Change, Choice and Inference

A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning

Author: Hans Rott

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198503064

Category: Mathematics

Page: 381

View: 2801

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Change, Choice and Inference unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, philosophy, economics and artificial intelligence.

Conditionals, Information, and Inference

International Workshop, WCII 2002, Hagen, Germany, May 13-15, 2002, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Gabriele Kern-Isberner,Wilhelm Rödder,Friedhelm Kulmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540322353

Category: Computers

Page: 219

View: 4939

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Conditionals are fascinating and versatile objects of knowledge representation. On the one hand, they may express rules in a very general sense, representing, for example, plausible relationships, physical laws, and social norms. On the other hand, as default rules or general implications, they constitute a basic tool for reasoning, even in the presence of uncertainty. In this sense, conditionals are intimately connected both to information and inference. Due to their non-Boolean nature, however, conditionals are not easily dealt with. They are not simply true or false — rather, a conditional “if A then B” provides a context, A, for B to be plausible (or true) and must not be confused with “A entails B” or with the material implication “not A or B.” This ill- trates how conditionals represent information, understood in its strict sense as reduction of uncertainty. To learn that, in the context A, the proposition B is plausible, may reduce uncertainty about B and hence is information. The ab- ity to predict such conditioned propositions is knowledge and as such (earlier) acquired information. The ?rst work on conditional objects dates back to Boole in the 19th c- tury, and the interest in conditionals was revived in the second half of the 20th century, when the emerging Arti?cial Intelligence made claims for appropriate formaltoolstohandle“generalizedrules.”Sincethen,conditionalshavebeenthe topic of countless publications, each emphasizing their relevance for knowledge representation, plausible reasoning, nonmonotonic inference, and belief revision.

Readings in Formal Epistemology

Sourcebook

Author: Horacio Arló-Costa,Vincent F. Hendricks,Johan van Benthem

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319204513

Category: Philosophy

Page: 937

View: 585

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This volume presents 38 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Epistemic Logic. 'Formal epistemology' is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy, the origins of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision and game theory. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading, and thus offers a complete teaching and research package for students as well as research scholars of formal epistemology, philosophy, logic, computer science, theoretical economics and cognitive psychology.

Belief Change

Introduction and Overview

Author: Eduardo Fermé,Sven Ove Hansson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319605356

Category: Computers

Page: 125

View: 602

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This book explains how the logic of theory change employs formal models in the investigation of changes in belief states and databases. The topics covered include equivalent characterizations of AGM operations, extended representations of the belief states, change operators not included in the original framework, iterated change, applications of the model, its connections with other formal frameworks, and criticism of the model.

Reductive Logic and Proof-search

Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

Author: David J. Pym,Eike Ritter

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198526334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

View: 6187

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This book is a specialized monograph on the development of the mathematical and computational metatheory of reductive logic and proof-search, areas of logic that are becoming important in computer science. A systematic foundational text on these emerging topics, it includes proof-theoretic, semantic/model-theoretic and algorithmic aspects. The scope ranges from the conceptual background to reductive logic, through its mathematical metatheory, to its modern applications in the computational sciences. Suitable for researchers and graduate students in mathematical, computational and philosophical logic, and in theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence, this is the latest in the prestigous world-renowned Oxford Logic Guides, which contains Michael Dummet's Elements of intuitionism (2nd Edition), Dov M. Gabbay, Mark A. Reynolds, and Marcelo Finger's Temporal Logic Mathematical Foundations and Computational Aspects , J. M. Dunn and G. Hardegree's Algebraic Methods in Philosophical Logic, H. Rott's Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning , and P. T. Johnstone's Sketches of an Elephant: A Topos Theory Compendium: Volumes 1 and 2 .

Books in Print

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

View: 2933

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Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.

Interpolation and Definability

Modal and Intuitionistic Logics

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Larisa Maksimova

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198511744

Category: Computers

Page: 508

View: 7836

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This book is a specialized monograph on interpolation and definability, a notion central in pure logic and with significant meaning and applicability in all areas where logic is applied, especially computer science, artificial intelligence, logic programming, philosophy of science and natural language.Suitable for researchers and graduate students in mathematics, computer science and philosophy, this is the latest in the prestigous world-renowned Oxford Logic Guides, which contains Michael Dummet's Elements of intuitionism (second edition), J. M. Dunn and G. Hardegree's Algebraic Methods in Philosophical Logic, H. Rott's Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and NonmonotonicReasoning, P. T. Johnstone's Sketches of an Elephant: A Topos Theory Compendium: Volumes 1 and 2, and David J. Pym and Eike Ritter's Reductive Logic and Proof Search: Proof theory, semantics and control.

