Complexity of the Self

A Developmental Approach to Psychopathology and Therapy

Author: V. F. Guidano

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9780898620122

Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 7490

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In this profound work, Vittorio Guidano expands upon his earlier seminal contributions on the application of cognitive and developmental principles to individuals struggling with various forms of psychopathology. Here, he fully develops the idea that individuals' experience, both positive and negative, are powerfully influenced by their personal ``psychological organizations.'Focusing primarily on the eating disorders, the phobias (with agoraphobia as the prototype) obsessive-compulsive patterns, and depression, Guidano illustrates how early developmental experiences and ongoing psychological processes may collude to perpetuate dysfunctional patterns and personal distress. The central and perhaps most exciting thesis in this new expression of Guidano's thinking is that the ``deep structure' or ``core organizing processes`` that constrain human psychological experience may be at the heart of successful intervention as well as the classical problems of resistance, relapse, and refractory behaviors. Guidano's contention is at once simple and powerful: those psychological processes involved in the development and maintenance of personal identity, or ``self' that should be the primary foci of research and intervention in psychological disorders. The meaning of Guidano's perspective for clinical practice is perhaps best expressed in the author's own words: ``Knowing the basic elements of the personal cognitive organization that underlie the pattern of disturbed behavior and emotions, the therapist can behave, from the beginning, in such a way as to build a relationship as effective as possible for that particular client. In other words, the therapist should be able to establish a relationship that respects the client's personal identity and systemic coherence and that, at the same time, does not confirm the basic pathogenic assumptions. For example, in working with agoraphobics, the therapist has to respect their self-images centered on the need to be in control. He/she can do this by avoiding any direct attack on their controlling attitudes and by leaving them a wide margin of control in the relationship. At the same time the therapist should avoid confirming their assumptions about the somatic origin of their emotional disturbances or about their inborn fragility. In short, the therapist who can anticipate the models of self and reality tacitly entertained by the client is surely better able to help the development of a cooperative and secure therapeutic relationship than the therapist who cannot make such anticipations. This timely and provocative volume offers exciting new ideas about how to conceptualize and facilitate change in the ``self system.' With the rare combination of his Renaissance intellect and integrative practical expertise, Guidano has been able to draw together many disparate themes from object relations theory, ego psychology, attachment theory, constructivist models of human cognition, and lifespan developmental psychology. It is must reading for the practicing professional, the helping apprentice, and anyone interested in glimpsing the cutting edge at the growing interface between cognitive and clinical science.

The Complexity of Self Government

Politics from the Bottom Up

Author: Ruth Lane

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316738159

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9397

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The Complexity of Self Government represents a revolutionary approach to political science. Bottom-up theory turns political and social analysis upside down by focusing analytic attention not on vacuous abstractions but on the individual men and women who either consciously or inadvertently create the institutions within which they live. Understanding this practical level of human activity is made possible through complexity theory, recently developed in computer models, but of wider use in understanding everyday human behaviour. To this complexity framework, the book adds social science to give life and colour to the analytical picture: micro-sociology from Garfinkel and Goffman, anthropology from Bourdieu, and non-technical game theory based on Thomas Schelling's microanalytics, to give rigour and bite. Theoretical examples include India's Mumbai, Iran, the marshes of southern Iraq, Berlusconi's Italy, backcountry China, Zimbabwe, and Nelson Mandela's revolution in South Africa.

Reclaim Your Self

The Complexity of Identity

Author: Andrew Malionek

Publisher: Common Ground Publishing

ISBN: 9781863356954

Category: Philosophy

Page: 68

View: 9906

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Socrates once asked the simple question - "Who am I?" For thousands of years, philosophers, theologians, scientists and psychologists have contemplated the answer to this question. In a modern world filled with distractions, an individual is more prone to disillusionment. Self-knowledge, the foundation for physical, spiritual, and mental growth, nurtures confidence and builds a defense system against despair. Awareness and knowledge of the self is crucial to proper overall development. The author examines definitions of the self given by physicalists, scientific realists and the cognitive method of Bernard Lonergan, S.J. who defines the self as a rational and spiritual being. Examples of near-death experiences and temporal lobe epilepsy will be used to help explain the different theories. The author thoroughly discusses the importance of self-knowledge in every dimension of human growth and encourages the reader to reclaim the desire to know the self.

