Liverani, professor of ancient near eastern history, Universita di Roma, 'La Sapienza' Sarah P. Morris, professor of classics, University of California at Los Angeles Robert E. Norton, associate professor of German, Vassar College Alan Nussbaum, associate professor of classics, Cornell University David O'Connor, professor of Egyptology and curator in charge of the Egyptian section of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania Robert Palter, Dana Professor Emeritus of the History of Science, Trinity College, Connecticut Guy MacLean Rogers, associate professor of Greek and Latin and history, Wellesley College Frank M. Snowden, Jr., professor of classics emeritus, Howard University Lawrence A. Tritle, associate professor of history, Loyola Marymount University Emily T. Vermeule, Samuel E. Zemurray, Jr., and Doris Zemurray Stone-Radcliffe Professor Emerita, Harvard University Frank J. Yurco, Egyptologist, Field Museum of Natural History and the University of Chicago

Black Athena Comes of Age

Author: Wim M. J. van Binsbergen

Publisher: Lit Verlag

ISBN: 9783825848088

Category: Social Science

Page: 367

View: 7893

With the publication, in 1996, of the devastatingly critical Black Athena revisited (eds. Mary Lefkowitz & Guy MacLean Rogers) the impression was created that the Black Athena thesis had been conclusively refuted. However, the present collection has sought to restore the balance. Bernal himself has contributed three innovative and illuminating pieces to the collection, responding to critics, systematising his linguistic claims, and applying the Black Athena thesis to sub-Saharan Africa. By offering answers to the above questions, the collection has sought to take the international debate to the next, constructive phase. It shows that incisive and multifarious criticism of Bernal's position and methods is necessary and often justified. Yet at the turn of the 21st century, the formulation of a non-Eurocentric, multicentric model of global cultural history is of vital importance. It is here that Martin Bernal shows the way as none before him. Specifically his vision's implications for sub-Saharan Africa constitute a major intellectual challenge. Stressing massive intercontinental interactions and vital global contributions of the African peoples, they also invite us to redress the present-day negative image of Africa. Black Athena Alive was first published in 1997 under the title Black Athena Ten Years After (1997). An added chapter takes the discussion into the third millennium, and particularly reflects on Berlinerblau's (1999) sociological contribution to the debate (Heresy in the University).

Black Athena

The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization

Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813537542

Category: History

Page: 848

View: 5885

"Letter correspondences"--P. [731]-739.

Not Out Of Africa

How ""Afrocentrism"" Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History

Author: Mary Lefkowitz

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786723971

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 8251

Not Out of Africa has sparked widespread debate over the teaching of revisionist history in schools and colleges. Was Socrates black? Did Aristotle steal his ideas from the library in Alexandria? Do we owe the underlying tenets of our democratic civilizaiton to the Africans? Mary Lefkowitz explains why politically motivated histories of the ancient world are being written and shows how Afrocentrist claims blatantly contradict the historical evidence. Not Out of Africa is an important book that protects and argues for the necessity of historical truths and standards in cultural education.For this new paperback edition, Mary Lefkowitz has written an epilogue in which she responds to her critics and offers topics for further discussion. She has also added supplementary notes, a bibliography with suggestions for further reading, and a glossary of names.

The Lives of the Greek Poets

Author: Mary R. Lefkowitz

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472503082

Category: Poetry

Page: 240

View: 394

Mary R. Lefkowitz has extensively revised and rewritten her classic study to introduce a new generation of students to the lives of the Greek poets. Thoroughly updated with references to the most recent scholarship, this second edition includes new material and fresh analysis of the ancient biographies of Greece's most famous poets. With little or no independent historical information to draw on, ancient writers searched for biographical data in the poets' own works and in comic poetry about them. Lefkowitz describes how biographical mythology was created and offers a sympathetic account of how individual biographers reconstructed the poets' lives. She argues that the life stories of Greek poets, even though primarily fictional, still merit close consideration, as they provide modern readers with insight into ancient notions about the creative process and the purpose of poetic composition.

