Computational Neural Networks for Geophysical Data Processing

Author: M.M. Poulton

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080529653

Category: Science

Page: 352

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This book was primarily written for an audience that has heard about neural networks or has had some experience with the algorithms, but would like to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental material. For those that already have a solid grasp of how to create a neural network application, this work can provide a wide range of examples of nuances in network design, data set design, testing strategy, and error analysis. Computational, rather than artificial, modifiers are used for neural networks in this book to make a distinction between networks that are implemented in hardware and those that are implemented in software. The term artificial neural network covers any implementation that is inorganic and is the most general term. Computational neural networks are only implemented in software but represent the vast majority of applications. While this book cannot provide a blue print for every conceivable geophysics application, it does outline a basic approach that has been used successfully.

Geophysical Applications of Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic

Author: W. Sandham,M. Leggett

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401702713

Category: Mathematics

Page: 325

View: 5777

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The past fifteen years has witnessed an explosive growth in the fundamental research and applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic (FL). The main impetus behind this growth has been the ability of such methods to offer solutions not amenable to conventional techniques, particularly in application domains involving pattern recognition, prediction and control. Although the origins of ANNs and FL may be traced back to the 1940s and 1960s, respectively, the most rapid progress has only been achieved in the last fifteen years. This has been due to significant theoretical advances in our understanding of ANNs and FL, complemented by major technological developments in high-speed computing. In geophysics, ANNs and FL have enjoyed significant success and are now employed routinely in the following areas (amongst others): 1. Exploration Seismology. (a) Seismic data processing (trace editing; first break picking; deconvolution and multiple suppression; wavelet estimation; velocity analysis; noise identification/reduction; statics analysis; dataset matching/prediction, attenuation), (b) AVO analysis, (c) Chimneys, (d) Compression I dimensionality reduction, (e) Shear-wave analysis, (f) Interpretation (event tracking; lithology prediction and well-log analysis; prospect appraisal; hydrocarbon prediction; inversion; reservoir characterisation; quality assessment; tomography). 2. Earthquake Seismology and Subterranean Nuclear Explosions. 3. Mineral Exploration. 4. Electromagnetic I Potential Field Exploration. (a) Electromagnetic methods, (b) Potential field methods, (c) Ground penetrating radar, (d) Remote sensing, (e) inversion.

Soft Computing for Reservoir Characterization and Modeling

Author: Patrick Wong,Fred Aminzadeh,Masoud Nikravesh

Publisher: Physica

ISBN: 3790818070

Category: Science

Page: 586

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In the middle of the 20th century, Genrich Altshuller, a Russian engineer, analysed hundreds of thousands of patents and scientific publications. From this analysis, he developed TRIZ (G. Altshuller, "40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Technical Innovation. TRIZ Tools," Volume 1, First Edition, Technical Innovation Center, Inc. , Worcester, MA, January 1998; Y. Salamatov, "TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time. A Guide to Innovative Problem Solving. " Insytec B. V. , 1999), the theory of inventive problem solving, together with a series of practical tools for helping engineers solving technical problems. Among these tools and theories, the substance-field theory gives a structured way of representing problems, the patterns of evolution show the lifecycle of technical systems, the contradiction matrix tells you how to resolve technical contradictions, using the forty principles that describe common ways of improving technical systems. For example, if you want to increase the strength of a device, without adding too much extra weight to it, the contradiction matrix tells you that you can use "Principle 1: Segmentation," or "Principle 8: Counterweight," or "Principle 15: Dynamicity," or "Principle 40: Composite Materials. " I really like two particular ones: "Principle 1: Segmentation," and Principle 15: Dynamicity. " "Segmentation" shows how systems evolve from an initial monolithic form into a set of independent parts, then eventually increasing the number of parts until each part becomes small enough that it cannot be identified anymore.

The Earth's Magnetic Interior

Author: Eduard Petrovský,Emilio Herrero-Bervera,T Harinarayana,David Ivers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400703230

Category: Science

Page: 445

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This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth’s magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book is to provide an overview of recent advances and future challenges in these particular fields of research.