The Self in European and North American Culture

Development and Processes

Author: J.H. Oosterwegel,R. A. Wicklund

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401103313

Category: Psychology

Page: 395

View: 1402

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How diverse or potentially overlapping are the numerous self-models, self-theories, and directions of self-research? It has become clear that the processes associated with the self are complex and diverse, and that many of the approaches associated with the self have been pursued in isolation. Moreover, the fact of there being different traditions within developmental and social psychology, as well as different traditions in Europe and North America, has also led to a certain cacophony when we examine the self-field as a whole. The chapters here confront these differences, trying to come to terms with phenomena that are overarching, that extend through the dimensions of developmental psychology, social psychology, motivation psychology, and parts of clinical psychology. The book as whole gives a clear presentation of the issues, questions and phenomena that surface in research fields known as self psychology.

Time and the Rhythms of Emancipatory Education

Rethinking the temporal complexity of self and society

Author: Michel Alhadeff-Jones

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317541294

Category: Education

Page: 226

View: 8646

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Time and the Rhythms of Emancipatory Education argues that by rethinking the way we relate to time, we can fundamentally rethink the way we conceive education. Beyond the contemporary rhetoric of acceleration, speed, urgency or slowness, this book provides an epistemological, historical and theoretical framework that will serve as a comprehensive resource for critical reflection on the relationship between the experience of time and emancipatory education. Drawing upon time and rhythm studies, complexity theories and educational research, Alhadeff-Jones reflects upon the temporal and rhythmic dimensions of education in order to (re)theorize and address current societal and educational challenges. The book is divided into three parts. The first begins by discussing the specificities inherent to the study of time in educational sciences. The second contextualizes the evolution of temporal constraints that determine the ways education is institutionalized, organized, and experienced. The third and final part questions the meanings of emancipatory education in a context of temporal alienation. This is the first book to provide a broad overview of European and North-American theories that inform both the ideas of time and rhythm in educational sciences, from school instruction, curriculum design and arts education, to vocational training, lifelong learning and educational policies. It will be of key interest to academics, researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of philosophy of education, sociology of education, history of education, psychology, curriculum and learning theory, and adult education.

The Self and the Sonnet

Author: Rajan Barrett

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443825417

Category: History

Page: 460

View: 5282

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The Self and the Sonnet is an interdisciplinary study which considers the sonnet, a near eight hundred year old form, and looks at the historical meanderings and the popularity of the form among cultures that are far removed from the location of its origin in Italy. The book tracks the notion of the self from its Platonic beginnings to the Postmodern, using insights from Charles Taylor, Brian Morris and Calvin O. Schrag so as to work out a model of the self. Jan Patočka’s phenomenological notions of the self and Chaos Theory are important cohesive elements in the composition of this model. A limit point in Mathematics is a point that is not in the set around which all the points cluster. The book looks at the self from the limit points of the body, mind, world and language. It analyzes sonnets which predominantly show a tendency to one of these limit points. However, it keeps in mind the other limit points as possibilities of a comprehensive analysis. The motivation for this body of research comes primarily from the notion of the sonnet being a form that initially exists along with the epic as canonical writers of literary epics also write sonnets. The historic and narrative moment of self in sonnet form calls for a questioning of both the self and the sonnet. The book tries to address the questions: ‘What changes in the notion of self prompt the origin and persistence of the sonnet across cultures?’ and ‘Why and how is this form compatible with a self that is postmodern and global?’ The Anglo-American sonnet, for the most, is addressed but cultures and their attendant forms are also addressed when considering the sonnet. The Arabic zajal, the Persian ghazal, the Chinese sonnet and the Korean Sijo-sonnet are forms that are touched upon along with the Indian postcolonial versions like the forms of the sonnet in Modern Indian Languages such as Bangla, Gujarati and Marathi.