History Lesson

A Race Odyssey

Author: Mary R. Lefkowitz

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300145195

Category: Education

Page: 209

View: 3407

In the early 1990s, Classics professor Mary Lefkowitz discovered that one of her faculty colleagues at Wellesley College was teaching his students that Greek culture had been stolen from Africa and that Jews were responsible for the slave trade. This book tells the disturbing story of what happened when she spoke out. Lefkowitz quickly learned that to investigate the origin and meaning of myths composed by people who have for centuries been dead and buried is one thing, but it is quite another to critique myths that living people take very seriously. She also found that many in academia were reluctant to challenge the fashionable idea that truth is merely a form of opinion. For her insistent defense of obvious truths about the Greeks and the Jews, Lefkowitz was embroiled in turmoil for a decade. She faced institutional indifference, angry colleagues, reverse racism, anti-Semitism, and even a lawsuit intended to silence her. In History Lesson Lefkowitz describes what it was like to experience directly the power of both postmodernism and compensatory politics. She offers personal insights into important issues of academic values and political correctness, and she suggests practical solutions for the divisive and painful problems that arise when a political agenda takes precedence over objective scholarship. Her forthright tale uncovers surprising features in the landscape of higher education and an unexpected need for courage from those who venture there.

Women in Greek Myth

Author: Mary R. Lefkowitz

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801886508

Category: History

Page: 238

View: 9992

In the first edition of Women in Greek Myth, Mary R. Lefkowitz convincingly challenged narrow, ideological interpretations of the roles of female characters in Greek mythology. Where some scholars saw the Amazons as the last remnant of a forgotten matriarchy, Clytemnestra as a frustrated individualist, and Antigone as an oppressed revolutionary, Lefkowitz argued that such views were justified neither by the myths themselves nor by the relevant documentary evidence. Concentrating on those aspects of women’s experience most often misunderstood—life apart from men, marriage, influence in politics, self-sacrifice and martyrdom, and misogyny—she presented a far less negative account of the role of Greek women, both ordinary and extraordinary, as manifested in the central works of Greek literature. This updated and expanded edition includes six new chapters on such topics as heroic women in Greek epic, seduction and rape in Greek myth, and the parts played by women in ancient rites and festivals. Revisiting the original chapters as well to incorporate two decades of more recent scholarship, Lefkowitz again shows that what Greek men both feared and valued in women was not their sexuality but their intelligence.

White Athena

The Afrocentrist Theft of Greek Civilization

Author: Walter Slack

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780595393206

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 6307

Ancient Egypt was one of the great civilizations of antiquity, but it was not the only great one. Afrocentrists claim that the Greeks stole their philosophy, science, and culture, but very few Afrocentrists ever say which specific aspects of these items were allegedly purloined. White Athena is author Walter Slack's systematic effort to deal with each of these claims as he delves into the following topics: · The alleged "great conspiracy" against ancient Egypt · The illusion of Egypt's "secret wisdom" · Egyptian religion and Hermeticism · Pyramidology, Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, and Mormonism · The relationship between Egypt and Greece · Greek originality and creativity · Afrocentrism and Egyptian science · Isaac Newton and Egyptian wisdom · Afrocentrist fantasies about ancient Egypt · The myth of the "stolen legacy" Many specialists seem to have missed a number of factual and logical inconsistencies seemingly inherent in Afrocentrist writing, which, when summed, go a long way to undermining their ideological case. Slack takes those inconsistencies seriously and uses them to build a case against Afrocentrist propaganda and to seek fair scholarly credit for the achievements of the Greeks.

Black Spark, White Fire

Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe?

Author: Richard Poe

Publisher: Prima Lifestyles

ISBN: 9780761521631

Category: History

Page: 554

View: 7357

Columbus Discovered America . . . But Who Discovered Europe? Were the ancient Egyptians black? Did Egyptian explorers land in Greece some 4,000 years ago? Did they plant colonies, establish royal houses, and bring civilization to Europe’s savage tribes? Did the secret rites of their temple cults later resurface among the Knights Templar and the Freemasons? In Black Spark, White Fire, Richard Poe provides startling answers to these questions and more. “Brilliant. . . . Poe has produced a classic volume . . . splendid in its conception and powerful in its execution—a major work.”—Molefi Kete Asante, author of The Afrocentric Idea “Superb. . . . I am convinced that within 20 years Richard Poe’s views will be seen as closer to the historical truth than those of the present defenders of the status quo. The book is clear, well-written, and hard to put down. While we disagree on a number of issues, Black Spark, White Fire is the popular book that I am incapable of writing.”—Martin Bernal, author of Black Athena “It is refreshing to hear the Afrocentric theory of ancient Egypt argued so persuasively, from a viewpoint that is neither liberal nor conservative, black nor white.”—Armstrong Williams, syndicated columnist and TV talk show host


The Roots of African American Popular History

Author: Wilson Jeremiah Moses

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521479417

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 313

View: 2641

Looks at Afrocentrism and its history, traces its origins since the eighteenth century, and examines various popular mythologies.