Engineering Applications of Neural Networks

14th International Conference, EANN 2013, Halkidiki, Greece, September 2013, Proceedings

Author: Lazaros Iliadis,Harris Papadopoulos,Chrisina Jayne

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642410138

Category: Computers

Page: 510

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The two volumes set, CCIS 383 and 384, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering Applications of Neural Networks, EANN 2013, held on Halkidiki, Greece, in September 2013. The 91 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers describe the applications of artificial neural networks and other soft computing approaches to various fields such as pattern recognition-predictors, soft computing applications, medical applications of AI, fuzzy inference, evolutionary algorithms, classification, learning and data mining, control techniques-aspects of AI evolution, image and video analysis, classification, pattern recognition, social media and community based governance, medical applications of AI-bioinformatics and learning.

Application of Soft Computing and Intelligent Methods in Geophysics

Author: Alireza Hajian,Peter Styles

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319665324

Category: Science

Page: 533

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This book provides a practical guide to applying soft-computing methods to interpret geophysical data. It discusses the design of neural networks with Matlab for geophysical data, as well as fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy concepts and their applications. In addition, it describes genetic algorithms for the automatic and/or intelligent processing and interpretation of geophysical data.

Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics

Author: Harsh Gupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904818701X

Category: Science

Page: 1539

View: 4929

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The past few decades have witnessed the growth of the Earth Sciences in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the planet that we live on. This development addresses the challenging endeavor to enrich human lives with the bounties of Nature as well as to preserve the planet for the generations to come. Solid Earth Geophysics aspires to define and quantify the internal structure and processes of the Earth in terms of the principles of physics and forms the intrinsic framework, which other allied disciplines utilize for more specific investigations. The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics was published in 1989 by Van Nostrand Reinhold publishing company. More than two decades later, this new volume, edited by Prof. Harsh K. Gupta, represents a thoroughly revised and expanded reference work. It brings together more than 200 articles covering established and new concepts of Geophysics across the various sub-disciplines such as Gravity, Geodesy, Geomagnetism, Seismology, Seismics, Deep Earth Processes, Plate Tectonics, Thermal Domains, Computational Methods, etc. in a systematic and consistent format and standard. It is an authoritative and current reference source with extraordinary width of scope. It draws its unique strength from the expert contributions of editors and authors across the globe. It is designed to serve as a valuable and cherished source of information for current and future generations of professionals.

Soft Computing and Intelligent Data Analysis in Oil Exploration

Author: M. Nikravesh,L.A. Zadeh,Fred Aminzadeh

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080541327

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 754

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This comprehensive book highlights soft computing and geostatistics applications in hydrocarbon exploration and production, combining practical and theoretical aspects. It spans a wide spectrum of applications in the oil industry, crossing many discipline boundaries such as geophysics, geology, petrophysics and reservoir engineering. It is complemented by several tutorial chapters on fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms and geostatistics to introduce these concepts to the uninitiated. The application areas include prediction of reservoir properties (porosity, sand thickness, lithology, fluid), seismic processing, seismic and bio stratigraphy, time lapse seismic and core analysis. There is a good balance between introducing soft computing and geostatistics methodologies that are not routinely used in the petroleum industry and various applications areas. The book can be used by many practitioners such as processing geophysicists, seismic interpreters, geologists, reservoir engineers, petrophysicist, geostatistians, asset mangers and technology application professionals. It will also be of interest to academics to assess the importance of, and contribute to, R&D efforts in relevant areas.

Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing

Author: Yu Hen Hu,Jenq-Neng Hwang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420038613

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 408

View: 4286

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The use of neural networks is permeating every area of signal processing. They can provide powerful means for solving many problems, especially in nonlinear, real-time, adaptive, and blind signal processing. The Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing brings together applications that were previously scattered among various publications to provide an up-to-date, detailed treatment of the subject from an engineering point of view. The authors cover basic principles, modeling, algorithms, architectures, implementation procedures, and well-designed simulation examples of audio, video, speech, communication, geophysical, sonar, radar, medical, and many other signals. The subject of neural networks and their application to signal processing is constantly improving. You need a handy reference that will inform you of current applications in this new area. The Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing provides this much needed service for all engineers and scientists in the field.

