Computational Neural Networks for Geophysical Data Processing

Author: M.M. Poulton

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080529653

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 9378

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This book was primarily written for an audience that has heard about neural networks or has had some experience with the algorithms, but would like to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental material. For those that already have a solid grasp of how to create a neural network application, this work can provide a wide range of examples of nuances in network design, data set design, testing strategy, and error analysis. Computational, rather than artificial, modifiers are used for neural networks in this book to make a distinction between networks that are implemented in hardware and those that are implemented in software. The term artificial neural network covers any implementation that is inorganic and is the most general term. Computational neural networks are only implemented in software but represent the vast majority of applications. While this book cannot provide a blue print for every conceivable geophysics application, it does outline a basic approach that has been used successfully.

Soft Computing for Reservoir Characterization and Modeling

Author: Patrick Wong,Fred Aminzadeh,Masoud Nikravesh

Publisher: Physica

ISBN: 3790818070

Category: Science

Page: 586

View: 9703

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In the middle of the 20th century, Genrich Altshuller, a Russian engineer, analysed hundreds of thousands of patents and scientific publications. From this analysis, he developed TRIZ (G. Altshuller, "40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Technical Innovation. TRIZ Tools," Volume 1, First Edition, Technical Innovation Center, Inc. , Worcester, MA, January 1998; Y. Salamatov, "TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time. A Guide to Innovative Problem Solving. " Insytec B. V. , 1999), the theory of inventive problem solving, together with a series of practical tools for helping engineers solving technical problems. Among these tools and theories, the substance-field theory gives a structured way of representing problems, the patterns of evolution show the lifecycle of technical systems, the contradiction matrix tells you how to resolve technical contradictions, using the forty principles that describe common ways of improving technical systems. For example, if you want to increase the strength of a device, without adding too much extra weight to it, the contradiction matrix tells you that you can use "Principle 1: Segmentation," or "Principle 8: Counterweight," or "Principle 15: Dynamicity," or "Principle 40: Composite Materials. " I really like two particular ones: "Principle 1: Segmentation," and Principle 15: Dynamicity. " "Segmentation" shows how systems evolve from an initial monolithic form into a set of independent parts, then eventually increasing the number of parts until each part becomes small enough that it cannot be identified anymore.

The Earth's Magnetic Interior

Author: Eduard Petrovský,Emilio Herrero-Bervera,T Harinarayana,David Ivers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400703230

Category: Science

Page: 445

View: 8121

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This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth’s magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book is to provide an overview of recent advances and future challenges in these particular fields of research.

Engineering Applications of Neural Networks

14th International Conference, EANN 2013, Halkidiki, Greece, September 2013, Proceedings

Author: Lazaros S. Iliadis,Harris Papadopoulos,Chrisina Jayne

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642410138

Category: Computers

Page: 510

View: 6156

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The two volumes set, CCIS 383 and 384, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering Applications of Neural Networks, EANN 2013, held on Halkidiki, Greece, in September 2013. The 91 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers describe the applications of artificial neural networks and other soft computing approaches to various fields such as pattern recognition-predictors, soft computing applications, medical applications of AI, fuzzy inference, evolutionary algorithms, classification, learning and data mining, control techniques-aspects of AI evolution, image and video analysis, classification, pattern recognition, social media and community based governance, medical applications of AI-bioinformatics and learning.

Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics

Author: Harsh Gupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904818701X

Category: Science

Page: 1539

View: 308

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The past few decades have witnessed the growth of the Earth Sciences in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the planet that we live on. This development addresses the challenging endeavor to enrich human lives with the bounties of Nature as well as to preserve the planet for the generations to come. Solid Earth Geophysics aspires to define and quantify the internal structure and processes of the Earth in terms of the principles of physics and forms the intrinsic framework, which other allied disciplines utilize for more specific investigations. The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics was published in 1989 by Van Nostrand Reinhold publishing company. More than two decades later, this new volume, edited by Prof. Harsh K. Gupta, represents a thoroughly revised and expanded reference work. It brings together more than 200 articles covering established and new concepts of Geophysics across the various sub-disciplines such as Gravity, Geodesy, Geomagnetism, Seismology, Seismics, Deep Earth Processes, Plate Tectonics, Thermal Domains, Computational Methods, etc. in a systematic and consistent format and standard. It is an authoritative and current reference source with extraordinary width of scope. It draws its unique strength from the expert contributions of editors and authors across the globe. It is designed to serve as a valuable and cherished source of information for current and future generations of professionals.

Seismic Waves and Rays in Elastic Media

Author: Michael A. Slawinski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080439303

Category: Science

Page: 401

View: 9804

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This book seeks to explore seismic phenomena in elastic media and emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning. The purpose of this title - which is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientists interested in quantitative seismology - is to use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to describe phenomena resulting from the propagation of waves. The book is divided into three parts: Elastic continua, Waves and rays, and Variational formulation of rays. In Part I, continuum mechanics are used to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such material. In Part II, these equations are used to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, the high-frequency approximation is used and establishes the concept of a ray. In Part III, it is shown that in elastic continua a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary travel time.

