Confronting Capital

Critique and Engagement in Anthropology

Author: Pauline Gardiner Barber,Belinda Leach,Winnie Lem

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415896290

Category: Social Science

Page: 267

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Drawing on fieldwork from a range of locations around the globe, this volume explores the struggles of ordinary people in the face of capitalist change and the ways in which political economy as a mode of analysis, particularly in its Marxist variant, can move anthropology toward a vital, engaged form of scholarship that responds to the urgent need for theoretical and methodological approaches that can apprehend the forces shaping our contemporary world.

Class, Contention, and a World in Motion

Author: Winnie Lem,Pauline Gardiner Barber

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1845458400

Category: Social Science

Page: 246

View: 4581

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Prevailing scholarship on migration tends to present migrants as the objects of history, subjected to abstract global forces or to concrete forms of regulation imposed by state and supra state organizations. In this volume, by contrast, the focus is on migrants as the subjects of history who not only react but also act to engage with and transform their worlds. Using ethnographic examples from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and the Middle East, contributors question how and why particular forms of political struggle and collective action may, or indeed may not, be carried forward in the context of geographic and social border crossings. In doing so, they bring the dynamic relationship between class, gender, and culture to the forefront in each distinctive migration setting.

The Ashgate Research Companion to Anthropology

Author: Andrew J. Strathern

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317044118

Category: Social Science

Page: 440

View: 1278

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This companion provides an indispensable overview of contemporary and classical issues in social and cultural anthropology. Although anthropology has expanded greatly over time in terms of the diversity of topics in which its practitioners engage, many of the broad themes and topics at the heart of anthropological thought remain perennially vital, such as understanding order and change, diversity and continuity, and conflict and co-operation in the reproduction of social life. Bringing together leading scholars in the field, the contributors to this volume provide us with thoughtful and fruitful ways of thinking about a number of contemporary and long-standing arenas of work where both established and more recent researchers are engaged. The companion begins by exploring classic topics such as Religion; Rituals; Language and Culture; Violence; and Gender. This is followed by a focus on current developments within the discipline including Human Rights; Globalization; and Diasporas and Cosmopolitanism. It provides an interesting and challenging look at the state of current thinking in anthropology, serving as a rich resource for scholars and students alike.

After the Crisis

Anthropological Thought, Neoliberalism and the Aftermath

Author: James G. Carrier

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317327977

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 9889

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After the Crisis: Anthropological Thought, Neoliberalism and the Aftermath offers a thought-provoking examination of the state of contemporary anthropology, identifying key issues that have confronted the discipline in recent years and linking them to neoliberalism, and suggesting how we might do things differently in the future. The first part of the volume considers how anthropology has come to resemble, as a result of the rise of postmodern and poststructural approaches in the field, key elements of neoliberalism and neoclassical economics by rejecting the idea of system in favour of individuals. It also investigates the effect of the economic crisis on funding and support for higher education and addresses the sense that anthropology has ‘lost its way’, with uncertainty over the purpose and future of the discipline. The second part of the book explores how the discipline can overcome its difficulties and place itself on a firmer foundation, suggesting ways that we can productively combine the debates of the late twentieth century with a renewed sense that people live their lives not as individuals, but as enmeshed in webs of relationship and obligation.

Environmental Anthropology

Future Directions

Author: Helen Kopnina,Eleanor Shoreman-Ouimet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135044120

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 7808

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This volume presents new theoretical approaches, methodologies, subject pools, and topics in the field of environmental anthropology. Environmental anthropologists are increasingly focusing on self-reflection - not just on themselves and their impacts on environmental research, but also on the reflexive qualities of their subjects, and the extent to which these individuals are questioning their own environmental behavior. Here, contributors confront the very notion of "natural resources" in granting non-human species their subjectivity and arguing for deeper understanding of "nature," and "wilderness" beyond the label of "ecosystem services." By engaging in interdisciplinary efforts, these anthropologists present new ways for their colleagues, subjects, peers and communities to understand the causes of, and alternatives to environmental destruction. This book demonstrates that environmental anthropology has moved beyond the construction of rural, small group theory, entering into a mode of solution-based methodologies and interdisciplinary theories for understanding human-environmental interactions. It is focused on post-rural existence, health and environmental risk assessment, on the realm of alternative actions, and emphasizes the necessary steps towards preventing environmental crisis.

