Causality in the Sciences

Author: Phyllis McKay Illari,Federica Russo,Jon Williamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199574138

Category: Mathematics

Page: 938

View: 5484

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Why do ideas of how mechanisms relate to causality and probability differ so much across the sciences? Can progress in understanding the tools of causal inference in some sciences lead to progress in others? This book tackles these questions and others concerning the use of causality in the sciences.

Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences

Measuring Variations

Author: Federica Russo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402088175

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 4546

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This investigation into causal modelling presents the rationale of causality, i.e. the notion that guides causal reasoning in causal modelling. It is argued that causal models are regimented by a rationale of variation, nor of regularity neither invariance, thus breaking down the dominant Human paradigm. The notion of variation is shown to be embedded in the scheme of reasoning behind various causal models. It is also shown to be latent – yet fundamental – in many philosophical accounts. Moreover, it has significant consequences for methodological issues: the warranty of the causal interpretation of causal models, the levels of causation, the characterisation of mechanisms, and the interpretation of probability. This book offers a novel philosophical and methodological approach to causal reasoning in causal modelling and provides the reader with the tools to be up to date about various issues causality rises in social science.

Causality and Probability in the Sciences

Author: Federica Russo,Jon Williamson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987352

Category: Mathematics

Page: 543

View: 3993

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Causal inference is perhaps the most important form of reasoning in the sciences. A panoply of disciplines, ranging from epidemiology to biology, from econometrics to physics, make use of probability and statistics in order to infer causal relationships. However, the very foundations of causal inference are up in the air; it is by no means clear which methods of causal inference should be used, nor why they work when they do. This book brings philosophers and scientists together to tackle these important questions. The papers in this volume shed light on the relationship between causality and probability and the application of these concepts within the sciences. With its interdisciplinary perspective and its careful analysis, "Causality and Probability in the Sciences" heralds the transition of causal inference from an art to a science.

Causality

Philosophical Theory meets Scientific Practice

Author: Phyllis Illari,Federica Russo

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191639672

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 6441

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Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.

Causality in Crisis?

Statistical Methods and the Search for Causal Knowledge in the Social Sciences

Author: Vaughn R. McKim,Stephen P. Turner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 410

View: 3479

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Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics

Author: Hsiang-Ke Chao,Szu-Ting Chen,Roberta L. Millstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400724543

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 9370

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This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.

Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory

The Dharma of Natural Systems

Author: Joanna Macy

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791406373

Category: Philosophy

Page: 236

View: 2958

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This book brings important new dimensions to the interface between contemporary Western science and ancient Eastern wisdom. Here for the first time the concepts and insights of general systems theory are presented in tandem with those of the Buddha. Remarkable convergences appear between core Buddhist teachings and the systems view of reality, arising in our century from biology and extending into the social and cognitive sciences. Giving a cogent introduction to both bodies of thought, and a fresh interpretation of the Buddha’s core teaching of dependent co-arising, this book shows how their common perspective on causality can inform our lives. The interdependence of all beings provides the context for clarifying both the role of meditative practice and guidelines for effective action on behalf of the common good.

Causality in Sociological Research

Author: Jakub Karpinski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400904959

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 2029

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The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.

EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences

Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association

Author: Mauricio Suárez,Mauro Dorato,Miklós Rédei

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048132522

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 365

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This volume collects papers presented at the Founding Conference of the European Philosophy of Science Association meeting, held November 2007. It provides an excellent overview of the state of the art in philosophy of science in different European countries.

Research Methodology in the Social, Behavioural and Life Sciences

Designs, Models and Methods

Author: Herman J Ader,Gideon J Mellenbergh

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446205282

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 9912

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This is an ideal text for advanced courses in research methods and experimental design. It argues that the methodology of quantitative research is a unified discipline with basic notions, procedures and ways of reasoning which can be applied across the social, behavioural and life sciences. Key designs, models and methods in research are covered by leading contributors in their field who seek to explain the fundamentals of the research process to enable the student to understand the broader implications and unifying themes.

Causation and Disease

A Chronological Journey

Author: EVANS

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461530245

Category: Medical

Page: 238

View: 7154

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In the front material of this book both a foreword and a preface appear. What the content of a preface should be is well understood. It is the author's retrospective account of intent, of the labors to accomplish that intent, and of the content of the book that resulted. What a foreword should be is less obvious. Most properly, it is perhaps the brief testimony of one who knows the accomplishments of the author and the scope of the field and who may direct readers to the book. On some basis, the writer is assumed to have earned the right to undertake such a task. To undertake the writing of a foreword for so considerable a researcher, teacher, and scholar as Alfred Evans can be seen not only as an honor but also as a daunting one. My first thought, in truth, is that this wine needs no blush and that no foreword is needed. As John Rodman Paul Professor of Epidemiology at Yale, Alfred Evans has an established reputation in the field of causality. We have learned from his insights about the evolution of causal thinking as epidemiology passed from the era of the germ theory into that of the search for causes of chronic noncontagious diseases. It was he who drew attention to the effect of specific context in that evolution.