Seismic Waves and Rays in Elastic Media

Author: Michael A. Slawinski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080439303

Category: Science

Page: 401

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This book seeks to explore seismic phenomena in elastic media and emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning. The purpose of this title - which is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientists interested in quantitative seismology - is to use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to describe phenomena resulting from the propagation of waves. The book is divided into three parts: Elastic continua, Waves and rays, and Variational formulation of rays. In Part I, continuum mechanics are used to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such material. In Part II, these equations are used to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, the high-frequency approximation is used and establishes the concept of a ray. In Part III, it is shown that in elastic continua a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary travel time.

Monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Author: Eystein S. Husebye,Anton M. Dainty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401104190

Category: Science

Page: 836

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An international treaty banning the testing of any nuclear device in any environment - a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) - has been on the political agenda for nearly 40 years. Objections to a CTBT have been political, technical, or a combination of both. However, the possibilities seem better after the end of the Cold War. In the prevailing, cooperative disarmament climate a CTBT appears likely to be approved by most countries in 1996. Hence the great current interest in monitoring technologies and capabilities. Such issues are comprehensively addressed here, a preamble being devoted to the political developments and setbacks over the past 40 years. Since seismic means are considered the dominant monitoring element, they are explored in detail. Contributions cover network deployments, advanced signal processing, wave propagation in heterogeneous media, and seismic source representations, and a variety of techniques for source classification (including neural networks). Complementary monitoring techniques, such as hydroacoustics, radionuclides and infrasound, are also summarised. The IAEA operation for monitoring compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty is also presented. The book also includes eyewitness accounts of the Soviet 50 Mt megabomb development and test, as well as the efforts made by the state to monitor the nuclear test programmes of the western powers. Includes some 33 articles written by distinguished scientists active in CTBT monitoring research for decades.

Intelligent Computational Paradigms in Earthquake Engineering

Author: Nikos D. Lagaros,Yiannis Tsompanakis

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1599040999

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 444

View: 6919

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"This book contains contributions that cover a wide spectrum of very important real-world engineering problems, and explores the implementation of neural networks for the representation of structural responses in earthquake engineering. It assesses the efficiency of seismic design procedures and describes the latest findings in intelligent optimal control systems and their applications in structural engineering"--Provided by publisher.

Seismic Stratigraphy and Depositional Facies Models

Author: P.C.H. Veeken

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0444627383

Category: Science

Page: 360

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The 2e of Seismic Stratigraphy and Depositional Facies Models summarizes basic seismic interpretation techniques and demonstrates the benefits of integrated reservoir studies for hydrocarbon exploration. Topics are presented from a practical point of view and are supported by well-illustrated case histories. The reader is taken from a basic level to more advanced study techniques. The presented modern geophysical techniques allow more accurate prediction of the changes in subsurface geology. Dynamics of sedimentary environments are discussed their relation to global controling factors, and a link is made to high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. The interest in seismic stratigraphic techniques to interpret reflection datasets is well established. The advent of sophisticated subsurface reservoir studies and 4D monitoring for optimizing the hydrocarbon production in existing fields demonstrate the importance of the 3D seismic methodology. The added value of reflection seismics to the petroleum industry has clearly been proven over the last few decades. Seismic profiles and 3D cubes form a vast and robust data source to unravel the structure of the subsurface. Larger offsets and velocity anisotropy effects give access to more details on reservoir flow properties like fracture density, porosity and permeability distribution. Elastic inversion and modeling may tell something about the change in petrophysical parameters. Seismic investigations provide a vital tool for the delineation of subtle hydrocarbon traps, and they are the basis for understanding the regional basin framework and the stratigraphic subdivision. Seismic stratigraphy combines two very different scales of observation: the seismic and well control. The systematic approach applied in seismic stratigraphy explains why many workers are using the principles to evaluate their seismic observations. Discusses the link between seismic stratigraphic principles and sequence stratigraphy Provides techniques for seismic reservoir characterization as well as well control Analyzes inversion, AVO and seismic attributes

