Cognitive Anthropology

Its Evolution and Contemporary Relevance

Author: Dessalegn Oulte

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640880021

Category:

Page: 28

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Scholarly Essay from the year 2011 in the subject Pedagogy - Science, Theory, Anthropology, grade: -, - (paleoenvironment and Heritage conservation), course: Anthropology Tehoery, language: English, abstract: To redefine cogitative anthropology based on the definitions of a range of literature assessed for this paper, it is an idealistic approach, studies the interaction between human thought and human culture. To be specific, it studies how each group of society organize and perceive the physical objects, events, and experiences that make up their world. Cognitive anthropology gives attention how people make sense of reality according to their own indigenous cognitive faculty unlike the anthropologist point of view, known as emic vs. etic theoretical approach. Cognitive anthropology speculates that each culture organizes and understands events material life and ideas to its own standard. Hence, the primary objective of cognitive anthropology is reliably characterizing the underlying logical systems of thought of other people according to criteria, which can be discovered and replicated through analysis (Robertson & Beasley, 2011; Class lecture handout).

Anthropology and the Cognitive Challenge

Author: Maurice Bloch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521006155

Category: History

Page: 234

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One of the world's most distinguished anthropologists proposes that cognitive science enriches, rather than threatens, the work of social scientists.

A Companion to Cognitive Anthropology

Author: David B. Kronenfeld,Giovanni Bennardo,Victor C. de Munck,Michael D. Fischer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111911165X

Category: Social Science

Page: 624

View: 997

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This new companion traces the development of cognitive anthropology from its beginnings in the late 1950s to the present, and evaluates future directions of research in the field. In twenty-nine articles from leading anthropologists, there is an overview of cognitive and cultural structures, insights into how cognition works in everyday life and interacts with culture, and examples of contemporary research. The companion is essential for anyone interested in the questions of how culture shapes cognitive processes.

Holistic Anthropology

Emergence and Convergence

Author: David Parkin

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857451529

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

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Given the broad reach of anthropology as the science of humankind, there are times when the subject fragments into specialisms and times when there is rapprochement. Rather than just seeing them as reactions to each other, it is perhaps better to say that both tendencies co-exist and that it is very much a matter of perspective as to which is dominant at any moment. The perspective adopted by the contributors to this volume is that some anthropologists have, over the last decade or so, been paying considerable attention to developments in the study of social and biological evolution and of material culture, and that this has brought social, material cultural and biological anthropologists closer to each other and closer to allied disciplines such as archaeology and psychology. A more eclectic anthropology once characteristic of an earlier age is thus re-emerging. The new holism does not result from the merging of sharply distinguished disciplines but from among anthropologists themselves who see social organization as fundamentally a problem of human ecology, and, from that, of material and mental creativity, human biology, and the co-evolution of society and culture. It is part of a wider interest beyond anthropology in the origins and rationale of human activities, claims and beliefs, and draws on inferential or speculative reasoning as well as 'hard' evidence. The book argues that, while usefully borrowing from other subjects, all such reasoning must be grounded in prolonged, intensive and linguistically-informed fieldwork and comparison.

Anthropology and Development

Understanding Contemporary Social Change

Author: Jean-Pierre Oliver De-Sardan

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1848136137

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 3437

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This book re-establishes the relevance of mainstream anthropological (and sociological) approaches to development processes and simultaneously recognizes that contemporary development ought to be anthropology‘s principal area of study. Professor de Sardan argues for a socio-anthropology of change and development that is a deeply empirical, multidimensional, diachronic study of social groups and their interactions. The Introduction provides a thought-provoking examination of the principal new approaches that have emerged in the discipline during the 1990s. Part I then makes clear the complexity of social change and development, and the ways in which socio-anthropology can measure up to the challenge of this complexity. Part II looks more closely at some of the leading variables involved in the development process, including relations of production; the logics of social action; the nature of knowledge; forms of mediation; and ‘political‘ strategies.

Meaning and Relevance

Author: Deirdre Wilson,Dan Sperber

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052176677X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 382

View: 8770

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When people speak, their words never fully encode what they mean, and the context is always compatible with a variety of interpretations. How can comprehension ever be achieved? Wilson and Sperber argue that comprehension is a process of inference guided by precise expectations of relevance. What are the relations between the linguistically encoded meanings studied in semantics and the thoughts that humans are capable of entertaining and conveying? How should we analyse literal meaning, approximations, metaphors and ironies? Is the ability to understand speakers' meanings rooted in a more general human ability to understand other minds? How do these abilities interact in evolution and in cognitive development? Meaning and Relevance sets out to answer these and other questions, enriching and updating relevance theory and exploring its implications for linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science and literary studies.

Cognition in the Wild

Author: Edwin Hutchins

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262581462

Category: Psychology

Page: 381

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After comparing modern Western navigation with the method practiced in Micronesia, Hutchins explores the computational and cognitive properties of systems that involve multiple individuals. He then turns to an analysis of learning or change in the organization of cognitive systems at several scales.

