Change, Choice and Inference

A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning

Author: Hans Rott

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198503064

Category: Mathematics

Page: 381

View: 7526

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Change, Choice and Inference unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, philosophy, economics and artificial intelligence.

Conditionals, Information, and Inference

International Workshop, WCII 2002, Hagen, Germany, May 13-15, 2002, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Gabriele Kern-Isberner,Wilhelm Rödder,Friedhelm Kulmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540322353

Category: Computers

Page: 219

View: 5880

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Conditionals are fascinating and versatile objects of knowledge representation. On the one hand, they may express rules in a very general sense, representing, for example, plausible relationships, physical laws, and social norms. On the other hand, as default rules or general implications, they constitute a basic tool for reasoning, even in the presence of uncertainty. In this sense, conditionals are intimately connected both to information and inference. Due to their non-Boolean nature, however, conditionals are not easily dealt with. They are not simply true or false — rather, a conditional “if A then B” provides a context, A, for B to be plausible (or true) and must not be confused with “A entails B” or with the material implication “not A or B.” This ill- trates how conditionals represent information, understood in its strict sense as reduction of uncertainty. To learn that, in the context A, the proposition B is plausible, may reduce uncertainty about B and hence is information. The ab- ity to predict such conditioned propositions is knowledge and as such (earlier) acquired information. The ?rst work on conditional objects dates back to Boole in the 19th c- tury, and the interest in conditionals was revived in the second half of the 20th century, when the emerging Arti?cial Intelligence made claims for appropriate formaltoolstohandle“generalizedrules.”Sincethen,conditionalshavebeenthe topic of countless publications, each emphasizing their relevance for knowledge representation, plausible reasoning, nonmonotonic inference, and belief revision.

Readings in Formal Epistemology

Sourcebook

Author: Horacio Arló-Costa,Vincent F. Hendricks,Johan van Benthem

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319204513

Category: Philosophy

Page: 937

View: 596

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This volume presents 38 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Epistemic Logic. 'Formal epistemology' is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy, the origins of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision and game theory. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading, and thus offers a complete teaching and research package for students as well as research scholars of formal epistemology, philosophy, logic, computer science, theoretical economics and cognitive psychology.

Belief Change

Introduction and Overview

Author: Eduardo Fermé,Sven Ove Hansson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319605356

Category: Computers

Page: 125

View: 9959

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This book explains how the logic of theory change employs formal models in the investigation of changes in belief states and databases. The topics covered include equivalent characterizations of AGM operations, extended representations of the belief states, change operators not included in the original framework, iterated change, applications of the model, its connections with other formal frameworks, and criticism of the model.

A Practical Study of Argument, Enhanced Edition

Author: Trudy Govier

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133934641

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 9268

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A PRACTICAL STUDY OF ARGUMENT gives you the tools you need to understand informal logic and formulate a good argument. By focusing on real world examples and including helpful study tools such as exercises with answers, a glossary of common fallacies, chapter summaries, and a book-specific online program (available with the book), A PRACTICAL STUDY OF ARGUMENT, Enhanced Seventh Edition provides you with everything you need to master the material with ease. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Interpolation and Definability

Modal and Intuitionistic Logics

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Larisa Maksimova

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198511744

Category: Computers

Page: 508

View: 8001

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This book is a specialized monograph on interpolation and definability, a notion central in pure logic and with significant meaning and applicability in all areas where logic is applied, especially computer science, artificial intelligence, logic programming, philosophy of science and natural language.Suitable for researchers and graduate students in mathematics, computer science and philosophy, this is the latest in the prestigous world-renowned Oxford Logic Guides, which contains Michael Dummet's Elements of intuitionism (second edition), J. M. Dunn and G. Hardegree's Algebraic Methods in Philosophical Logic, H. Rott's Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and NonmonotonicReasoning, P. T. Johnstone's Sketches of an Elephant: A Topos Theory Compendium: Volumes 1 and 2, and David J. Pym and Eike Ritter's Reductive Logic and Proof Search: Proof theory, semantics and control.

For the Sake of the Argument

Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning

Author: Isaac Levi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521497138

Category: Philosophy

Page: 341

View: 5450

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This book offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. In arguing that supposition plays a far greater role in deliberation and decision than it is given credit for, this major study will be required reading for all philosophers and logicians concerned with conditionals, decision theory and inductive inference. It will also interest those in artificial intelligence who work on expert systems, default reasoning, and nonmonotonic reasoning.

Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference

The Turn Towards the Practical

Author: R.H. Johnson,H.J. Ohlbach,Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080532912

Category: Computers

Page: 508

View: 5602

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The Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference is an authoritative reference work in a single volume, designed for the attention of senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in all the leading research areas concerned with the logic of practical argument and inference. After an introductory chapter, the role of standard logics is surveyed in two chapters. These chapters can serve as a mini-course for interested readers, in deductive and inductive logic, or as a refresher. Then follow two chapters of criticism; one the internal critique and the other the empirical critique. The first deals with objections to standard logics (as theories of argument and inference) arising from the research programme in philosophical logic. The second canvasses criticisms arising from work in cognitive and experimental psychology. The next five chapters deal with developments in dialogue logic, interrogative logic, informal logic, probability logic and artificial intelligence. The last chapter surveys formal approaches to practical reasoning and anticipates possible future developments. Taken as a whole the Handbook is a single-volume indication of the present state of the logic of argument and inference at its conceptual and theoretical best. Future editions will periodically incorporate significant new developments.