Fundamentals of Artificial Neural Networks

Author: Mohamad H. Hassoun

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262082396

Category: Computers

Page: 511

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Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics assesses how and why buildings use energy, and how energy use and peak demand can be reduced. It provides a basis for integrating energy efficiency and solar approaches in ways that will allow building owners and designers to balance the need to minimize initial costs, operating costs, and life-cycle costs with need to maintain reliable building operations and enhance environmental quality both inside and outside the building. Chapters trace the development of building energy systems and analyze the demand side of solar applications as a means for determining what portion of a building's energy requirements can potentially be met by solar energy.Following the introduction, the book provides an overview of energy use patterns in the aggregate U.S. building population. Chapter 3 surveys work on the energy flows in an individual building and shows how these flows interact to influence overall energy use. Chapter 4 presents the analytical methods, techniques, and tools developed to calculate and analyze energy use in buildings, while chapter 5 provides an extensive survey of the energy conservation and management strategies developed in the post-energy crisis period.The approach taken is a commonsensical one, starting with the proposition that the purpose of buildings is to house human activities, and that conservation measures that negatively affect such activities are based on false economies. The goal is to determine rational strategies for the design of new buildings, and the retrofit of existing buildings to bring them up to modern standards of energy use. The energy flows examined are both large scale (heating systems) and small scale (choices among appliances).Solar Heat Technologies: Fundamentals and Applications, Volume 4

An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure

Author: Seth Stein,Michael Wysession

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118687450

Category: Science

Page: 512

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An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structures is an introduction to seismology and its role in the earth sciences, and is written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed using a physical approach and then applied to show how refraction, reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study the structure and thus the composition and evolution of the earth. The book shows how seismic waves are used to study earthquakes and are integrated with other data to investigate the plate tectonic processes that cause earthquakes. Figures, examples, problems, and computer exercises teach students about seismology in a creative and intuitive manner. Necessary mathematical tools including vector and tensor analysis, matrix algebra, Fourier analysis, statistics of errors, signal processing, and data inversion are introduced with many relevant examples. The text also addresses the fundamentals of seismometry and applications of seismology to societal issues. Special attention is paid to help students visualize connections between different topics and view seismology as an integrated science. An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure gives an excellent overview for students of geophysics and tectonics, and provides a strong foundation for further studies in seismology. Multidisciplinary examples throughout the text - catering to students in varied disciplines (geology, mineralogy, petrology, physics, etc.). Most up to date book on the market - includes recent seismic events such as the 1999 Earthquakes in Turkey, Greece, and Taiwan). Chapter outlines - each chapter begins with an outline and a list of learning objectives to help students focus and study. Essential math review - an entire section reviews the essential math needed to understand seismology. This can be covered in class or left to students to review as needed. End of chapter problem sets - homework problems that cover the material presented in the chapter. Solutions to all odd numbered problem sets are listed in the back so that students can track their progress. Extensive References - classic references and more current references are listed at the end of each chapter. A set of instructor's resources containing downloadable versions of all the figures in the book, errata and answers to homework problems is available at: http://levee.wustl.edu/seismology/book/. Also available on this website are PowerPoint lecture slides corresponding to the first 5 chapters of the book.

Applications of Neural Networks in Electromagnetics

Author: Christos Christodoulou,Michael Georgiopoulos

Publisher: Artech House Publishers

ISBN: 9780890068809

Category: Computers

Page: 512

View: 7681

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The high-speed capabilities and learning abilities of neural networks can be applied to quickly solving numerous complex optimization problems in electromagnetics, and this book shows you how. Even if you have no background in neural networks, this book helps you understand the basics of each main network architecture in use today, including its strengths and limitations. Moreover, it gives you the knowledge you need to identify situations when the use of neural networks is the best problem-solving option.