The Adapted Mind

Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture

Author: Jerome H. Barkow,Leda Cosmides,John Tooby

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195101073

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 666

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This book introduces the new field of evolutionary psychology and the complex mechanisms that generate human behavior and culture.

The Evolution of Mind

Author: Denise D. Cummins,Colin Allen

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195110531

Category: Psychology

Page: 264

View: 8054

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Our understanding of the human mind has radically changed in recent years--from the unified mind once envisioned by Ren� Descartes over three hundred years ago to a new understanding of mind as a set of specialized cognitive components gradually accumulated in our evolutionary past. As a result, many scientists and philosophers now believe that our minds emerged out of the same type of evolutionary processes that have shaped our bodies. In The Evolution of Mind, outstanding figures on the cutting edge of evolutionary psychology follow clues provided by current neuroscientific evidence to illuminate many puzzling questions of human cognitive evolution. With contributions from psychologists, ethologists, anthropologists, and philosophers, the book offers a broad range of approaches to explore the mysteries of the minds evolution--from investigating the biological functions of human cognition to drawing comparisons between human and animal cognitive abilities. This interdisciplinary work presents a comparative and evolutionary perspective on a wide variety of topics, including mental algorithms for reasoning about contingencies, quantities, social norms, and the minds of others; social play and communicative abilities; thought and language, and the role of Darwin's theory of natural selection in evolutionary psychology. Written in a highly readable style, The Evolution of Mind will appeal to a broad range of researchers and students and help set the agenda for the field for years to come.

How Things Shape the Mind

Author: Lambros Malafouris

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262019191

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

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An account of the different ways in which things have become cognitive extensions of the human body, from prehistory to the present.

The Comparative Approach in Evolutionary Anthropology and Biology

Author: Charles L. Nunn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226090000

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 9452

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Comparison is fundamental to evolutionary anthropology. When scientists study chimpanzee cognition, for example, they compare chimp performance on cognitive tasks to the performance of human children on the same tasks. And when new fossils are found, such as those of the tiny humans of Flores, scientists compare these remains to other fossils and contemporary humans. Comparison provides a way to draw general inferences about the evolution of traits and therefore has long been the cornerstone of efforts to understand biological and cultural diversity. Individual studies of fossilized remains, living species, or human populations are the essential units of analysis in a comparative study; bringing these elements into a broader comparative framework allows the puzzle pieces to fall into place, creating a means of testing adaptive hypotheses and generating new ones. With this book, Charles L. Nunn intends to ensure that evolutionary anthropologists and organismal biologists have the tools to realize the potential of comparative research. Nunn provides a wide-ranging investigation of the comparative foundations of evolutionary anthropology in past and present research, including studies of animal behavior, biodiversity, linguistic evolution, allometry, and cross-cultural variation. He also points the way to the future, exploring the new phylogeny-based comparative approaches and offering a how-to manual for scientists who wish to incorporate these new methods into their research.

The Origin of Mind

Evolution of Brain, Cognition, and General Intelligence

Author: David C. Geary

Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn

ISBN: 9781591471813

Category: Medical

Page: 459

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"Geary also explores a number of issues that are of interest in modern society, including how general intelligence relates to academic achievement, occupational status, and income."--BOOK JACKET.

How the Bible Works

An Anthropological Study of Evangelical Biblicism

Author: Brian Malley

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759106659

Category: Religion

Page: 173

View: 9000

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What do evangelicals believe when they 'believe in the Bible?' Despite hundreds of English versions that differ in their texts, evangelicals continue to believe that there is a stable text 'the Bible' which is the authoritative word of God and an essential guide to their everyday lives. To understand this phenomenon of evangelical Biblicism, anthropologist and biblical scholar Brian Malley looks not to the words of the Bible but to the Bible-believing communities. For as Malley demonstrates, it is less the meaning of the words of the Bible itself than how 'the Bible' provides a proper ground for beliefs that matters to evangelicals. Drawing on recent cognitive and social theory and extensive fieldwork in an evangelical church, Malley's book is an invaluable guide for seminarians, social scientists of religion, or for anyone who wants to understand just how the Bible works for American evangelicals."

The Development of Cognitive Anthropology

Author: Roy G. D'Andrade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521459761

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 8649

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In a historical account of the development of cognitive anthropology, Roy D'Andrade examines how cultural knowledge is organized within and between human minds. He begins by examining research carried out in the 1950s and 1960s concerned with how different cultures classify kinship relationships and the natural environment, and then traces the development of more complex cognitive theories of classification in anthropology that took place in the 1970s and 1980s. Finally, current work involving cultural models, emotion, motivation, and action is considered, along with a cognitive perspective on the nature of culture.

