The Chemistry of Wood Preservation

Author: R Thompson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1845698703

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 316

View: 1121

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The effective and lasting treatment of wood against insect and fungal attack grows in importance as forestry reserves decline and as cost increases feed through to the building trade and other timber users. At the same time, environmental pressures bear ever more heavily on the types of chemicals and processes employed in the preservation industry. This book records the proceedings of an international meeting arranged to address such issues. The 15 principal chapters are based upon papers by invited experts to a combined audience of preservation practitioners and non-specialists. The chapter sequence follows the logical pattern of the conference, beginning with a review of the biological threats to be contended. There follow historical and state-of-the-art accounts of aqueous, organic solvent and non-liquid treatment processes. Preservatives increasingly must meet international product and environmental standards, which along with the related test, analytical and quality control procedures, are described and referenced. Contributors from the wood preservation industry address a range of needs associated with cost, safety and performance efficacy, not neglecting a search for a better understanding of the finer chemical mechanisms involved. Remaining problems are outlined in strategies for further research and development. Address a range of needs associated with cost, safety and performance efficacy Problems are outlined in strategies for further research and development

Chemistry in the Utilization of Wood

Pergamon Series of Monographs on Furniture and Timber

Author: R. H. Farmer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148315498X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 202

View: 1997

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Chemistry in the Utilization of Wood deals with the chemistry of wood and its technical and practical applications. It shows how the chemical nature of wood influences its properties and utilization, both as a constructional material and as the raw material for the manufacture of secondary products such as pulp and paper, cellulose derivatives, and board materials. Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the chemical nature of wood, including a brief treatment of its anatomical structure. The discussion then turns to the chemistry of wood cell wall components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin; the principles of the methods employed in wood analysis, with emphasis on the determination of moisture content and extractives, cellulose, pentosan, and other polysaccharides; the influence of extractives on the properties and utilization of wood; and the use of timber in conjunction with chemicals. Other chapters deal with the conversion of wood into chemical products; corrosion of metals in association with wood; and the relationship between wood and water. The chemical aspects of wood attack by fungi and insects are also considered, along with destructive distillation of wood. This book is primarily intended for technical men in the wood-using industries who have an interest in wood and some knowledge of chemistry, and for students entering any field of wood technology.

Wood Chemistry and Wood Biotechnology

Author: Monica Ek

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110213400

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 385

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The production of forestry products is based on a complex chain of knowledge in which the biological material wood with all its natural variability is converted into a variety of fiber-based products, each one with its detailed and specific quality requirements. This four volume set covers the entire spectrum of pulp and paper chemistry and technology from starting material to processes and products including market demands. Supported by a grant from the Ljungberg Foundation, the Editors at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden coordinated over 30 authors from university and industry to create this comprehensive overview. This work is essential for all students of wood science and a useful reference for those working in the pulp and paper industry or on the chemistry of renewable resources.

Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, Second Edition

Author: Roger M. Rowell

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439853819

Category: Science

Page: 703

View: 2891

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Wood has played a major role throughout human history. Strong and versatile, the earliest humans used wood to make shelters, cook food, construct tools, build boats, and make weapons. Recently, scientists, politicians, and economists have renewed their interest in wood because of its unique properties, aesthetics, availability, abundance, and perhaps most important of all, its renewability. However, wood will not reach its highest use potential until we fully describe it, understand the mechanisms that control its performance properties, and, finally, are able to manipulate those properties to give us the desired performance we seek. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of wood cellulose and its response to natural processes of degradation. It describes safe and effective chemical modifications to strengthen wood against biological, chemical, and mechanical degradation without using toxic, leachable, or corrosive chemicals. Expert researchers provide insightful analyses of the types of chemical modifications applied to polymer cell walls in wood. They emphasize the mechanisms of reaction involved and resulting changes in performance properties including modifications that increase water repellency, fire retardancy, and resistance to ultraviolet light, heat, moisture, mold, and other biological organisms. The text also explores modifications that increase mechanical strength, such as lumen fill, monomer polymer penetration, and plasticization. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites concludes with the latest applications, such as adhesives, geotextiles, and sorbents, and future trends in the use of wood-based composites in terms of sustainable agriculture, biodegradability and recycling, and economics. Incorporating decades of teaching experience, the editor of this handbook is well-attuned to educational demands as well as industry standards and research trends.

The Chemical Technology of Wood

Author: Harmann Wenzl

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323143121

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 710

View: 3351

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The Chemical Technology of Wood is an eight-chapter introductory text on the developments in understanding the chemistry of wood and its chemical-technological utilization. The opening chapters of this book cover the productive aspects of forests, followed by a description of the anatomy and physical properties of wood. The subsequent chapter presents a summative wood analysis concerning its cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and other extraneous components. This topic is followed by a presentation of several destructive processing of wood, including acid hydrolysis, pyrolysis, oxidation, and hydrogenolysis. The remaining chapters describe the pulp production through sulfite cooking and using alkaline reagents. This book will prove useful to chemists, engineers, biologists, foresters, and economists.