Self-Organizing Complexity in Psychological Systems

Author: Craig Piers,John P. Muller,Joseph Brent

Publisher: Jason Aronson, Incorporated

ISBN: 1461630657

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

View: 8043

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This volume addresses itself to the ways in which the so-called 'new sciences of complexity' can deepen and broaden neurobiological and psychological theories of mind. Complexity theory has gained increasing attention over the past 20 years across diverse areas of inquiry, including mathematics, physics, economics, biology, and the social sciences. Complexity theory concerns itself with how nonlinear dynamical systems evolve and change over time and draws on research arising from chaos theory, self-organization, artificial intelligence and cellular automata, to name a few. This emerging discipline shows many points of convergence with psychological theory and practice, emphasizing that history is irreversible and discontinuous, that small early interventions can have large and unexpected later effects, that each life trajectory is unique yet patterned, that measurement error is not random and cannot be justifiably distributed equally across experimental conditions, that a system's collective and coordinated organization is emergent and often arises from simple components in interaction, and that change is more likely to emerge under conditions of optimal turbulence.

The Self in Process

Toward a Post-rationalist Cognitive Therapy

Author: V. F. Guidano

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9780898624472

Category: Psychology

Page: 237

View: 9321

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In this profound work, Vittorio Guidano expands upon his earlier seminal contributions on the application of cognitive and developmental principles to individuals struggling with various forms of psycho-pathology. Here, he fully develops the idea that individuals' experience, both positive and negative, are powerfully influenced by their personal "psychological organizations." Focusing primarily on the eating disorders, the phobias (with agoraphobia as the prototype) obsessive-compulsive patterns, and depression, Guidano illustrates how early developmental experiences and ongoing psychological processes may collude to perpetuate dysfunctional patterns and personal distress. The central and perhaps most exciting thesis in this new expression of Guidano's thinking is that the "deep structure" or "core organizing processes" that constrain human psychological experience may be at the heart of successful intervention as well as the classical problems of resistance, relapse, and refractory behaviors. Guidano's contention is at once simple and powerful: those psychological processes involved in the development and maintenance of personal identity, or "self" that should be the primary foci of research and intervention in psycho-logical disorders. The meaning of Guidano's perspective for clinical practice is perhaps best expressed in the author's own words: "Knowing the basic elements of the personal cognitive organization that underlie the pattern of disturbed behavior and emotions, the therapist can behave, from the beginning, in such a way as to build a relationship as effective as possible for that particular client. In other words, the therapist should be able to establish a relationship that respects the client's personal identity and systemic coherence and that, at the same time, does not confirm the basic pathogenic assumptions. For example, in working with agoraphobics, the therapist has to respect their self-images centered on the need to be in control. He/she can do this by avoiding any direct attack on their controlling attitudes and by leaving them a wide margin of control in the relationship. At the same time the therapist should avoid confirming their assumptions about the somatic origin of their emotional disturbances or about their inborn fragility. In short, the therapist who can anticipate the models of self and reality tacitly entertained by the client is surely better able to help the development of a cooperative and secure therapeutic relationship than the therapist who cannot make such anticipations." This timely and provocative volume offers exciting new ideas about how to conceptualize and facilitate change in the "self system." With the rare combination of his Renaissance intellect and integrative practical expertise, Guidano has been able to draw together many disparate themes from object relations theory, ego psychology, attachment theory, constructivist models of human cognition, and lifespan developmental psychology. It is must reading for the practicing professional, the helping apprentice, and anyone interested in glimpsing the cutting edge at the growing interface between cognitive and clinical science.

At Home in the Universe

The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

Author: Stuart Kauffman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019976185X