Seismic Interpretation: The Physical Aspects

Author: Nigel A. Anstey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401539243

Category: Science

Page: 625

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In this course we shall assume that all participants are familiar with the essentials of seismic prospecting. Thus A the rudiments of the field work -- spreads, sources, arrays B and digital recording -- are assumed known. So also are the C rudiments of processing -- such processes as gain recovery, D filtering, deconvolution, velocity analysis, and display. E Just as important, we shall assume that all participants F have some feeling for the realities of seismic work -- in the l(B) field, under real conditions. Elementary signal theory and the basic techniques of interpretation are also assumed known. However, for certainty, the following pre-course notes include sections reviewing basic signal theory, geophysical aspects of interpretation, and geological aspects of interpretation. These reviews are not intended to be comprehensive. Their function is solely to cover, with the minimum possible discussion, the essential features which will be assumed to be known in the course. None of the course time will be spent on the material of these pre-course notes. Participants are advised that they will not derive full benefit from the course if this background is not known. Most course participants will be already familiar with this material, and will need to do little more than read it through. If, before the course, any participant requires further discussion of signal theory in the same non-rigorous style, he will find it in other writings of the present author, particularly: "Wiggles", Journal of the CSEG, December 1965, pp.l3-43.

Signal and Image Processing with Neural Networks

A C++ Sourcebook

Author: Timothy Masters

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 417

View: 805

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The first book to offer practical applications of neural networks to solve problems in digital signal processing and imaging. A highly practical book with a minimum of math and a wealth of examples. Disk includes a complete program for training, testing, and using neural networks along with C++ subroutines for all techniques discussed and source for the book's example code.

Integrated Imaging of the Earth

Theory and Applications

Author: Max Moorkamp,Peter G. Leli?vre,Amir Khan,Niklas Linde

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118929055

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 9306

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Reliable and detailed information about the Earth’s subsurface is of crucial importance throughout the geosciences. Quantitative integration of all available geophysical and geological data helps to make Earth models more robust and reliable. The aim of this book is to summarize and synthesize the growing literature on combining various types of geophysical and other geoscientific data. The approaches that have been developed to date encompass joint inversion, cooperative inversion, and statistical post-inversion analysis methods, each with different benefits and assumptions. Starting with the foundations of inverse theory, this book systematically describes the mathematical and theoretical aspects of how to best integrate different geophysical datasets with geological prior understanding and other complimentary data. This foundational basis is followed by chapters that demonstrate the diverse range of applications for which integrated methods have been used to date. These range from imaging the hydrogeological properties of the near-surface to natural resource exploration and probing the composition of the lithosphere and the deep Earth. Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field, which makes this book the definitive reference on integrated imaging of the Earth. Highlights of this volume include: Complete coverage of the theoretical foundations of integrated imaging approaches from inverse theory to different coupling methods and quantitative evaluation of the resulting models Comprehensive overview of current applications of integrated imaging including hydrological investigations, natural resource exploration, and imaging the deep Earth Detailed case studies of integrated approaches providing valuable guidance for both experienced users and researchers new to joint inversion. This volume will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, industry practitioners, and researchers who are interested in using or developing integrated imaging approaches.

Electromagnetic Geothermometry

Author: Viacheslav V. Spichak,Olga K. Zakharova

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 012802495X

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 9260

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Electromagnetic Geothermometry explores, presents and explains the new technique of temperature estimation within the Earth’s interior; the Electromagnetic technique will identify zones of geothermal anomalies and thus provides locations for deep drilling. This book includes many case studies from geothermal areas such as Travale (Italy), Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) and Hengill (Iceland), allowing the author and reader to draw conclusions regarding the dominating heat transfer mechanisms, location of its sources and to constrain the locations for drilling of the new boreholes. Covering a topic that so far has very little coverage (due to its newness) Electromagnetic Geothermometry presents ground breaking information on the interpretation of MT signals. And as such, is similar to the work that was done to develop new generations of seismic inversion methods that have since come to dominate the oil industry. Up until now geophysical methods have had difficulty resolving temperature differences which have been critical in the understanding of location and magnitude of geothermal resources Authored by the world’s foremost geothermometry experts who combined have more than 40 years of experience on the subject Presents case studies, allowing the author and reader to draw conclusions regarding the dominating heat transfer mechanisms, location of its sources and to constrain the locations for drilling of the new boreholes Provides important information on the constraints for drilling of new exploration boreholes Describes techniques that will dramatically decrease the costs associated with exploration drilling Includes information to help the reader improve the accuracy of the temperature estimations in the interwell space as well as far beneath boreholes