Markets of English

Linguistic Capital and Language Policy in a Globalizing World

Author: Joseph Sung-Yul Park,Lionel Wee

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136320474

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 216

View: 3454

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The global spread of English both reproduces and reinforces oppressive structures of inequality. But such structures can no longer be seen as imposed from an imperial center, as English is now actively adopted and appropriated in local contexts around the world. This book argues that such conditions call for a new critique of global English, one that is sensitive to both the political economic conditions of globalization and speakers’ local practices. Linking Bourdieu’s theory of the linguistic market and his practice-based perspective with recent advances in sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology, this book offers a fresh new critique of global English. The authors highlight the material, discursive, and semiotic processes through which the value of English in the linguistic market is constructed, and suggest possible policy interventions that may be adopted to address the problems of global English. Through its serious engagement with current sociolinguistic theory and insightful analysis of the multiple dimensions of English in the world, this book challenges the readers to think about what we need to do to confront the social inequalities that are perpetuated by the global spread of English

Human Capital Development and Indigenous Peoples

Author: Nicholas Biddle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351016377

Category: Social Science

Page: 112

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In all countries for which data is available, Indigenous peoples have lower rates of formal educational participation and attainment than their non-Indigenous counterparts. There are many structural reasons for this, but it may in part be related to the perceived relationship between the costs and benefits of education. Human Capital Development and Indigenous Peoples systematically applies a human capital approach to educational policy, to help understand the education and broader development outcomes of indigenous peoples. The basic Human Capital Model states that individuals, families and communities will invest in education until the benefits of doing so no longer outweigh the costs. This trade-off is often considered in monetary terms. Here the author broadens cost-benefit definitions to include health and wellbeing improvements alongside social costs driven by discrimination and unfair treatment in schools. With coverage of the Americas, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book critiques existing approaches, and provides an outlet for the self-described experiences of a diverse set of indigenous peoples on the breadth of educational costs and benefits. Combining new quantitative analysis, cross-national perspectives and an explicit policy focus, this book provides policy actors with a detailed understanding of the education decision and equips them with the knowledge to enhance benefits while minimising costs. This book will appeal to policy-engaged researchers in the fields of economics, demography, sociology, political science, development studies and anthropology, as well as policy makers or practitioners who are interested in incorporating the most recent evidence into their practice or frameworks.

Animism and the Question of Life

Author: Istvan Praet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134500599

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 4474

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The central purpose of this book is to help change the terms of the debate on animism, a classic theme in anthropology. It combines some of the finest ethnographic material currently available (including firsthand research on the Chachi of Ecuador) with an unusually broad geographic scope (the Americas, Asia, and Africa). Edward B. Tylor originally defined animism as the first phase in the development of religion. The heyday of cultural evolutionism may be over, but his basic conception is commonly assumed to remain valid in at least one respect: there is still a broad consensus that everything is alive within animism, or at least that more things are alive than a modern scientific observer would allow for (e.g., clouds, rivers, mountains) It is considered self-evident that animism is based on a kind of exaggeration: its adherents are presumed to impute life to this, that and the other in a remarkably generous manner. Against the prevailing consensus, this book argues that if animism has one outstanding feature, it is its peculiar restrictiveness. Animistic notions of life are astonishingly uniform across the globe, insofar as they are restricted rather than exaggerated. In the modern Western cosmology, life overlaps with the animate. Within animism, however, life is always conditional, and therefore tends to be limited to one’s kin, one’s pets and perhaps the plants in one’s garden. Thus it emerges that "our" modern biological concept of life is stranger than generally thought.

Nature and Society

Anthropological Perspectives

Author: Philippe Descola,Gisli Palsson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134827156

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7418

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The contributors to this book focus on the relationship between nature and society from a variety of theoretical and ethnographic perspectives. Their work draws upon recent developments in social theory, biology, ethnobiology, epistemology, sociology of science, and a wide array of ethnographic case studies -- from Amazonia, the Solomon Islands, Malaysia, the Mollucan Islands, rural comunities from Japan and north-west Europe, urban Greece, and laboratories of molecular biology and high-energy physics. The discussion is divided into three parts, emphasising the problems posed by the nature-culture dualism, some misguided attempts to respond to these problems, and potential avenues out of the current dilemmas of ecological discourse.

A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, Second Edition

Author: James G. Carrier

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849809291

Category: Social Science

Page: 662

View: 1919

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Acclaim for the first edition: 'The volume is a remarkable contribution to economic anthropology and will no doubt be a fundamental tool for students, scholars, and experts in the sub-discipline.' – Mao Mollona, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 'This excellent overview would serve as an excellent text for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level classroom use. . . Because of the clarity, conciseness, and accessibility of the writing, the chapters in this volume likely will be often cited and recommended to those who want the alternative and frequently culturally comparative perspective on economic topics that anthropology provides. Highly recommended. All academic levels/libraries.' – K.F. Rambo, Choice The first edition of this unique Handbook was praised for its substantial and invaluable summary discussions of work by anthropologists on economic processes and issues, on the relationship between economic and non-economic areas of life and on the conceptual orientations that are important among economic anthropologists. This thoroughly revised edition brings those discussions up to date, and includes an important new section exploring ways that leading anthropologists have approached the current economic crisis. Its scope and accessibility make it useful both to those who are interested in a particular topic and to those who want to see the breadth and fruitfulness of an anthropological study of economy. This comprehensive Handbook will strongly appeal to undergraduate and post-graduate students in anthropology, economists interested in social and cultural dimensions of economic life, and alternative approaches to economic life, political economists, political scientists and historians.