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 7103

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A major scientific revolution has begun, a new paradigm that rivals Darwin's theory in importance. At its heart is the discovery of the order that lies deep within the most complex of systems, from the origin of life, to the workings of giant corporations, to the rise and fall of great civilizations. And more than anyone else, this revolution is the work of one man, Stuart Kauffman, a MacArthur Fellow and visionary pioneer of the new science of complexity. Now, in At Home in the Universe, Kauffman brilliantly weaves together the excitement of intellectual discovery and a fertile mix of insights to give the general reader a fascinating look at this new science--and at the forces for order that lie at the edge of chaos. We all know of instances of spontaneous order in nature--an oil droplet in water forms a sphere, snowflakes have a six-fold symmetry. What we are only now discovering, Kauffman says, is that the range of spontaneous order is enormously greater than we had supposed. Indeed, self-organization is a great undiscovered principle of nature. But how does this spontaneous order arise? Kauffman contends that complexity itself triggers self-organization, or what he calls "order for free," that if enough different molecules pass a certain threshold of complexity, they begin to self-organize into a new entity--a living cell. Kauffman uses the analogy of a thousand buttons on a rug--join two buttons randomly with thread, then another two, and so on. At first, you have isolated pairs; later, small clusters; but suddenly at around the 500th repetition, a remarkable transformation occurs--much like the phase transition when water abruptly turns to ice--and the buttons link up in one giant network. Likewise, life may have originated when the mix of different molecules in the primordial soup passed a certain level of complexity and self-organized into living entities (if so, then life is not a highly improbable chance event, but almost inevitable). Kauffman uses the basic insight of "order for free" to illuminate a staggering range of phenomena. We see how a single-celled embryo can grow to a highly complex organism with over two hundred different cell types. We learn how the science of complexity extends Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: that self-organization, selection, and chance are the engines of the biosphere. And we gain insights into biotechnology, the stunning magic of the new frontier of genetic engineering--generating trillions of novel molecules to find new drugs, vaccines, enzymes, biosensors, and more. Indeed, Kauffman shows that ecosystems, economic systems, and even cultural systems may all evolve according to similar general laws, that tissues and terra cotta evolve in similar ways. And finally, there is a profoundly spiritual element to Kauffman's thought. If, as he argues, life were bound to arise, not as an incalculably improbable accident, but as an expected fulfillment of the natural order, then we truly are at home in the universe. Kauffman's earlier volume, The Origins of Order, written for specialists, received lavish praise. Stephen Jay Gould called it "a landmark and a classic." And Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson wrote that "there are few people in this world who ever ask the right questions of science, and they are the ones who affect its future most profoundly. Stuart Kauffman is one of these." In At Home in the Universe, this visionary thinker takes you along as he explores new insights into the nature of life.

Self-Organizing Complexity in Psychological Systems

Author: Craig Piers,John P. Muller,Joseph Brent

Publisher: Jason Aronson, Incorporated

ISBN: 1461630657

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

View: 6716

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This volume addresses itself to the ways in which the so-called 'new sciences of complexity' can deepen and broaden neurobiological and psychological theories of mind. Complexity theory has gained increasing attention over the past 20 years across diverse areas of inquiry, including mathematics, physics, economics, biology, and the social sciences. Complexity theory concerns itself with how nonlinear dynamical systems evolve and change over time and draws on research arising from chaos theory, self-organization, artificial intelligence and cellular automata, to name a few. This emerging discipline shows many points of convergence with psychological theory and practice, emphasizing that history is irreversible and discontinuous, that small early interventions can have large and unexpected later effects, that each life trajectory is unique yet patterned, that measurement error is not random and cannot be justifiably distributed equally across experimental conditions, that a system's collective and coordinated organization is emergent and often arises from simple components in interaction, and that change is more likely to emerge under conditions of optimal turbulence.

The Self

Author: Constantine Sedikides,Steven J. Spencer

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136737103

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 8367

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This volume provides a cutting-edge exposition to research on the self. Sixteen authoritative overviews highlight the role of the self around four themes. The first theme is Brain and Cognition, which includes a social neuroscience perspective on the self, implicit self-cognition, the structure of the self and autobiographical memory. The next theme is Motivation, in which chapters include social comparison, self-regulation, narcissism, and modesty. The third theme is Self-esteem and Emotions, covered by chapters on the measurement of self-esteem, terror management theory, sociometer theory, and self-conscious emotions. The final theme concerns the Interpersonal, Intergroup and Cultural Context, containing chapters on intimate relationships, social exclusion, the collective self, and culture. Throughout the volume, the exposition is both scholarly and accessible. It also offers critical assessments along with thoughtful discussions of challenges and problems ahead, as well as the generation of novel hypotheses. As such, the book aspires to influence the research agenda for several years to come. The Self will serve as an essential reference volume for active researchers in the field, while also being appropriate for use as a textbook in advanced courses on the self.