The Chemistry and Processing of Wood and Plant Fibrous Material

Cellucon ’94 Proceedings

Author: J F Kennedy,Glyn O. Phillips,P A Williams

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 184569869X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 448

View: 8547

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This book covers the production, management and changing patterns of global wood and fibre resources, with emphasis on the inter-disciplinary character of wood and related plant materials in terms of their resource value.

Wood Chemistry

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Eero Sjostrom

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080925898

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 293

View: 8563

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Wood Chemistry, Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition, examines the basic principles of wood chemistry and its potential applications to pulping and papermaking, wood and wood waste utilization, pulping by-products for production of chemicals and energy, and biomass conversion.

Wood Adhesives

Chemistry and Technology---Volume 2

Author: A. Pizzi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824780524

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 8165

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The perfect companion to the highly acclaimed Volume 1 of Wood Adhesives,Volume 2 presents stimulating discussions on technically and economically importantadhesives for wood bonding-covering their preparation and formulation, as well astechniques and suggestions for their application.Like its companion book, Wood Adhesives, Volume 2 provides up-to-date informationand analysis of new technologies and recent breakthroughs ... gives insightinto the relationship between adhesive chemistry and technical application . . . anddiscusses present and future trends likely to have considerable impact on the field.Elaborating upon general overviews presented in Volume 1, Wood Adhesives,Volume 2 includes a chapter on protein adhesives ... fills the gap on the chemistryof polyvinyl acetate wood adhesives ... contains a detailed discussion of formaldehydeemission ... and much more.A complementary and much needed follow-up to Volume 1, Wood Adhesives,Volume 2 is essential reading for wood technologists; adhesives and physicalchemists; forest products researchers; polymer scientists; chemical, mechanical, process,and civil engineers who must choose and apply wood adhesives; and advancedundergraduate and graduate students in the above disciplines.

Cellulose and wood-chemistry and technology

biogenesis and structure of cellulose-water system chemistry of cellulose and wood surface chemistry of wood and paper cellulose membranes : proceedings of the Tenth Cellulose Conference

Author: Conrad Schuerch,A. Sarko,College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Cellulose Research Institute

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 1638

View: 9521

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Comprises the proceedings of the Tenth Cellulose Conference held at SUNY-Syracuse, May 1988. Addresses biogenesis and structure of cellulose, the cellulose-water system, chemistry of cellulose and wood, surface chemistry of wood and paper, and cellulose membranes. Also considers specialty products and derivatives, degradation, and analysis.

Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry, Second Edition, Revised, and Expanded

Author: David N.-S. Hon,Nobuo Shiraishi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824700249

Category: Science

Page: 928

View: 7671

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This text details the principal concepts and developments in wood science, chemistry and technology. It includes new chapters on the chemical synthesis of cellulose and its technology, preservation of wood resources and the conservation of waterlogged wood.

The Chemistry of Lignin

Covering the Literature for the Years 1949–1958

Author: Friedrich Emil Brauns,Dorothy Alexandra Brauns

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483275957

Category: Science

Page: 814

View: 5893

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The Chemistry of Lignin provides a critical review of the literature published from 1949 to 1958. This book provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of lignin chemistry. Organized into 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the derivatives that are prepared for the characterization of the mother substance. This text then examines the various kinds of lignin and biosynthetic lignin-like products, which have been characterized by their behavior toward oxidation with nitrobenzene and alkali. Other chapters consider the morphological distribution of lignin in the wood fiber and the place of origin of lignin precursors and of the lignification process. This book discusses as well the formation or biosynthesis of lignin in plants and reviews the structure, isolation, and biosynthesis of lignin. The final chapter deals with producing lignin by the action of enzymes. This book is a valuable resource for lignin chemists, scientists, research workers, and botanists.

Dimensional stabilization of wood in use

Author: Roger M. Rowell,Robert Leland Youngs,Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: House & Home

Page: 8

View: 7372

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There are two basic types of wood treatments for dimensional stability: (1) those which reduce the rate of water vapor or liquid absorption but do not reduce the extent of swelling to any great degree and (2) those which reduce the extent of swelling and may or may not reduce the rate of water absorption. Terms most often used to describe the effectiveness of the first type of treatment are moisture-excluding effectiveness (MEE), which can be determined in either water or water vapor form, and water repellency (WR), which is a specific liquid test. The term used to describe the effectiveness of the second type of treatment is reduction in swelling (R) or antishrink efficiency (ASE). Most of the type (1) treatments have very low R or ASE values. The R or ASE values can be determined in water vapor tests or single-soak liquid test for water-leachable treatments, or in double-soak liquid tests for nonleachable treatments. In selecting a treatment to achieve product stability to moisture, at least three factors must be considered. The environment of the end product is the most important factor. If the product will come into contact with water, nonleachable--and perhaps even bonded--treatments will be needed. If, however, the product will be subjected to changes in relative humidity in an indoor environment, a leachable or water-repellent treatment might be satisfactory. The degree of dimensional stability must also be considered. If very rigid tolerances are required in a product --as in pattern wood dies--a treatment with very high R or ASE values is needed. If, on the other hand, only a moderate degree of dimensional stability is satisfactory, a less rigorous treatment will suffice.