Change in View

Principles of Reasoning

Author: Gilbert Harman

Publisher: Bradford Books

ISBN: 9780262580915

Category: Psychology

Page: 162

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Change in View offers an entirely original approach to the philosophical study of reasoning by identifying principles of reasoning with principles for revising one's beliefs and intentions and not with principles of logic. This crucial observation leads to a number of important and interesting consequences that impinge on psychology and artificial intelligence as well as on various branches of philosophy, from epistemology to ethics and action theory.

Books in Print

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

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Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.

Reasoning About Knowledge

Author: Ronald Fagin,Yoram Moses,Moshe Y Vardi,Joseph Y Halpern

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262562003

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 517

View: 9833

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Reasoning about knowledge—particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge—was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a key role in a surprising number of contexts, from understanding conversations to the analysis of distributed computer algorithms. Reasoning About Knowledge is the first book to provide a general discussion of approaches to reasoning about knowledge and its applications to distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and game theory. It brings eight years of work by the authors into a cohesive framework for understanding and analyzing reasoning about knowledge that is intuitive, mathematically well founded, useful in practice, and widely applicable. The book is almost completely self-contained and should be accessible to readers in a variety of disciplines, including computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, and game theory. Each chapter includes exercises and bibliographic notes.

Handbook of Knowledge Representation

Author: Frank van Harmelen,Vladimir Lifschitz,Bruce Porter

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080557021

Category: Computers

Page: 1034

View: 780

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Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily

Reductive Logic and Proof-search

Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

Author: David J. Pym,Eike Ritter

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198526334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

View: 7335

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This book is a specialized monograph on the development of the mathematical and computational metatheory of reductive logic and proof-search, areas of logic that are becoming important in computer science. A systematic foundational text on these emerging topics, it includes proof-theoretic, semantic/model-theoretic and algorithmic aspects. The scope ranges from the conceptual background to reductive logic, through its mathematical metatheory, to its modern applications in the computational sciences. Suitable for researchers and graduate students in mathematical, computational and philosophical logic, and in theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence, this is the latest in the prestigous world-renowned Oxford Logic Guides, which contains Michael Dummet's Elements of intuitionism (2nd Edition), Dov M. Gabbay, Mark A. Reynolds, and Marcelo Finger's Temporal Logic Mathematical Foundations and Computational Aspects , J. M. Dunn and G. Hardegree's Algebraic Methods in Philosophical Logic, H. Rott's Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning , and P. T. Johnstone's Sketches of an Elephant: A Topos Theory Compendium: Volumes 1 and 2 .

Non-axiomatic Logic

A Model of Intelligent Reasoning

Author: Pei Wang

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814440280

Category: Computers

Page: 258

View: 6306

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This book provides a systematic and comprehensive description of Non-Axiomatic Logic, which is the result of the author''s research for about three decades.Non-Axiomatic Logic is designed to provide a uniform logical foundation for Artificial Intelligence, as well as an abstract description of the OC laws of thoughtOCO followed by the human mind. Different from OC mathematicalOCO logic, where the focus is the regularity required when demonstrating mathematical conclusions, Non-Axiomatic Logic is an attempt to return to the original aim of logic, that is, to formulate the regularity in actual human thinking. To achieve this goal, the logic is designed under the assumption that the system has insufficient knowledge and resources with respect to the problems to be solved, so that the OC logical conclusionsOCO are only valid with respect to the available knowledge and resources. Reasoning processes according to this logic covers cognitive functions like learning, planning, decision making, problem solving, This book is written for researchers and students in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, and can be used as a textbook for courses at graduate level, or upper-level undergraduate, on Non-Axiomatic Logic."

Reasoning

Studies of Human Inference and Its Foundations

Author: Lance J. Rips

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521848156

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1057

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An interdisciplinary collection of major essays on reasoning by a well-known group of philosophers, psychologists and cognitive scientists.

Knowledge in Flux

Modeling the Dynamics of Epistemic States

Author: Peter Gärdenfors

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987895

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 1520

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This is a new edition of Gardenfors' classic text, presented to the community with a Foreword by David Makinson and an appendix containing a paper "Relations between the logic of theory change and nonmonotonic logic" by the author and David Makinson. The following describes the first edition: Knowledge in Flux presents a theory of rational changes of belief, focusing on revisions that occur when the agent receives new information that is inconsistent with the present epistemic state. It brings together, systematises and enlarges upon an already influential body of work by the author and his colleagues on the dynamics of theories and epistemic states. The problem of knowledge representation is one of the most important current research problems in philosophy, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science in general. While most of the research has been devoted to analysing the structure of epistemic states, this book is unique in describing the dynamics of knowledge and belief, and in presenting models of knowledge that focus on expansions, revisions, and contractions of epistemic states. "Knowledge in Flux is sure to be widely recognised as the most important systematic contribution to these issues yet made." David J. Israel, Senior Computer Scientist, SRI International Peter Gardenfors is a Professor in Cognitive Science at Lund University.

Bayesian Rationality

The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning

Author: Mike Oaksford,Nick Chater

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198524496

Category: Philosophy

Page: 330

View: 8206

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For almost 2,500 years, the Western concept of what is to be human has been dominated by the idea that the mind is the seat of reason - humans are, almost by definition, the rational animal. In this text a more radical suggestion for explaining these puzzling aspects of human reasoning is put forward.

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science

Author: Keith Stenning,Michiel van Lambalgen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262293536

Category: Medical

Page: 422

View: 7170

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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.