History in Black

African-Americans in Search of an Ancient Past

Author: Yaacov Shavit

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317791843

Category: History

Page: 456

View: 2298

The development of Afrocentric historical writing is explored in this study which traces this recording of history from the Hellenistic-Roman period to the 19th century. Afrocentric writers are depicted as searching for the unique primary source of "culture" from one period to the next. Such passing on of cultural traits from the "ancient model" from the classical period to the origin of culture in Egypt and Africa is shown as being a product purely of creative history.


A Literary Life Reconsidered

Author: William H. Pritchard

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 9780870238383

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 286

View: 4132

Although it does not attempt to revive the image of Frost as a benign, white-haired sage, this book presents him in a strikingly different light than did Lawrance Thompson's three-volume biography. William H. Pritchard sees Frost whole, demonstrating the complex interaction between the poet's life and work. Based not only on the poetry, but on letters, notebooks, recorded interviews and public appearances as well, Frost: A Literary Life Reconsidered treats the most interesting and significant aspects of Frost's life and poetry and attempts to offer an attentive, sensitive portrait of an artist whose critical reputation continues to grow.

Ancient Egyptian Science

A Source Book

Author: Marshall Clagett

Publisher: N.A


Category: Egypt

Page: 462

View: 8685

The volume gives a discourse on the nature and accomplishments of Egyptian mathematics. The author quotes and discusses interpretations of such authors as Eisenlohr, Griffith, Hultsch, Peet, Struce, Neugebauer, Chace, Glanville, van der Waerden, Bruins, Gillings, and others. (Mathematics)

The Houses of History

A Critical Reader in History and Theory

Author: Anna Green,Kathleen Troup

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526115115

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 8710

The houses of history is a clear, jargon-free introduction to the major theoretical approaches employed by historians. This innovative critical reader provides accessible introductions to fourteen schools of thought, from the empiricist to the postcolonial, including chapters on Marxist history, Freud and psychohistory, the Annales, historical sociology, narrative, gender and history of the emotions among others. Each chapter begins with a succinct description of the ideas integral to a particular theory. The authors then explore the insights and controversies arising from the application of this model, drawing upon debates and examples from around the world. Each chapter concludes with a representative example from a historian writing within this conceptual framework. This newly revised edition of the highly successful textbook is the ideal basis for an introductory course in history and theory for students of history at all levels.

European Travel for the Monstrous Gentlewoman

Author: Theodora Goss

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1481466550

Category: Fiction

Page: 720

View: 7619

In the sequel to the critically acclaimed The Strange Case of the Alchemist’s Daughter, Mary Jekyll and the rest of the daughters of literature’s mad scientists embark on a madcap adventure across Europe to rescue another monstrous girl and stop the Alchemical Society’s nefarious plans once and for all. Mary Jekyll’s life has been peaceful since she helped Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson solve the Whitechapel Murders. Beatrice Rappaccini, Catherine Moreau, Justine Frankenstein, and Mary’s sister Diana Hyde have settled into the Jekyll household in London, and although they sometimes quarrel, the members of the Athena Club get along as well as any five young women with very different personalities. At least they can always rely on Mrs. Poole. But when Mary receives a telegram that Lucinda Van Helsing has been kidnapped, the Athena Club must travel to the Austro-Hungarian Empire to rescue yet another young woman who has been subjected to horrific experimentation. Where is Lucinda, and what has Professor Van Helsing been doing to his daughter? Can Mary, Diana, Beatrice, and Justine reach her in time? Racing against the clock to save Lucinda from certain doom, the Athena Club embarks on a madcap journey across Europe. From Paris to Vienna to Budapest, Mary and her friends must make new allies, face old enemies, and finally confront the fearsome, secretive Alchemical Society. It’s time for these monstrous gentlewomen to overcome the past and create their own destinies.


