Collective Action in the Formation of Pre-Modern States

Author: Richard Blanton,Lane Fargher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387738762

Category: History

Page: 447

View: 2380

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Anthropological archaeology and other disciplines concerned with the formation of early complex societies are undergoing a theoretical shift stemming from the realization that the social evolution of complex societies was more varied and complex than imagined. Given the need for new directions in theory, the book proposes that anthropologists look to political science, especially the rational choice theory of collective action. Collective action theorists propose that state formation results from the strategic behavior of rational and self-interested actors who make up the polity, including a political elite and those outside the official structure of the state. The theory proposes that the form taken by a state will depend on the “bargaining power”, of rulers and taxpayers. Where taxpayers have more resources with which to bargain, it is predicted that rulers will concede benefits to taxpayers and will agree to restrictions on their power. The authors subject collective action theory to a methodologically rigorous evaluation using systematic cross-cultural analysis based on a world-wide sample of societies. The results presented here indicate strong support for most elements of the theory, but some results, in particular those pertaining to the control of ruler behavior, suggest the possibility that there are contexts in which collective action may play out in ways not anticipated by the theory. While this type of theoretical modeling is commonly seen in political science research, this volume is unique in its approach from an anthropological and archaeological viewpoint.

The Neighborhood as a Social and Spatial Unit in Mesoamerican Cities

Author: M. Charlotte Arnauld,Linda R. Manzanilla,Michael E. Smith

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816520240

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 7022

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Recent realizations that prehispanic cities in Mesoamerica were fundamentally different from western cities of the same period have led to increasing examination of the neighborhood as an intermediate unit at the heart of prehispanic urbanization. This book addresses the subject of neighborhoods in archaeology as analytical units between households and whole settlements. The contributions gathered here provide fieldwork data to document the existence of sociopolitically distinct neighborhoods within ancient Mesoamerican settlements, building upon recent advances in multi-scale archaeological studies of these communities. Chapters illustrate the cultural variation across Mesoamerica, including data and interpretations on several different cities with a thematic focus on regional contrasts. This topic is relatively new and complex, and this book is a strong contribution for three interwoven reasons. First, the long history of research on the ÒTeotihuacan barriosÓ is scrutinized and withstands the test of new evidence and comparison with other Mesoamerican cities. Second, Maya studies of dense settlement patterns are now mature enough to provide substantial case studies. Third, theoretical investigation of ancient urbanization all over the world is now more complex and open than it was before, giving relevance to Mesoamerican perspectives on ancient and modern societies in time and space. This volume will be of interest not only to scholars and student specialists of the Mesoamerican past but also to social scientists and urbanists looking to contrast ancient cultures worldwide.

How Humans Cooperate

Confronting the Challenges of Collective Action

Author: Richard E. Blanton,Lane F. Fargher

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 1607325144

Category: Social Science

Page: 435

View: 1446

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In How Humans Cooperate, Richard E. Blanton and Lane F. Fargher take a new approach to investigating human cooperation, developed from the vantage point of an "anthropological imagination." Drawing on the discipline’s broad and holistic understanding of humans in biological, social, and cultural dimensions and across a wide range of temporal and cultural variation, the authors unite psychological and institutional approaches by demonstrating the interplay of institution building and cognitive abilities of the human brain. Blanton and Fargher develop an approach that is strongly empirical, historically deep, and more synthetic than other research designs, using findings from fields as diverse as neurobiology, primatology, ethnography, history, art history, and archaeology. While much current research on collective action pertains to local-scale cooperation, How Humans Cooperate puts existing theories to the test at larger scales in markets, states, and cities throughout the Old and New Worlds. This innovative book extends collective action theory beyond Western history and into a broadly cross-cultural dimension, places cooperation in the context of large and complex human societies, and demonstrates the interplay of collective action and aspects of human cognitive ability. By extending the scope and content of collective action theory, the authors find a fruitful new path to understanding human cooperation.