Environmental Anthropology

From Pigs to Policies, Third Edition

Author: Patricia K. Townsend

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478636947

Category: Social Science

Page: 139

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Environmental anthropologists organize the realities of interdependent lands, plants, animals, and human beings; advocate for the neediest among them; and provide guidance for conservation efforts. But can anthropologists’ studies of small-scale systems contribute to policies that address profoundly interconnected global problems? Townsend explores this question in her concise introduction to environmental anthropology. While maintaining the structure and clarity of previous editions, the third edition has been thoroughly revised to include new research. Newly added are a chapter on the environmental impact of war and recommended readings and films. Townsend begins with a historical overview of the field, illustrating how earlier ideas and approaches help to understand how today’s populations adapt to their physical and biological environments. She then transitions to a closer look at global environmental issues, including such topics as rapid expansion of the world economic system and inequality, loss of biodiversity and its implications for human health, and injustices of climate change, resource extraction, and toxic waste disposal. The final chapters caution that meaningful change requires social movements and policy changes in addition to individual actions.

Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion

Author: Radek Kundt

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1474232272

Category: Religion

Page: 192

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Radek Kundt compares the notion of evolution in cultural evolutionary theories with neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory to determine the value of the biological concept for studying culture. Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion surveys the historical background of cultural evolution as used in the study of religion, pinpointing major objections to classical nineteenth-century theories. Radek Kundt argues that contemporary theories of cultural evolution do not repeat the same mistakes but that when they are evaluated in terms of fitting the core requirements of neo-Darwinian natural selection, it is clear that they are not legitimate extensions of neo-Darwinian theory. Rather, they are poor metaphors and misleading analogies which add little to conventional cause-and-effect historiographical work. This book also introduces an alternative evolutionary approach to the study of culture which does not claim that the principles of neo-Darwinian evolution should be applicable outside the biological domain. Radek Kundt shows that this alternative evolutionary approach nevertheless provides a deeply enriching line of enquiry that incorporates both biological evolutionary history as shaping cultural change and culture as a force acting on the gene.

The Development of Cognitive Anthropology

Author: Roy G. D'Andrade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521459761

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 5056

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In a historical account of the development of cognitive anthropology, Roy D'Andrade examines how cultural knowledge is organized within and between human minds. He begins by examining research carried out in the 1950s and 1960s concerned with how different cultures classify kinship relationships and the natural environment, and then traces the development of more complex cognitive theories of classification in anthropology that took place in the 1970s and 1980s. Finally, current work involving cultural models, emotion, motivation, and action is considered, along with a cognitive perspective on the nature of culture.

A Companion to Cognitive Anthropology

Author: David B. Kronenfeld,Giovanni Bennardo,Victor C. de Munck,Michael D. Fischer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111911165X

Category: Social Science

Page: 624

View: 4903

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This new companion traces the development of cognitive anthropology from its beginnings in the late 1950s to the present, and evaluates future directions of research in the field. In twenty-nine articles from leading anthropologists, there is an overview of cognitive and cultural structures, insights into how cognition works in everyday life and interacts with culture, and examples of contemporary research. The companion is essential for anyone interested in the questions of how culture shapes cognitive processes.

The Foundations of Cognitive Archaeology

Author: Marc A. Abramiuk

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017687

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 6632

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An empirically supported proposal for synthesizing multiple approaches to the study of the mind in the past. In The Foundations of Cognitive Archaeology, Marc Abramiuk proposes a multidisciplinary basis for the study of the mind in the past, arguing that archaeology and the cognitive sciences have much to offer one another. Abramiuk draws on relevant topics from philosophy, biological anthropology, cognitive psychology, cognitive anthropology, and archaeology to establish theoretically founded and empirically substantiated principles of a discipline that integrates different approaches to mind-related archaeological research. Abramiuk discusses the two ways that archaeologists have traditionally viewed the human mind: as a universal or as a relative interface with the environment. He argues that neither view by itself can satisfactorily serve as a basis for gleaning insight into all aspects of the mind in the past and, therefore, the mind is more appropriately studied using multiple approaches. He explains the rationale for using these approaches in mind-related archaeological research, reviewing the literature in both cognitive psychology and cognitive anthropology on human memory, perception, and reasoning. Drawing on archaeological and genetic evidence, Abramiuk investigates the evolution of the mind through the Upper Paleolithic era--when the ancient mind became functionally comparable to the modern human mind. Finally, Abramiuk offers a model for the establishment of a discipline dealing with the study of the mind in the past that integrates all the approaches discussed.

Supersizing the Mind

Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension

Author: Andy Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199831043

Category: Philosophy

Page: 318

View: 4753

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When historian Charles Weiner found pages of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman's notes, he saw it as a "record" of Feynman's work. Feynman himself, however, insisted that the notes were not a record but the work itself. In Supersizing the Mind, Andy Clark argues that our thinking doesn't happen only in our heads but that "certain forms of human cognizing include inextricable tangles of feedback, feed-forward and feed-around loops: loops that promiscuously criss-cross the boundaries of brain, body and world." The pen and paper of Feynman's thought are just such feedback loops, physical machinery that shape the flow of thought and enlarge the boundaries of mind. Drawing upon recent work in psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, human-computer systems, and beyond, Supersizing the Mind offers both a tour of the emerging cognitive landscape and a sustained argument in favor of a conception of mind that is extended rather than "brain-bound." The importance of this new perspective is profound. If our minds themselves can include aspects of our social and physical environments, then the kinds of social and physical environments we create can reconfigure our minds and our capacity for thought and reason.