The Why of Things

Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Author: Peter V. Rabins

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535457

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 4967

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Why was there a meltdown at the Fukushima power plant? Why do some people get cancer and not others? Why is global warming happening? Why does one person get depressed in the face of life's vicissitudes while another finds resilience? Questions like these—questions of causality—form the basis of modern scientific inquiry, posing profound intellectual and methodological challenges for researchers in the physical, natural, biomedical, and social sciences. In this groundbreaking book, noted psychiatrist and author Peter Rabins offers a conceptual framework for analyzing daunting questions of causality. Navigating a lively intellectual voyage between the shoals of strict reductionism and relativism, Rabins maps a three-facet model of causality and applies it to a variety of questions in science, medicine, economics, and more. Throughout this book, Rabins situates his argument within relevant scientific contexts, such as quantum mechanics, cybernetics, chaos theory, and epigenetics. A renowned communicator of complex concepts and scientific ideas, Rabins helps readers stretch their minds beyond the realm of popular literary tipping points, blinks, and freakonomic explanations of the world.

Linguistic Fuzzy Logic Methods in Social Sciences

Author: Badredine Arfi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642133428

Category: Computers

Page: 185

View: 9189

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The book, titled “Linguistic Fuzzy-Logic Methods in Social Sciences,” is a first in its kind. Linguistic fuzzy logic theory deals with sets or categories whose boundaries are blurry or, in other words, “fuzzy,” and which are expressed in a formalism that uses “words” to compute, not numbers, termed in engineering as “soft computing.” This book presents an accessible introduction to this linguistic fuzzy logic methodology, focusing on its applicability to social sciences. Specifically, this is the first book to propose an approach based on linguistic fuzzy-logic and the method of computing with words to the analysis of decision making processes, strategic interactions, causality, and data analysis in social sciences. The project consists of systematic, theoretical and practical discussions and developments of these new methods as well as their applications to various substantive issues of interest to international relations scholars, political scientists, and social scientists in general.

Epistemology, Methodology, and the Social Sciences

Author: Robert S. Cohen,Marx W. Wartofsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401714584

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 8865

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The last decades have seen major reformations in the philosophy and history of science. What has been called 'post-positivist' philosophy of science has introduced radically new concerns with historical, social, and valuative components of scientific thought in the natural sciences, and has raised up the demons of relativism, subjectivism and sociologism to haunt the once calm precincts of objectivity and realism. Though these disturbances intruded upon what had seemed to be the logically well-ordered domain of the philoso phy of the natural sciences, they were no news to the social sciences. There, the messy business of human action, volition, decision, the considerations of practical purposes and social values, the role of ideology and the problem of rationality, had long conspired to defeat logical-reconstructionist programs. The attempt to tarne the social sciences to the harness of a strict hypothetico deductive model of explanation failed. Within the social sciences, phenome nological, Marxist, hermeneuticist, action-theoretical approaches vied in attempting to capture the distinctiveness of human phenomena. In fact, the philosophy of the natural sciences, even in its 'hard' forms, has itself become infected with the increasing reflection upon the role of such social-scientific categories, in the attempt to understand the nature of the scientific enterprise.

Issues in Applied, Analytical, and Imaging Sciences Research: 2012 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1481645978

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 5728

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Issues in Applied, Analytical, and Imaging Sciences Research: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Magnetic Resonance Research. The editors have built Issues in Applied, Analytical, and Imaging Sciences Research: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Magnetic Resonance Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Applied, Analytical, and Imaging Sciences Research: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Causality

Author: Judea Pearl

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052189560X

Category: Computers

Page: 464

View: 5477

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Causality offers the first comprehensive coverage of causal analysis in many sciences, including recent advances using graphical methods. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artificial intelligence,...

Models and Methods in the Philosophy of Science: Selected Essays

Author: Patrick Suppes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792322115

Category: Mathematics

Page: 510

View: 7450

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This book publishes 31 of the author's selected papers which have appeared, with one exception, since 1970. The papers cover a wide range of topics in the philosophy of science. Part I is concerned with general methodology, including formal and axiomatic methods in science. Part II is concerned with causality and explanation. The papers extend the author's earlier work on a probabilistic theory of causality. The papers in Part III are concerned with probability and measurement, especially foundational questions about probability. Part IV consists of several papers, including two historical ones, on the foundations of physics, with the main emphasis being on quantum mechanics. Part V, the longest part, is on the foundations of psychology and includes papers mainly on learning and perception. The book is aimed at philosophers of science, scientists concerned with the methodology of the social sciences, and mathematical psychologists interested in theories of learning, perception and measurement.

The First British-Soviet Geographical Seminar

Author: F. E. Ian Hamilton

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483147428

Category: Travel

Page: 364

View: 4278

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The First British-Soviet Geographical Seminar contains the scientific reports prepared by the participants of First British-Soviet Geographical Seminar held in Great Britain on May 9-20, 1978. The seminar focuses on tendencies in the development of contemporary trends and methods of scientific geographical studies in Soviet Union and Great Britain. Organized into 16 chapters, this book begins with a discussion on the contemporary British geography and modern Soviet geography. Subsequent chapters explore the use of minicomputers in geography teaching; expanded model of curriculum development and diffusion in education; postgraduate research students in British universities; research and application in British geomorphology; and the Soviet physical and biological geography. Other chapters detail landscape protection and development control; aims and implementation in British urban and regional planning; main methods of systems analysis relevant to urban and regional modeling; problems of the inner city; and the statistical and cartographic methods of analyzing spatial patterns of mortality. The geography of mineral supply; socio-economic geography in the U.S.S.R.; and the possibilities for future British-Soviet co-operation in geography are also addressed.

History and Causality

Author: M. Hewitson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137372400

Category: History

Page: 262

View: 9298

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This volume investigates the different attitudes of historians and other social scientists to questions of causality. It argues that historical theorists after the linguistic turn have paid surprisingly little attention to causes in spite of the centrality of causation in many contemporary works of history.