Collective Action in the Formation of Pre-Modern States

Author: Richard Blanton,Lane Fargher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387738762

Category: History

Page: 447

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Anthropological archaeology and other disciplines concerned with the formation of early complex societies are undergoing a theoretical shift stemming from the realization that the social evolution of complex societies was more varied and complex than imagined. Given the need for new directions in theory, the book proposes that anthropologists look to political science, especially the rational choice theory of collective action. Collective action theorists propose that state formation results from the strategic behavior of rational and self-interested actors who make up the polity, including a political elite and those outside the official structure of the state. The theory proposes that the form taken by a state will depend on the “bargaining power”, of rulers and taxpayers. Where taxpayers have more resources with which to bargain, it is predicted that rulers will concede benefits to taxpayers and will agree to restrictions on their power. The authors subject collective action theory to a methodologically rigorous evaluation using systematic cross-cultural analysis based on a world-wide sample of societies. The results presented here indicate strong support for most elements of the theory, but some results, in particular those pertaining to the control of ruler behavior, suggest the possibility that there are contexts in which collective action may play out in ways not anticipated by the theory. While this type of theoretical modeling is commonly seen in political science research, this volume is unique in its approach from an anthropological and archaeological viewpoint.

The Neighborhood as a Social and Spatial Unit in Mesoamerican Cities

Author: M. Charlotte Arnauld,Linda R. Manzanilla,Michael E. Smith

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816520240

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 2712

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Recent realizations that prehispanic cities in Mesoamerica were fundamentally different from western cities of the same period have led to increasing examination of the neighborhood as an intermediate unit at the heart of prehispanic urbanization. This book addresses the subject of neighborhoods in archaeology as analytical units between households and whole settlements. The contributions gathered here provide fieldwork data to document the existence of sociopolitically distinct neighborhoods within ancient Mesoamerican settlements, building upon recent advances in multi-scale archaeological studies of these communities. Chapters illustrate the cultural variation across Mesoamerica, including data and interpretations on several different cities with a thematic focus on regional contrasts. This topic is relatively new and complex, and this book is a strong contribution for three interwoven reasons. First, the long history of research on the ÒTeotihuacan barriosÓ is scrutinized and withstands the test of new evidence and comparison with other Mesoamerican cities. Second, Maya studies of dense settlement patterns are now mature enough to provide substantial case studies. Third, theoretical investigation of ancient urbanization all over the world is now more complex and open than it was before, giving relevance to Mesoamerican perspectives on ancient and modern societies in time and space. This volume will be of interest not only to scholars and student specialists of the Mesoamerican past but also to social scientists and urbanists looking to contrast ancient cultures worldwide.

The Prehistory of Iberia

Debating Early Social Stratification and the State

Author: María Cruz Berrocal,Leonardo García Sanjuán,Antonio Gilman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135098018

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 2910

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The origin and early development of social stratification is essentially an archaeological problem. The impressive advance of archaeological research has revealed that, first and foremost, the pre-eminence of stratified or class society in today’s world is the result of a long social struggle. This volume advances the archaeological study of social organisation in Prehistory, and more specifically the rise of social complexity in European Prehistory. Within the wider context of world Prehistory, in the last 30 years the subject of early social stratification and state formation has been a key subject on interest in Iberian Prehistory. This book illustrates the differing forms of resistances, the interplay between change and continuity, the multiple paths to and from social complexity, and the ‘failures’ of states to form in Prehistory. It also engages with broader questions, such as: when did social stratification appear in western European Prehistory? What factors contributed to its emergence and consolidation? What are the relationships between the notions of social complexity, social inequality, social stratification and statehood? And what are the archaeological indicators for the empirical analysis of these issues? Focusing on Iberia, but with a permanent connection to the wider geographical framework, this book presents, for the first time, a chronologically comprehensive, up-to-date approach to the issue of state formation in prehistoric Europe.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 2083

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Craft Production and Social Change in Northern China

Author: Anne P. Underhill

Publisher: Taylor & Francis US

ISBN: 9780306467714

Category: History

Page: 346

View: 7893

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The development of complex societies is a central subject in archaeological research. Using archaeological evidence from the Yellow (Huanghe) River valley in Northern China, this volume examines changes in the culture that occurred during the late Neolithic Period of China and speculates that this development connects to the emergence of civilized societies in this area. Several developments in the culture of the Huanghe Valley that suggest their contribution to the development of complex societies include: -Craft specialization; -Use of prestige goods such as jade, pottery, and bronze; -Display of status through both feasting and mortuary rituals. This work emphasizes the many different approaches that attempt to theorize the development of complex socieites, as well as outlines the approaches and methods used in this research. It will be of interest to archaeologists, cultural and historic anthropologists, ancien Asian historians and Asian preservationists.