Young People and Everyday Peace

Exclusion, Insecurity and Peacebuilding in Colombia

Author: Helen Berents

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138556621

Category:

Page: 182

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Young People and Everyday Peace is grounded in the stories of young people who live in Los Altos de Cazucá, an informal peri-urban community in Soacha, to the south of Colombia's capital Bogotá. The occupants of this community have fled the armed conflict and exist in a state of marginalisation and social exclusion amongst ongoing violences conducted by armed gangs and government forces. Young people negotiate these complexities and offer pointed critiques of national politics as well as grounded aspirations for the future. Colombia's protracted conflict and its effects on the population raise many questions about how we think about peacebuilding in and with communities of conflict-affected people. Building on contemporary debates in International Relations about post-liberal, everyday peace, Helen Berents draws on feminist International Relations and embodiment theory to pay meaningful attention to those on the margins. She conceptualises a notion of embodied-everyday-peace-amidst-violence to recognise the presence and voice of young people as stakeholders in everyday efforts to respond to violence and insecurity. In doing so, Berents argues for and engages a more complex understanding of the everyday, stemming from the embodied experiences of those centrally present in conflicts. Taking young people's lives and narratives seriously recognises the difficulties of protracted conflict, but finds potential to build a notion of an embodied everyday amidst violence, where a complex and fraught peace can be found. Young People and Everyday Peace will be of interest to scholars of Latin American Studies, International Relations and Peace and Conflict Studies.

Routledge International Handbook of the Sociology of Art and Culture

Author: Laurie Hanquinet,Mike Savage

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135008892

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 9822

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The Routledge Handbook of the Sociology of Arts and Culture offers a comprehensive overview of sociology of art and culture, focusing especially – though not exclusively – on the visual arts, literature, music, and digital culture. Extending, and critiquing, Bourdieu’s influential analysis of cultural capital, the distinguished international contributors explore the extent to which cultural omnivorousness has eclipsed highbrow culture, the role of age, gender and class on cultural practices, the character of aesthetic preferences, the contemporary significance of screen culture, and the restructuring of popular culture. The Handbook critiques modes of sociological determinism in which cultural engagement is seen as the simple product of the educated middle classes. The contributions explore the critique of Eurocentrism and the global and cosmopolitan dimensions of cultural life. The book focuses particularly on bringing cutting edge ‘relational’ research methodologies, both qualitative and quantitative, to bear on these debates. This handbook not only describes the field, but also proposes an agenda for its development which will command major international interest.

Anthropology, Development, and Modernities

Exploring Discourses, Counter-tendencies, and Violence

Author: Paul Kline

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415204996

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 6182

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Supported by case studies from Guatemala, Sri Lanka, West Africa, and contemporary Europe, uses anthropological perspectives to explore diverse interpretaions of modernity and development in today's world.

Neoliberalism, Interrupted

Social Change and Contested Governance in Contemporary Latin America

Author: Mark Goodale,Nancy Postero

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804786445

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 2786

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In the 1980s and 1990s, neoliberal forms of governance largely dominated Latin American political and social life. Neoliberalism, Interrupted examines the recent and diverse proliferation of responses to neoliberalism's hegemony. In so doing, this vanguard collection of case studies undermines the conventional dichotomies used to understand transformation in this region, such as neoliberalism vs. socialism, right vs. left, indigenous vs. mestizo, and national vs. transnational. Deploying both ethnographic research and more synthetic reflections on meaning, consequence, and possibility, the essays focus on the ways in which a range of unresolved contradictions interconnect various projects for change and resistance to change in Latin America. Useful to students and scholars across disciplines, this groundbreaking volume reorients how sociopolitical change has been understood and practiced in Latin America. It also carries important lessons for other parts of the world with similar histories and structural conditions.

An Anthropology of Robots and AI

Annihilation Anxiety and Machines

Author: Kathleen Richardson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317566963

Category: Social Science

Page: 136

View: 9221

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This book explores the making of robots in labs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It examines the cultural ideas that go into the making of robots, and the role of fiction in co-constructing the technological practices of the robotic scientists. The book engages with debates in anthropological theorizing regarding the way that robots are reimagined as intelligent, autonomous and social and weaved into lived social realities. Richardson charts the move away from the “worker” robot of the 1920s to the “social” one of the 2000s, as robots are reimagined as companions, friends and therapeutic agents.

