Methods in Karst Hydrogeology

IAH: International Contributions to Hydrogeology, 26

Author: Nico Goldscheider,David Drew

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482266024

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 9908

The importance of investigating karstified aquifers lies in their significance as a major source of drinking water. This book describes methods that are basic to all hydrogeological studies, such as hydraulic investigations, hydrochemistry, geophysics, isotope chemistry and modelling, but with the emphasis placed on their application to karst systems. Other techniques are specific to the karst environment, such as the speleological exploration of aquifers and water tracing. The various chapters of this book are written by experts in different methods. Most of the chapters are multi-authored, and the authors include hydrogeologists who are experienced in evaluating a variety of karst environments and who together, provide a comprehensive review of karst methods.

History of Hydrogeology

Author: Nicholas Howden,John Mather

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203071344

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 4232

Lessons can be learnt from the past; from time to time it is useful for practitioners to look back over the historical developments of their science. Hydrogeology has developed from humble beginnings into the broad church of investigatory procedures which collectively form the modern-day hydrogeologist’s tool box. Hydrogeology remains a branch of the over-arching science of geology and today provides analysis of the sub-surface part of the water cycle within a holistic approach to problem solving. The History of Hydrogeology, is a first attempt to bring the story of the evolution of the science of hydrogeology together from a country- or region-specific viewpoint. It does not cover history to the present day, nor does it deal with all countries involved in groundwater studies, but rather takes the story for specific key countries up and until about the period 1975 to 1980. This is when hydrogeology was still evolving and developing, and in some areas doing so quite rapidly. The book has been written not only for practitioners of hydrogeology and hydrology but also for teachers and students to see the context of the evolution of the science around the globe. The History of Hydrogeology will also be of interest to science historians and all those interested in the role that individuals, institutes and nations have played over the years in defining modern day studies of groundwater.

Contemporary hydrology

towards holistic environmental science

Author: Robert L. Wilby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: 9780471966364

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 6216

Traditional approaches to hydrology have favoured a reductionist perspective. This text argues that hydrologists of the 21st century must increasingly look beyond the traditional boundaries of river channel or river catchment areas to consider new questions: firstly, how water resources should be managed in an integrated and sustainable way with a growing appreciation of the global dimension to water resource problems; secondly, how the search for solutions to water pollution, flooding, drought and environmental degradation requires a broader understanding of transboundary connections between components of the hydrosphere across a range of spatial and temporal scales. In an emerging age of water shortage, increasing dependence will also be placed upon existing monitoring and water distribution networks. Advances in data gathering systems and hydrological modelling have created new opportunities for assessing and managing these water resources. Similarly ecohydrology and palaeohydrological techniques are generating new types of data for model development and testing. This text will provide an excellent overview for post-graduates and researchers studying hydrology, meterology, environmental science and related topics. It will also be useful as supplementary reading for 2nd/3rd year undergraduates in these areas. The ruins of the flooded Derwent village emerged from Ladybower Reservoir, Derbyshire UK in autumn 1995. This image highlights a number of issues pertinent to contemporary hydrology such as: winter droughts severely restrict the replenishment on upland communities; the uneasy relationship between forestry and water resources in water supply catchments; water quality problems associated with acidification, turbidity and sedimentation; the aesthetic and ammenity value of impounded waters

Environmental Hydrology, Second Edition

Author: Andy D. Ward,Stanley W. Trimble

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566706162

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 2966

The technological advances of recent years include the emergence of new remote sensing and geographic information systems that are invaluable for the study of wetlands, agricultural land, and land use change. Students, hydrologists, and environmental engineers are searching for a comprehensive hydrogeologic overview that supplements information on hydrologic processes with data on these new information technology tools. Environmental Hydrology, Second Edition builds upon the foundation of the bestselling first edition by providing a qualitative understanding of hydrologic processes while introducing new methods for quantifying hydrologic parameters and processes. Written by authors with extensive multidisciplinary experience, the text first discusses the components of the hydrologic cycle, then follows with chapters on precipitation, stream processes, human impacts, new information system applications, and numerous other methods and strategies. By updating this thorough text with the newest analytical tools and measurement methodologies in the field, the authors provide an ideal reference for students and professionals in environmental science, hydrology, soil science, geology, ecological engineering, and countless other environmental fields.