Locating and Losing the Self in the World

Cross-Cultural Reflections on Self-Awareness and Self-Transcendence

Author: Laura Specker Sullivan,Masato Ishida

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443869503

Category: Philosophy

Page: 170

View: 5071

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Comparative philosophy brings into focus relationships found across philosophies of disparate cultures. In the contemporary globalizing world, this perspective is vital – it ensures that diverse voices have the opportunity to be heard and refines the understanding of the many varieties of philosophical thought. Philosophy departments around the world are beginning to see the import of this broader perspective. Recent years have seen tremendous growth in the areas of Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Islamic, African, Latin American, and indigenous philosophies. Every year, graduate students from around the world gather at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, the defining center of this comparative movement, in order to attend the Uehiro Graduate Student Philosophy Conference. These students bring a range of philosophical interests that converge to a definite theme over the course of the conference. At the 2012 meeting, this theme revolved around human beings’ recognition of themselves as selves, the discovery of the nature of these selves, and their relation to the world at large. These issues are comparative in the best sense of the word, drawing on the interests of canonical Western philosophy, as well as reflecting the fundamental concerns of non-Western philosophies. The three sections of this volume capture the stages of thought moving from self-awareness to self-transcendence, and leading to the general theme of the volume: locating and losing the self in the world. The papers in this volume represent diverse philosophical viewpoints, from canonical Western figures such as Immanuel Kant and Simone de Beauvoir, to those of non-Western philosophers who have been gaining interest in the English-speaking world, such as Nāgārjuna and Nishida Kitarō. By gaining familiarity with these figures’ perspectives, readers will become better able to distinguish and think through issues including linguistic and phenomenological understanding of the self, the self’s full engagement with the world, and the world’s reciprocal determination of the self.

Structural Information and Communication Complexity

16th International Colloquium, SIROCCO 2009, Piran, Slovenia, May 25-27, 2009, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Shay Kutten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364211475X

Category: Computers

Page: 340

View: 3554

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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 16th International Colloquium on Structural Information and Communication Complexity, SIROCCO 2009, held in Piran, Slovenia, in May 2009. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 53 submissions. The volume also contains two invited papers. SIROCCO addresses topics such as distributed computing, parallel computing, game theory, social networks, networking, mobile computing, peer to peer systems, communication complexity, combinatorial optimization; special focus is put to compact data structures, information dissemination, informative labeling schemes, distributed scheduling, wireless networks and scheduling of transmissions, routing, broadcasting, and localization.

Evolution and the Emergent Self

The Rise of Complexity and Behavioral Versatility in Nature

Author: Raymond L. Neubauer

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231150709

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 2628

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Evolution and the Emergent Self is an eloquent and evocative new synthesis that explores how the human species emerged from the cosmic dust. Lucidly presenting ideas about the rise of complexity in our genetic, neuronal, ecological, and ultimately cosmological settings, the author takes readers on a provocative tour of modern science's quest to understand our place in nature and in our universe. Readers fascinated with "Big History" and drawn to examine big ideas will be challenged and enthralled by Raymond L. Neubauer's ambitious narrative. How did humans emerge from the cosmos and the pre-biotic Earth, and what mechanisms of biological, chemical, and physical sciences drove this increasingly complex process? Neubauer presents a view of nature that describes the rising complexity of life in terms of increasing information content, first in genes and then in brains. The evolution of the nervous system expanded the capacity of organisms to store information, making learning possible. In key chapters, the author portrays four species with high brain:body ratios—chimpanzees, elephants, ravens, and dolphins—showing how each species shares with humans the capacity for complex communication, elaborate social relationships, flexible behavior, tool use, and powers of abstraction. A large brain can have a hierarchical arrangement of circuits that facilitates higher levels of abstraction. Neubauer describes this constellation of qualities as an emergent self, arguing that self-awareness is nascent in several species besides humans and that potential human characteristics are embedded in the evolutionary process and have emerged repeatedly in a variety of lineages on our planet. He ultimately demonstrates that human culture is not a unique offshoot of a language-specialized primate, but an analogue of fundamental mechanisms that organisms have used since the beginning of life on Earth to gather and process information in order to buffer themselves from fluctuations in the environment. Neubauer also views these developments in a cosmic setting, detailing open thermodynamic systems that grow more complex as the energy flowing through them increases. Similar processes of increasing complexity can be found in the "self-organizing" structures of both living and nonliving forms. Recent evidence from astronomy indicates that planet formation may be nearly as frequent as star formation. Since life makes use of the elements commonly seeded into space by burning and expiring stars, it is reasonable to speculate that the evolution of life and intelligence that happened on our planet may be found across the universe.