AnalyOmen 2

Proceedings of the 2nd Conference "Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy"

Author: Georg Meggle,Andreas Mundt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110152531

Category: Analysis (Philosophy)

Page: 573

View: 7615

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Rationalität, Realismus, Revision / Rationality, Realism, Revision

Vorträge des 3. internationalen Kongresses der Gesellschaft für Analytische Philosophie vom 15. bis zum 18. September 1997 in München / Proceedings of the 3rd international Congress of the Society for Analytical Philosophy September 15-18, 1997 in Munich

Author: Julian Nida-Rümelin

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110805707

Category: Philosophy

Page: 898

View: 308

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Logische Grundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

Author: Nils J. Nilsson

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322928810

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 9229

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Das Buch ist die deutsche Übersetzung des Standardwerkes der Stanforder Professoren Michael R. Genesereth und Nils J. Nilsson.Im Unterschied zu deutschen Lehrbüchern der Informatik zeichnet sich das Buch dadurch aus, daß es einen gut lesbaren Überblick gibt, ohne allzu formalistisch zu werden, gleichwohl aber von hohem Niveau ist und die Ergebnisse jüngster Forschung berücksichtigt. Das Buch empfiehlt sich sowohl für Studenten und Dozenten der Inf ormatik, aber auch für Forscher aus anderen Gebieten, die von den Grundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz profitieren möchten.

Erfahrung und Prognose

Eine Analyse der Grundlagen und der Struktur der Erkenntnis

Author: Hans Reichenbach

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663121372

Category: Mathematics

Page: 312

View: 9350

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Dieses Buch ist Reichenbachs Erkenntnistheorie, entstanden im Exil und 1938 in Englisch veröffentlicht.Es liegt hier erstmals in deutscher Sprache vor. Es enthält den Schlüssel zum Verständnis der Reichenbachschen Philosophie und besticht durch die sehr geschlossene Darstellung der Gedanken über den logischen Empirismus.

Constraint-Programmierung

Grundlagen und Anwendungen

Author: Thom Frühwirth,Slim Abdennadher

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642591159

Category: Mathematics

Page: 165

View: 3630

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Das Buch gibt einen kompakten, aber umfassenden Überblick über das Problemlösen und Programmieren mit "Constraints" (Randbedingungen). Diese aktuelle Programmiermethodik ermöglicht es, Aufgaben direkt zu formulieren und effizient zu lösen. Sie gewinnt zusehends Bedeutung in Anwendungsbereichen wie Kombinatorische Suchprobleme (z.B. Zeitplanen, Layout-Optimierung), Berechnungen (Finanzanalyse), Simulation (Hardware-Verifikation) oder allgemein Schließen und Rechnen mit ungenauer oder unvollständiger Information (z.B. Kostenschätzung). Die theoretisch fundierte Darstellung mit Aufgaben und Anwendungsbeispielen aus der Praxis ist in der Lehre erprobt, aber auch für Forscher und Praktiker von Nutzen.

Formale Dialektik

Ein Beitrag zu einer Theorie des rationalen Argumentierens

Author: Rainer Hegselmann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 3787325638

Category: Philosophy

Page: 186

View: 2598

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Der Sache nach geht es in der Arbeit um jenes Reglement, das dem vernünftigsten Argumentieren zugrunde liegt. Es wird häufig angenommen, daß dieses Reglement, das im übrigen schon Aristoteles in seiner Topik zum Gegenstand der Untersuchung macht, als durch formale Logik systematisiert gelten kann. Die Arbeit führt dagegen zunächst den Nachweis, daß diese Auffassung nicht haltbar ist. Gleichwohl hätte sich eine Theorie des rationalen Argumentierens an jenem Präzisionsniveau zu orientieren, das durch die formale Logik heute erreicht ist. In dem zentralen systematischen Teil der Arbeit wird daher ein begrifflich-technischer Rahmen entworfen, der im Anschluß erlaubt, einfache Modelle disputativer Auseinandersetzungen (Behaupten, Schließen, Widerlegen, Fragen, Antworten, Zustimmen etc.) zu konstruieren und auf dem geforderten Präzisionsniveau zu analysieren. Damit schließt der Vf. für die allgemeinen Grundlagen der Geisteswissenschaften eine Lücke, die sich zwischen Logik und der Praxis sprachlichen Argumentierens im Alltag, aber auch in den interpretierten Disziplinen auftat.