Orientalismus

Author: Edward W. Said

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783100710086

Category: Europa - Orientbild - Kultur - Geschichte 1800-2000

Page: 459

View: 5888

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Material turn: Feministische Perspektiven auf Materialität und Materialismus

Author: Imke Leicht,Christine Löw,Nadja Meisterhans,Katharina Volk

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3847404067

Category: Political Science

Page: 205

View: 1961

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Das Thema Materialität wird innerhalb feministischer Forschungen in den letzten Jahren erneut diskutiert. Vor dem Hintergrund des material turn widmet sich der Band aktuellen Auseinandersetzungen mit Materialität und Materialismus. Dabei sollen zum einen bestehende Konfliktfelder zwischen Diskurs und Materialität sowie Struktur, Handlungsfähigkeit und Subjektivität aus feministischer Perspektive aufgezeigt werden. Zum anderen strebt der Band an, Potenziale einer verbindenden Perspektive auf 'neue' und 'alte' Konzeptionen von Materialität und Materialismen innerhalb feministischer Theorien und Praxen kritisch auszuloten.

Ancient Oaxaca

Author: Richard Blanton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521577878

Category: History

Page: 153

View: 4170

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Just after 500 B.C., one of the earliest states in the New World developed in the Valley of Oaxaca, in present-day Mexico. The newly created political institution brought in its wake a profound transformation of society and technology. This book investigates the rich archaeological record of the valley in an attempt to throw light on the causes and consequences of these changes.

Das Kyoto-Protokoll

Internationale Klimapolitik für das 21. Jahrhundert

Author: Sebastian Oberthür,Hermann E. Ott

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663014347

Category: Social Science

Page: 443

View: 2715

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Die internationale Klimapolitik ist an einem Wendepunkt angekommen. Die Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls ist ein großer Schritt in dem Versuch der Menschheit, die schädlichen Folgen des Klimawandels zu begrenzen. Dieses Buch, geschrieben von zwei deutschen Experten, erklärt die naturwissenschaftlichen, ökonomischen sowie politischen Bedingungen desTreibhauseffekts und erläutert die Hintergründe der Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls. Das Buch analysiert in seinem Mittelteil den Vertragstext im Stile eines Gesetzeskommentars, nennt die offenen Fragen und gibt mögliche Antworten für die Weiterentwicklung der Normen. In einem dritten Teil werden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen, die politische Landschaft nach Kyoto beleuchtet und eine Leadership-Initiative für die Europäische Union vorgestellt, um die Handlungsmacht gegenüber den USA wieder zu erlangen.

Roman Cities

Author: Pierre Grimal,G. Michael Woloch

Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press

ISBN: 9780299089344

Category: History

Page: 355

View: 8047

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Roman Cities combines G. Michael Woloch's translation of Les villes romaines, Pierre Grimal's noted French work on Roman city planning, archeology, and urban history, with Woloch's additional notes and descriptions of the cities mentioned by Grimal, as well as other important Roman cities. The book provides a brief history and description of more than a hundred Roman cities, an extensive master bibliography, and a comprehensive glossary. Roman Cities will interest both scholars and students of Roman history and archeology, city planning, urban geography, and the social sciences. The glossary and bibliography make the book of value to specialists pursuing a particular topic and to students, history buffs, and amateur archaeologists seeking to broaden their understanding of the Roman city planning methods that are such an integral part of our modern urban heritage. Roman Cities provides the first comprehensive study in English of major Roman cities, including an excellent coverage of the Roman legacy which was transmitted to medieval and modern trends in architecture and urban planning..

Spathellenistische Und Fruhkaiserzeitliche Keramik Aus Priene

Untersuchungen Zu Herkunft Und Produktion

Author: Nina Fenn

Publisher: Dr Ludwig Reichert

ISBN: 9783954900954

Category:

Page: 443

View: 9413

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Priene gilt als Inbegriff einer hellenistischen Stadt Kleinasiens, deren Architektur im Mittelpunkt der bisherigen Veröffentlichungen stand. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden erstmals zwei umfangreiche und repräsentative Fundkomplexe einschließlich aller keramischer Gattungen (Tafel- und Haushaltsgeschirr, Amphoren, Lampen und Ziegel) unter Einbezug archäometrischer Methoden (WD-XRF, Dünnschliff- und Schwermineral Analysen) zur Herkunftsbestimmung der Fundkeramik vorgelegt. Der späthellenistischen Auffüllung aus der Südhalle des Athenaheiligtums ist die frühkaiserzeitliche Planierschicht der Insula E5 innerhalb der nordwestlichen Wohnbebauung gegenübergestellt. Beide Fundkomplexe können als geschlossene Befunde behandelt werden und daher als wichtige Bezugspunkte für Keramikforschung in Kleinasien gelten.