Geophysical Applications of Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic

Author: W. Sandham,M. Leggett

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401702713

Category: Mathematics

Page: 325

View: 956

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The past fifteen years has witnessed an explosive growth in the fundamental research and applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic (FL). The main impetus behind this growth has been the ability of such methods to offer solutions not amenable to conventional techniques, particularly in application domains involving pattern recognition, prediction and control. Although the origins of ANNs and FL may be traced back to the 1940s and 1960s, respectively, the most rapid progress has only been achieved in the last fifteen years. This has been due to significant theoretical advances in our understanding of ANNs and FL, complemented by major technological developments in high-speed computing. In geophysics, ANNs and FL have enjoyed significant success and are now employed routinely in the following areas (amongst others): 1. Exploration Seismology. (a) Seismic data processing (trace editing; first break picking; deconvolution and multiple suppression; wavelet estimation; velocity analysis; noise identification/reduction; statics analysis; dataset matching/prediction, attenuation), (b) AVO analysis, (c) Chimneys, (d) Compression I dimensionality reduction, (e) Shear-wave analysis, (f) Interpretation (event tracking; lithology prediction and well-log analysis; prospect appraisal; hydrocarbon prediction; inversion; reservoir characterisation; quality assessment; tomography). 2. Earthquake Seismology and Subterranean Nuclear Explosions. 3. Mineral Exploration. 4. Electromagnetic I Potential Field Exploration. (a) Electromagnetic methods, (b) Potential field methods, (c) Ground penetrating radar, (d) Remote sensing, (e) inversion.

Process Neural Networks

Theory and Applications

Author: Xingui He,Shaohua Xu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540737629

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 7727

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For the first time, this book sets forth the concept and model for a process neural network. You’ll discover how a process neural network expands the mapping relationship between the input and output of traditional neural networks and greatly enhances the expression capability of artificial neural networks. Detailed illustrations help you visualize information processing flow and the mapping relationship between inputs and outputs.

Soft Computing in Machine Learning

Author: Sang-Yong Rhee,Jooyoung Park,Atsushi Inoue

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331905533X

Category: Computers

Page: 117

View: 3924

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As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It consists of 11 contributions that features illumination change detection, generator of electronic educational publications, intelligent call triage system, recognition of rocks at uranium deposits, graphics processing units, mathematical model of hit phenomena, selection and mutation in genetic algorithm, hands and arms motion estimation, application of wavelet network, Kanizsa triangle illusion, and support vector machine regression. Also, it describes how to apply the machine learning for the intelligent systems. This edition is published in original, peer reviewed contributions covering from initial design to final prototypes and verifications.

Application of Soft Computing and Intelligent Methods in Geophysics

Author: Alireza Hajian,Peter Styles

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319665324

Category: Science

Page: 533

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This book provides a practical guide to applying soft-computing methods to interpret geophysical data. It discusses the design of neural networks with Matlab for geophysical data, as well as fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy concepts and their applications. In addition, it describes genetic algorithms for the automatic and/or intelligent processing and interpretation of geophysical data.

Time Series Analysis and Applications to Geophysical Systems

Author: David Brillinger,Enders Anthony Robinson,Frederic Paik Schoenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468493868

Category: Mathematics

Page: 260

View: 5010

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This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS TO GEOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS contains papers presented at a very successful workshop on the same title. The event which was held on November 12-15, 2001 was an integral part of the IMA 2001-2002 annual program on " Mathematics in the Geosciences. " We would like to thank David R. Brillinger (Department of Statistics, Uni versity of California, Berkeley), Enders Anthony Robinson (Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University), and Fred eric Paik Schoenberg (Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles) for their superb role as workshop organizers and editors of the proceedings. We are also grateful to Robert H. Shumway (Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis) for his help in organizing the four-day event. We take this opportunity to thank the National Science Foundation for its support of the IMA. Series Editors Douglas N. Arnold, Director of the IMA Fadil Santosa, Deputy Director of the IMA v PREFACE This volume contains a collection of papers that were presented dur ing the Workshop on Time Series Analysis and Applications to Geophysical Systems at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications (IMA) at the University of Minnesota from November 12-15, 2001. This was part of the IMA Thematic Year on Mathematics in the Geosciences, and was the last in a series of four Workshops during the Fall Quarter dedicated to Dynamical Systems and Ergodic Theory.

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Data Processing and Infrasound

Author: Zoltan A. Der,Robert H. Shumway,Eugene T. Herrin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3034881444

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 7337

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On September 10, 1996, The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Copmprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data center (IDC), and on-site inspections, to verify compliance. This volume presents certain recent research results pertaining on methods used to process data recorded by instruments of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and addressing recording infrasound signals generated by atmospheric explosions. Six papers treating data processing provide an important selection of topics expected to contribute to improving our ability to successfully monitor a CTBT. Five papers concerning infrasound include descriptions of ways in which that important research area can contribute to CTBT monitoring, the automatic processing of infrasound data, and site conditions that serve to improve the quality of infrasound data.