The Anthropology of Development and Globalization

From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism

Author: Marc Edelman,Angelique Haugerud

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631228790

Category: Social Science

Page: 420

View: 6071

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The Anthropology of Development and Globalization is a collection of readings that provides an unprecedented overview of this field that ranges from the field’s classical origins to today’s debates about the “magic” of the free market. Explores the foundations of the anthropology of development, a field newly animated by theories of globalization and transnationalism Framed by an encyclopedic introduction that will prove indispensable to students and experts alike Includes readings ranging from Weber and Marx and Engels to contemporary works on the politics of development knowledge, consumption, environment, gender, international NGO networks, the IMF, campaigns to reform the World Bank, the collapse of socialism, and the limits of “post-developmentalism” Fills a crucial gap in the literature by mingling historical, cultural, political, and economic perspectives on development and globalization Present a wide range of theoretical approaches and topics

Exploring 'unseen' Social Capital in Community Participation

Everyday Lives of Poor Mainland Chinese Migrants in Hong Kong

Author: Sam Wong

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9053560343

Category: Social Science

Page: 219

View: 9453

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This volume argues that using social capital to eradicate poverty is unlikely to succeed because its mainstream approach mistakenly assumes that social capital necessarily benefits poor people. The inadequacy of that assumption, Sam Wong argues, calls for a reassessment of human motivations, institutional dynamics, and the complexity of structures in social capital building. Proposing a “pro-poor” perspective, in which poverty-specific outcomes are highlighted, he suggests an exploration of “unseen” social capital is in order—not only to challenge the mainstream understanding of “seen” social capital, but to demonstrate the need for everyday cooperation, which is shaped by social norms, influenced by conscious and unconscious motivations, and subject to changes in priority based on livelihood. A useful volume for both policy makers and practitioners, Exploring ‘Unseen’ Social Capital in Community Participation offers a fresh perspective in thinking about civic and social agency.

Migration in the 21st Century

Political Economy and Ethnography

Author: Pauline Gardiner Barber,Winnie Lem

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136299181

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 3613

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This edited collection focuses on global migration in its inter-regional, international and transnational variants, and argues that contemporary migration scholarship is significantly advanced both within anthropology and beyond it when ethnography is theoretically engaged to grapple with the social consequences and asymmetries of twenty-first century capitalism’s global modalities. Drawn from settings across the globe, case studies explore the nuanced formations of class and power within particular migration flows while addressing the complex analytics of a contemporary critical political economy of migration. Subjects include global migrants as capitalists, entrepreneurs and "cosmopolitans," as well as workers and immigrants who are subject to varying degrees of precariousness under intensified competition for profits within contemporary global economies. By re-addressing the question of the relationship between changes in global capitalism and migration, the book aims for a timely intervention into the debates on migration which have come to be one of the most contentious emotionally fraught issues in North America and Europe.

Digital Anthropology

Author: Heather A. Horst,Daniel Miller

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0857852922

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 3036

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Anthropology has two main tasks: to understand what it is to be human and to examine how humanity is manifested differently in the diversity of culture. These tasks have gained new impetus from the extraordinary rise of the digital. This book brings together several key anthropologists working with digital culture to demonstrate just how productive an anthropological approach to the digital has already become. Through a range of case studies from Facebook to Second Life to Google Earth, Digital Anthropology explores how human and digital can be defined in relation to one another, from avatars and disability; cultural differences in how we use social networking sites or practise religion; the practical consequences of the digital for politics, museums, design, space and development to new online world and gaming communities. The book also explores the moral universe of the digital, from new anxieties to open-source ideals. Digital Anthropology reveals how only the intense scrutiny of ethnography can overturn assumptions about the impact of digital culture and reveal its profound consequences for everyday life. Combining the clarity of a textbook with an engaging style which conveys a passion for these new frontiers of enquiry, this book is essential reading for students and scholars of anthropology, media studies, communication studies, cultural studies and sociology.

Indigenous Studies and Engaged Anthropology

The Collaborative Moment

Author: Professor Paul Sillitoe

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472403088

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 4435

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Advancing the rising field of engaged or participatory anthropology that is emerging at the same time as increased opposition from Indigenous peoples to research, this book offers critical reflections on research approaches to-date. The engaged approach seeks to change the researcher-researched relationship fundamentally, to make methods more appropriate and beneficial to communities by involving them as participants in the entire process from choice of research topic onwards. The aim is not only to change power relationships, but also engage with non-academic audiences.