Causation: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Mumford,Rani Lill Anjum

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019968443X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 128

View: 5294

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Without cause and effect, there would be no science or technology, no moral responsibility, and no system of law. Causation is therefore the most fundamental connection in the universe and a core topic of philosophical thought. This Very Short Introduction introduces all of the main theories of causation and its key debates.

Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Mumford

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199657122

Category: Philosophy

Page: 113

View: 1942

DOWNLOAD NOW »
An introduction to metaphysics offers questions and answers covering such issues as properties, changes, time, personal identity, nothingness, and consciousness.

Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Alfred Ayer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191606537

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 3960

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Hume is one of the greatest of all British philosophers, and even in his own lifetime was celebrated as one of the pivotal figures of the Enlightenment. A central theme of his philosophy is the conviction that questions traditionally thought of as completely independent of the scientific realm–questions about the mind, about morality, and about God, for example–are actually best explained using the experimental methods characteristic of the natural sciences. Hume's 'naturalist' approach to a wide variety of philosophical topics resulted in highly original theories about perception, self-identity, causation, morality, politics, and religion, all of which are discussed in this stimulating introduction by A J Ayer, himself one of the twentieth century's most important philosophers. Ayer also gives an account of Hume's fascinating life and character, and includes generous quotations from Hume's lucid and often witty writings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Philosophy of Science

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Samir Okasha

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198745583

Category: Philosophy

Page: 140

View: 3055

DOWNLOAD NOW »
How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Schopenhauer: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Christopher Janaway

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191604496

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 2225

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Schopenhauer is the most readable of German philosophers. This book gives a succinct explanation of his metaphysical system, concentrating on the original aspects of his thought, which inspired many artists and thinkers including Nietzsche, Wagner, Freud, and Wittgenstein. Schopenhauer's central notion is that of the will - a blind, irrational force that he uses to interpret both the human mind and the whole of nature. Seeing human behaviour as that of a natural organism governed by the will to life, Schopenhauer developed radical insights concerning the unconscious and sexuality which influenced both psychologists and philosophers. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Geschichte/History

Author: Jürgen Stolzenberg,Fred Rush

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110389665

Category: Philosophy

Page: 323

View: 981

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The 10th volume of the International Yearbook of German Idealism attends to the issue of “History“. The contributions examine from different perspectives the various roles of history, historiography, philosophy of history and philosophical historiography in German Idealism and analyze their impact in the 19th and 20th century.

Free Will: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Thomas Pink

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192853589

Category: Philosophy

Page: 132

View: 5006

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Every day we seem to make and act upon all kinds of free choices - but are these choices really free? Or are we compelled to act the way we do by factors beyond our control? This book looks at free will.

Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction

Author: Samir Okasha

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062790

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 6321

DOWNLOAD NOW »
How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully 'objective'? What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Roger Scruton

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191604534

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 1942

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Benedict de Spinoza (1632-77) was at once the father of the Enlightenment and the last sad guardian of the medieval world. In his brilliant synthesis of geometrical method, religious sentiment, and secular science, he attempted to reconcile the conflicting moral and intellectual demands of his epoch, and to present a vision of humanity as simultaneously bound by necessity and eternally free. In this book Roger Scruton presents a clear and systematic analysis of Spinoza's thought, and shows its relevance to today's intellectual preoccupations. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Modern War: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Richard English

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199607893

Category: History

Page: 132

View: 7546

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this accessible and authoritative Very Short Introduction, Richard English considers what modern warfare is and what it achieves. Addressing our assumptions about war in the modern period, and drawing upon direct accounts of warfare, he considers its impact on society, culture, economics, as well its future.

History: A Very Short Introduction

Author: John Arnold

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 019285352X

Category: History

Page: 134

View: 2230

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Starting with an examination of how historians work, this "Very Short Introduction" aims to explore history in a general, pithy, and accessible manner, rather than to delve into specific periods.

Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Rodolfo Saracci

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191609242

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 4776

DOWNLOAD NOW »
What is epidemiology? What are the causes of a new disease? How can pandemics be prevented? Epidemiology is the study of the changing patterns of disease and its main aim is to improve the health of populations. It's a vital field, central to the health of society, to the identification of causes of disease, and to their management and prevention. Epidemiology has had an impact on many areas of medicine; from discovering the relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer, to the origin and spread of new epidemics. However, it is often poorly understood, largely due to misrepresentations in the media. In this Very Short Introduction Rodolfo Saracci dispels some of the myths surrounding the study of epidemiology. He provides a general explanation of the principles behind clinical trials, and explains the nature of basic statistics concerning disease. He also looks at the ethical and political issues related to obtaining and using information concerning patients, and trials involving placebos. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