Intelligent Computational Paradigms in Earthquake Engineering

Author: Nikos D. Lagaros,Yiannis Tsompanakis

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1599041014

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 444

View: 4992

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"This book contains contributions that cover a wide spectrum of very important real-world engineering problems, and explores the implementation of neural networks for the representation of structural responses in earthquake engineering. It assesses the efficiency of seismic design procedures and describes the latest findings in intelligent optimal control systems and their applications in structural engineering"--Provided by publisher.

Soft Computing and Intelligent Data Analysis in Oil Exploration

Author: M. Nikravesh,L.A. Zadeh,Fred Aminzadeh

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080541327

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 754

View: 3581

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This comprehensive book highlights soft computing and geostatistics applications in hydrocarbon exploration and production, combining practical and theoretical aspects. It spans a wide spectrum of applications in the oil industry, crossing many discipline boundaries such as geophysics, geology, petrophysics and reservoir engineering. It is complemented by several tutorial chapters on fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms and geostatistics to introduce these concepts to the uninitiated. The application areas include prediction of reservoir properties (porosity, sand thickness, lithology, fluid), seismic processing, seismic and bio stratigraphy, time lapse seismic and core analysis. There is a good balance between introducing soft computing and geostatistics methodologies that are not routinely used in the petroleum industry and various applications areas. The book can be used by many practitioners such as processing geophysicists, seismic interpreters, geologists, reservoir engineers, petrophysicist, geostatistians, asset mangers and technology application professionals. It will also be of interest to academics to assess the importance of, and contribute to, R&D efforts in relevant areas.

Neural Networks in Atmospheric Remote Sensing

Author: William J. Blackwell,Frederick W. Chen

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 1596933739

Category: Computers

Page: 215

View: 3862

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This authoritative reference offers you a comprehensive understanding of the underpinnings and practical applications of artificial neural networks and their use in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. You find expert guidance on the development and evaluation of neural network algorithms that process data from a new generation of hyperspectral sensors. The book provides clear explanations of the mathematical and physical foundations of remote sensing systems, including radiative transfer and propagation theory, sensor technologies, and inversion and estimation approaches. You discover how to use neural networks to approximate remote sensing inverse functions with emphasis on model selection, preprocessing, initialization, training, and performance evaluation.

Neural Network Data Analysis Using SimulnetTM

Author: Edward J. Rzempoluck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461217466

Category: Computers

Page: 226

View: 1898

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This book and software package complements the traditional data analysis tools already widely available. It presents an introduction to the analysis of data using neural network functions such as multilayer feed-forward networks using error back propagation, genetic algorithm-neural network hybrids, generalised regression neural networks, learning quantizer networks, and self-organising feature maps. In an easy-to-use, Windows-based environment it offers a wide range of data analytic tools which are not usually found together: genetic algorithms, probabilistic networks, as well as a number of related techniques that support these. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of computers and elementary mathematics, allowing them to quickly conduct sophisticated hands-on analyses of data sets.

Coding and Decoding: Seismic Data

The Concept of Multishooting

Author: Luc T. Ikelle

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080914459

Category: Science

Page: 618

View: 4253

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Currently, the acquisition of seismic surveys is performed as a sequential operation in which shots are computed separately, one after the other. This approach is similar to that of multiple-access technology, which is widely used in cellular communications to allow several subscribers to share the same telephone line. The cost of performing various shots simultaneously is almost identical to that of one shot; thus, the savings in time and money expected from using the multishooting approach for computing seismic surveys compared to the current approach are enormous. By using this approach, the long-standing problem of simulating a three-dimensional seismic survey can be reduced to a matter of weeks and not years, as is currently the case. Investigates how to collect, stimulate, and process multishooting data Addresses the improvements in seismic characterization and resolution one can expect from multishooting data Aims to educate the oil and gas exploration and production business of the benefits of multishooting data, and to influence their day-to-day surveying techniques

Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing

Author: Yu Hen Hu,Jenq-Neng Hwang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420038613

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 408

View: 9841

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The use of neural networks is permeating every area of signal processing. They can provide powerful means for solving many problems, especially in nonlinear, real-time, adaptive, and blind signal processing. The Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing brings together applications that were previously scattered among various publications to provide an up-to-date, detailed treatment of the subject from an engineering point of view. The authors cover basic principles, modeling, algorithms, architectures, implementation procedures, and well-designed simulation examples of audio, video, speech, communication, geophysical, sonar, radar, medical, and many other signals. The subject of neural networks and their application to signal processing is constantly improving. You need a handy reference that will inform you of current applications in this new area. The Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing provides this much needed service for all engineers and scientists in the field.