The Self-Potential Method

Theory and Applications in Environmental Geosciences

Author: André Revil,Abderrahim Jardani

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107019273

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 6771

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"The self-potential method is a simple yet innovative process, enabling non-intrusive assessment and imaging of disturbances in electrical currents of conductive subsurface materials, by measuring the electrical response at the ground's surface or in boreholes. It has an increasing number of applications, from mapping fluid flow in the subsurface of the Earth, to understanding the plumbing systems of geothermal fields, and detecting preferential flow paths in earth dams and embankments"--

The Self: Interdisciplinary Approaches

Author: Jaine Strauss,George R. Goethals

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468482645

Category: Psychology

Page: 278

View: 4498

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A truly remarkable explosion of interest in the self has taken place in the past two decades, in psychology and related disciplines. This book presents a wide range of recent work on the self, from self-awareness in chimpanzees to multiple-personality disorders, self-esteem in adolescents, as well as fundamental issues going back to the work of James, Cooley and others. Three main groups or clusters of themes emerge. The first cluster consists of chapters that discuss the organization and coherence of the self; the second one deals with self-awareness and self-deception; and the third one examines, in new ways, the question of the relationship between self and other. While it is difficult to predict exactly where future work on the self will lead scholars, this work points in some significant directions and provides a firm reference in the field.

Handbook of Social Cognition, Second Edition

Volume 1: Basic Processes

Author: Robert S. Wyer, Jr.,Thomas K. Srull

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1317782534

Category: Psychology

Page: 488

View: 2302

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This edition of the Handbook follows the first edition by 10 years. The earlier edition was a promissory note, presaging the directions in which the then-emerging field of social cognition was likely to move. The field was then in its infancy and the areas of research and theory that came to dominate the field during the next decade were only beginning to surface. The concepts and methods used had frequently been borrowed from cognitive psychology and had been applied to phenomena in a very limited number of areas. Nevertheless, social cognition promised to develop rapidly into an important area of psychological inquiry that would ultimately have an impact on not only several areas of psychology but other fields as well. The promises made by the earlier edition have generally been fulfilled. Since its publication, social cognition has become one of the most active areas of research in the entire field of psychology; its influence has extended to health and clinical psychology, and personality, as well as to political science, organizational behavior, and marketing and consumer behavior. The impact of social cognition theory and research within a very short period of time is incontrovertible. The present volumes provide a comprehensive and detailed review of the theoretical and empirical work that has been performed during these years, and of its implications for information processing in a wide variety of domains. The handbook is divided into two volumes. The first provides an overview of basic research and theory in social information processing, covering the automatic and controlled processing of information and its implications for how information is encoded and stored in memory, the mental representation of persons -- including oneself -- and events, the role of procedural knowledge in information processing, inference processes, and response processes. Special attention is given to the cognitive determinants and consequences of affect and emotion. The second book provides detailed discussions of the role of information processing in specific areas such as stereotyping; communication and persuasion; political judgment; close relationships; organizational, clinical and health psychology; and consumer behavior. The contributors are theorists and researchers who have themselves carried out important studies in the areas to which their chapters pertain. In combination, the contents of this two-volume set provide a sophisticated and in-depth treatment of both theory and research in this major area of psychological inquiry and the directions in which it is likely to proceed in the future.