Author: Jeffrey Eugenides

Publisher: Vintage Canada

ISBN: 0307401944

Category: Fiction

Page: 544

View: 4941

Spanning eight decades and chronicling the wild ride of a Greek-American family through the vicissitudes of the twentieth century, Jeffrey Eugenides’ witty, exuberant novel on one level tells a traditional story about three generations of a fantastic, absurd, lovable immigrant family -- blessed and cursed with generous doses of tragedy and high comedy. But there’s a provocative twist. Cal, the narrator -- also Callie -- is a hermaphrodite. And the explanation for this takes us spooling back in time, through a breathtaking review of the twentieth century, to 1922, when the Turks sacked Smyrna and Callie’s grandparents fled for their lives. Back to a tiny village in Asia Minor where two lovers, and one rare genetic mutation, set our narrator’s life in motion. Middlesex is a grand, utterly original fable of crossed bloodlines, the intricacies of gender, and the deep, untidy promptings of desire. It’s a brilliant exploration of divided people, divided families, divided cities and nations -- the connected halves that make up ourselves and our world. Justly acclaimed when it was released in Fall 2002, it announces the arrival of a major writer for our times. From the Hardcover edition.

African Athena

New Agendas

Author: Daniel Orrells,Gurminder K. Bhambra,Tessa Roynon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199595003

Category: History

Page: 469

View: 7296

African Athena examines the history of intellectuals and literary writers who contested the white, dominant Euro-American constructions of the classical past and its influence on the present.

The Immortals

Author: Jordanna Max Brodsky

Publisher: Orbit

ISBN: 0316385875

Category: Fiction

Page: 432

View: 8451

Manhattan has many secrets. Some are older than the city itself. The city sleeps. Selene DiSilva walks her dog along the banks of the Hudson. She is alone -- just the way she likes it. She doesn't believe in friends, and she doesn't speak to her family. Most of them are simply too dangerous. In the predawn calm, Selene finds the body of a young woman washed ashore, gruesomely mutilated and wreathed in laurel. Her ancient rage returns. And so does the memory of a promise she made long ago -- when her name was Artemis. "The Immortals is a lively re-imagining of classical mythology with an engaging premise, a page-turning plot, and an eye for the arresting and uncanny in contemporary urban life." --Deborah Harkness, New York Times bestselling author of A Discovery of Witches Jordanna Max Brodsky's wide-acclaimed debut, The Immortals, sets Greek Gods against a modern Manhattan backdrop. Look out for her next novel, Winter of the Gods, in February 2017.

Euripides and the Gods

Author: Mary R. Lefkowitz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199752052

Category: Greece

Page: 320

View: 6285

Modern readers find it hard to come to terms with the gods in Euripides' dramas. Readers try to dismiss them as a literary convention. Stage productions leave them out, especially in the cases when they appear ex machina. Instead, they place disproportionate emphasis on the harsh criticisms of the gods uttered by some of the characters in the dramas, and have sought to interpret Euripides ironically, viewing his portrayal of the cruel and capricious gods as a means of drawing attention to the deficiencies of ancient Greek religion. In their view Euripides' dramas seek to question the nature and sometimes even the very existence of traditional Greek gods. In Euripides and the Gods, classicist Mary Lefkowitz sets out to show that the tragedian is not undermining ancient religion, but rather describing with a brutal realism what the gods are like, impressing upon his mortal audience the limitations of human understanding. Writing the first extended treatment of these issues for a general audience, Lefkowitz provides a book that deals with all of Euripides' dramas, and argues for a more tolerant and nuanced understanding of ancient Greek religion. Euripides, like Homer, is making a statement about the nature of the world and human life, terrifying but accurate. She explains how the idea that Euripides was an atheist derives from ancient biographies that drew their evidence from comic poets, and shows why the doubts about the gods expressed by his characters must be understood in their dramatic context. Euripides and the Gods offers a compelling invitation to return to the dramatic masterpieces of Euripides with fresh eyes.

The Magus

Author: John Fowles

Publisher: Little, Brown

ISBN: 0316230235

Category: Fiction

Page: 656

View: 6341

The novel widely considered John Fowles's masterpiece: "A dynamo of suspense and horror....A dizzying, electrifying chase through the labyrinth of the soul....Read it in one sitting if possible-but read it" (New York Times). The Magus is the story of Nicholas Urfe, a young Englishman who accepts a teaching assignment on a remote Greek island. There his friendship with a local millionaire evolves into a deadly game, one in which reality and fantasy are deliberately manipulated, and Nicholas must fight for his sanity and his very survival.