The Prehistory of Iberia

Debating Early Social Stratification and the State

Author: María Cruz Berrocal,Leonardo García Sanjuán,Antonio Gilman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135098018

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 843

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The origin and early development of social stratification is essentially an archaeological problem. The impressive advance of archaeological research has revealed that, first and foremost, the pre-eminence of stratified or class society in today’s world is the result of a long social struggle. This volume advances the archaeological study of social organisation in Prehistory, and more specifically the rise of social complexity in European Prehistory. Within the wider context of world Prehistory, in the last 30 years the subject of early social stratification and state formation has been a key subject on interest in Iberian Prehistory. This book illustrates the differing forms of resistances, the interplay between change and continuity, the multiple paths to and from social complexity, and the ‘failures’ of states to form in Prehistory. It also engages with broader questions, such as: when did social stratification appear in western European Prehistory? What factors contributed to its emergence and consolidation? What are the relationships between the notions of social complexity, social inequality, social stratification and statehood? And what are the archaeological indicators for the empirical analysis of these issues? Focusing on Iberia, but with a permanent connection to the wider geographical framework, this book presents, for the first time, a chronologically comprehensive, up-to-date approach to the issue of state formation in prehistoric Europe.

Archaeology and State Theory

Subjects and Objects of Power

Author: Bruce Routledge

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1472504100

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 160

View: 3152

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After neo-evolutionism, how does one talk about the pre-modern state? Over the past two decades archaeological research has shifted decisively from check-list identifications of the state as an evolutionary type to studies of how power and authority were constituted in specific polities. Developing Gramsci's concept of hegemony, this book provides an accessible discussion of general principles that serve to help us understand and organise these new directions in archaeological research. Throughout this book, conceptual issues are illustrated by means of case studies drawn from Madagascar, Mesopotamia, the Inca, the Maya and Greece.

Archaeology of Knowledge

Author: Michel Foucault

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415287529

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 7042

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In France, a country that awards its intellectuals the status other countries give their rock stars, Michel Foucault was part of a glittering generation of thinkers, one which also included Sartre, de Beauvoir and Deleuze. One of the great intellectual heroes of the twentieth century, Foucault was a man whose passion and reason were at the service of nearly every progressive cause of his time. From law and order, to mental health, to power and knowledge, he spearheaded public awareness of the dynamics that hold us all in thrall to a few powerful ideologies and interests. Arguably his finest work, Archaeology of Knowledge is a challenging but fantastically rewarding introduction to his ideas.

The Archaeology of Science

Studying the Creation of Useful Knowledge

Author: Michael Brian Schiffer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319000772

Category: Social Science

Page: 204

View: 8184

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This manual pulls together—and illustrates with interesting case studies—the variety of specialized and generalized archaeological research strategies that yield new insights into science. Throughout the book there are templates, consisting of questions, to help readers visualize and design their own projects. The manual seeks to be as general as possible, applicable to any society, and so science is defined as the creation of useful knowledge—the kinds of knowledge that enable people to make predictions. The chapters in Part I discuss the scope of the archaeology of science and furnish a conceptual foundation for the remainder of the book. Next, Part II presents several specialized, but widely practiced, research strategies that contribute to the archaeology of science. In order to thoroughly ground the manual in real-life applications, Part III presents lengthy case studies that feature the use of historical and archaeological evidence in the study of scientific activities.

Ancient Oaxaca

Author: Richard Blanton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521577878

Category: History

Page: 153

View: 4982

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Just after 500 B.C., one of the earliest states in the New World developed in the Valley of Oaxaca, in present-day Mexico. The newly created political institution brought in its wake a profound transformation of society and technology. This book investigates the rich archaeological record of the valley in an attempt to throw light on the causes and consequences of these changes.

Lines Drawn Upon the Water

First Nations and the Great Lakes Borders and Borderlands

Author: Karl S. Hele

Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press

ISBN: 1554580048

Category: History

Page: 351

View: 9832

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Proceedings of a conference held at University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Feb. 11-12, 2005.

Memory in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800

Author: Judith Pollmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192518151

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 2827

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For early modern Europeans, the past was a measure of most things, good and bad. For that reason it was also hotly contested, manipulated, and far too important to be left to historians alone. Memory in Early Modern Europe offers a lively and accessible introduction to the many ways in which Europeans engaged with the past and 'practised' memory in the three centuries between 1500 and 1800. From childhood memories and local customs to war traumas and peacekeeping , it analyses how Europeans tried to control, mobilize and reconfigure memories of the past. Challenging the long-standing view that memory cultures transformed around 1800, it argues for the continued relevance of early modern memory practices in modern societies.

Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange in Ancient Societies

Author: Christopher P. Garraty

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 1607323702

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 4878

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Ancient market activities are dynamic in the economies of most ancient states, yet they have received little research from the archaeological community. Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange in Ancient Societies is the first book to address the development, change, and organizational complexity of ancient markets from a comparative archaeological perspective. Drawing from historical documents and archaeological records from Mesoamerica, the U.S. Southwest, East Africa, and the Andes, this volume reveals the complexity of ancient marketplace development and economic behavior both in hierarchical and non-hierarchical societies. Highlighting four principal themes-the defining characteristics of market exchange; the recognition of market exchange archaeologically; the relationship among market, political, and other social institutions; and the conditions in which market systems develop and change-the book contains a strong methodological and theoretical focus on market exchange. Diverse contributions from noted scholars show the history of market exchange and other activities to be more dynamic than scholars previously appreciated. Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange in Ancient Societies will be of interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, material-culture theorists, economists, and historians.

Talking Stones

The Politics of Memorialization in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland

Author: Elisabetta Viggiani

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782384081

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 5698

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If memory was simply about past events, public authorities would never put their ever-shrinking budgets at its service. Rather, memory is actually about the present moment, as Pierre Nora puts it: "Through the past, we venerate above all ourselves." This book examines how collective memory and material culture are used to support present political and ideological needs in contemporary society. Using the memorialization of the Troubles in contemporary Northern Ireland as a case study, this book investigates how non-state, often proscribed, organizations have filled a societal vacuum in the creation of public memorials. In particular, these groups have sifted through the past to propose "official" collective narratives of national identification, historical legitimation, and moral justifications for violence.

Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt

Author: Ann Rosalie David

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195132151

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 382

View: 6424

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Chronicles Egyptian civilization from the Predynastic Period to the end of Roman rule, arranged thematically in chapters such as "Religion of the Living," "Architecture and Building," and "Everyday Life."

The Comparative Archaeology of Complex Societies

Author: Michael E. Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139502034

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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Part of a resurgence in the comparative study of ancient societies, this book presents a variety of methods and approaches to comparative analysis through the examination of wide-ranging case studies. Each chapter is a comparative study, and the diverse topics and regions covered in the book contribute to the growing understanding of variation and change in ancient complex societies. The authors explore themes ranging from urbanization and settlement patterns, to the political strategies of kings and chiefs, to the economic choices of individuals and households. The case studies cover an array of geographical settings, from the Andes to Southeast Asia. The authors are leading archaeologists whose research on early empires, states, and chiefdoms is at the cutting edge of scientific archaeology.

The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Peace and Conflict

Author: Michelle R. Garfinkel,Stergios Skaperdas

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0195392779

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 874

View: 1753

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This Handbook brings together contributions from leading scholars who take an economic perspective to study peace and conflict. Some chapters are largely empirical, exploring the correlates and quantifying the costs of conflict. Others are more theoretical, examining the mechanisms that lead to war or are more conducive to peace.

Craft Production and Social Change in Northern China

Author: Anne P. Underhill

Publisher: Taylor & Francis US

ISBN: 9780306467714

Category: History

Page: 346

View: 4852

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The development of complex societies is a central subject in archaeological research. Using archaeological evidence from the Yellow (Huanghe) River valley in Northern China, this volume examines changes in the culture that occurred during the late Neolithic Period of China and speculates that this development connects to the emergence of civilized societies in this area. Several developments in the culture of the Huanghe Valley that suggest their contribution to the development of complex societies include: -Craft specialization; -Use of prestige goods such as jade, pottery, and bronze; -Display of status through both feasting and mortuary rituals. This work emphasizes the many different approaches that attempt to theorize the development of complex socieites, as well as outlines the approaches and methods used in this research. It will be of interest to archaeologists, cultural and historic anthropologists, ancien Asian historians and Asian preservationists.