السببية: مقدمة شديدة الاختصار

Causation: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

Author: Stephen Mumford,Rani Lil Anjum

Publisher: العبيكان للنشر

ISBN: 6035038808

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 2457

DOWNLOAD NOW »
قد تثير السَّببيَّة قلق المُبتدِئ؛ بسبب طبيعتها النظريَّة والفنيَّة، شأنها في ذلك شأن العديد من مجالات الفلسفة، ومع أنّ الكثير من الأفكار الأساسيَّة، والمفاهيم، والأسئلة المتعلقة بالسَّببيَّة تمتاز بالبساطة، فإننا نرمي إلى شرح المسائل الرئيسة المرتبطة بها، وإذا لم نتبنَّ إحدى النظريَّات المرتبطة بالسَّببيَّة، فلن نتمكن من البحث أوالخوض في ماهيَّتها، وعليه، إذا تمكَّن أحدنا من تطوير نظريَّته السَّببيَّة وتحديثها فسيكون قادرًا على اكتشاف الأسباب، وقد يكون هذا الأمر حيويًّا، وضروريًّا؛ فعلى سبيل المثال: لا بدَّ من تحديد أسباب أمراض مُعيَّنة، لنتمكَّن من توفير الأدوية التي تسهم في الشفاء من تلك الأمراض؛ ولن يكون بمقدورنا السَّيطرة على التغيُّر المناخيِّ إلا عندما نفهم مُسبِّباته، وينبغي لنا أن نُحدِّد الأسباب جميعَها التي تؤدِّي إلى نشوب الحروب، وولادة الفقر والمعاناة، والألم، ونتجنَّبها بتوفير أسباب الاستقرار، والسَّلام، والازدهار. ولكن كيف من المُمْكن أنْ نجعل هذه الآمال، والطُموحات حقيقة على أرض الواقع إذا لم نَعِ طبيعة العَلاقة السَّببيَّة بين الأشياء؟ من يريد الحصول على الإجابة، فلا شكَّ أنَّ هذا هو الكتاب الأنسب لذلك ، ولا شكَّ في أنَّ الجميع معنيٌّ ومهتم بتلك التسؤلات. العبيكان 2016

Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Tim Bayne

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199601720

Category: Philosophy

Page: 126

View: 8717

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"In this lively Very Short Introduction, Tim Bayne explores the nature of thought. Drawing on research from philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology, he examines what we know--and what we don't know--about one of the defining features of human nature: our capacity for thought."--Page 2 of cover.

Knowledge

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Jennifer Nagel

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 019966126X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 133

View: 7583

DOWNLOAD NOW »
What is knowledge? Is it the same as opinion or truth? Do you need to be able to justify a claim in order to count as knowing it? How can we know that the outer world is real and not a dream? Questions like these have existed since ancient times, and the branch of philosophy dedicated to answering them - epistemology - has been active for thousands of years. In this thought-provoking Very Short Introduction, Jennifer Nagel considers the central problems and paradoxes in the theory of knowledge and draws attention to the ways in which philosophers and theorists have responded to them. By exploring the relationship between knowledge and truth, and considering the problem of scepticism, Nagel introduces a series of influential historical and contemporary theories of knowledge, incorporating methods from logic, linguistics, and psychology, using a number of everyday examples to demonstrate the key issues and debates. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Jonathan Barnes

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780192854087

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 5468

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The influence of Aristotle, the prince of philosophers, on the intellectual history of the West is second to none. In this book Jonathan Barnes examines Aristotle's scientific researches, his discoveries in logic and his metaphysical theories, his work in psychology and in ethics and politics, and his ideas about art and poetry, placing his teachings in their historical context. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Simon Critchley

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191578320

Category: Philosophy

Page: 168

View: 5626

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Simon Critchley's Very Short Introduction shows that Continental philosophy encompasses a distinct set of philosophical traditions and practices, with a compelling range of problems all too often ignored by the analytic tradition. He discusses the ideas and approaches of philosophers such as Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Habermas, Foucault, and Derrida, and introduces key concepts such as existentialism, nihilism, and phenomenology by explaining their place in the Continental tradition. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Foucault

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Gary Gutting

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192805576

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 124

View: 831

DOWNLOAD NOW »
From aesthetics to the penal system; from madness and civilisation to avant-garde literature, Foucault strove to understand the deep concepts of identity, knowledge, and power. He rejected old models of thinking and replaced them with versions that are still widely debated today. A major influence on Queer Theory and gender studies, he also wrote on architecture, history, law, medicine, literature, politics and of course philosophy. Gutting presents a comprehensive but non-systematic treatment of some highlights of Foucault's life and thought. Beginning with a brief biography to set the social and political stage, he then tackles Foucault's thoughts on literature, in particular the avant-garde scene; his philosophical and historical work; his treatment of knowledge and power in modern society; and his thoughts on sexuality.

Child Psychology

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Usha Goswami

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199646597

Category: Psychology

Page: 134

View: 6590

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This Very Short Introduction provides an up-to-date, authoritative, and accessible guide to modern child psychology, from birth to early adolescence. Beginning with infancy, Usha Goswami considers the process of attachment and bonding, showing how secure attachments enable the development of self-understanding. Exploring childhood learning, ranging from aspects of language and thinking to cognitive reasoning, Goswami looks at how babies and toddlers develop an understanding of the physical, biological, and social worlds, and develop complex abilities like language and morality. Demonstrating how learning is shaped by the environments surrounding the child; at home, school, with peers, and in wider society, Goswami emphasizes the importance of childhood friendships and siblings for psychological development. Introducing the key theories in child psychology, Goswami explains why children develop as they do and how society can further optimize their development through the adolescent years. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.