Principles and Processes

Author: M. Robinson,R. C. Ward

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 1780407289

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 7866

The book comprises nine chapters, with seven core chapters dealing in detail with the basic principles and processes of the main hydrological components of the water cycle: precipitation, interception, evaporation, soil water, groundwater, streamflow and water quality. It takes a broadly non-mathematical approach, although some numeracy is assumed particularly in the treatment of evaporation and soil water. The introductory and concluding chapters show the relations and interactions between these components, and also put the importance of water into a wider human context – its significant role in human history, its key role today, and potential role in future in the light of climate change and increasing global population pressures. The book is thoroughly up-to-date, contains over 100 diagrams and photographs to explain and amplify the concepts described, and contains over 750 references for further study.

Applied Hydrogeology

Fourth Edition

Author: C. W. Fetter

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478637447

Category: Science

Page: 598

View: 9462

Hydrogeology’s importance has grown to become an integral part not only of geology curricula, but also those in environmental science and engineering. Applied Hydrogeology serves all these students, presenting the subject’s fundamental concepts in addition to its importance in other disciplines. Fetter skillfully addresses both physical and chemical hydrogeology, highlighting problem solving throughout the book. Case studies, Excel-based projects, and working student versions of software used by groundwater professionals supplement the fourth edition’s insightful explanations and succinct solutions to real-world challenges. Each chapter concludes with example problems, a notation of symbols, and informative analysis. A glossary of hydrogeological terms adds significant value to this comprehensive text. Fetter’s accessible coverage prepares readers for success in their careers well beyond the classroom.

The Fundamentals of Paleohydrogeology of Ore Deposits

Author: Evgeny A. Baskov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642716717

Category: Science

Page: 253

View: 1338

This book deals with the problems and methods of paleohydrogeolo gy in relation to ore deposit studies. It presents a description of dif ferent techniques used in the course of structural-paleohydrogeologi cal, paleo hydrogeochemical and paleo hydro geothermal investiga tions. It also provides itlformation on the regular, regional patterns of formation and subsequent distribution of ground water within dif ferent shells of the Earth. The main aspects of metal content of ground water and contemporary processes of ore genesis are discuss ed. Ore deposits are classified according to paleohydrogeological con ditions under which they were formed. The readers are acquainted with paleohydrogeological analysis of these conditions for different types of ore deposits, namely (1) ore deposits formed in artesian basins, in which sedimentary rocks were predominant both at the time of magmatic activity and in the periods free of this activity; (2) ore deposits formed in artesian, ad artesian basins (and admassifs) characterized by extensive development of volcanic rocks and magmatic activity; (3) ore deposits that originated in hydrogeological massifs (and admassifs) in the process of formation of linear weather ing crusts. This book, which should be of great interest to geologists engaged in prospecting for and exploration and study of ore minerals, also in cludes 38 tables, 60 illustrations and a bibliography of 450 titles. EVGENY A. BASKOV Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Science of Paleohydrogeology and Its Objectives in Ore Deposit Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Principal Distribution Patterns of Contemporary Ground Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. 1 Notion of Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Water Justice

Author: Rutgerd Boelens,Tom Perreault,Jeroen Vos,Margreet Zwarteveen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107179084

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 390

View: 1898

An overview of critical conceptual approaches to water justice, illustrated with global historic and contemporary case studies of socio-environmental struggles.

Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology

Geotechnika - Selected Translations of Russian Geotechnical Literature 8

Author: A.M. Galperin et al.

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789054101390

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 1197

This text is concerned with the interaction of groundwater as a complex solution, with rock as a multi-phase system, taking into account the phenomena occurring in rock strata as a result of various engineering activities. Readers can find a wealth of information to enable them to assess rock properties, plan mining activities and forecast rock strata behaviour in the construction and operation of mines, as well as understand the application of technology to facilitate safer, more efficient, more economic and environmentally sensitive geological engineering.

Hydrology and the River Environment

Author: Malcolm David Newson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198741572

Category: Science

Page: 221

View: 5990

* A practical teaching course * Takes an environmental approach to hydrology This is a textbook in environmental hydrology-a field of study concerned with the basic system of water circulation and patters of runoff and the major ways in which human occupation of Earth alters both processes and pattersn. It focuses on the river basin or catchment unit not only because of its geographical appeal but because it is the basic experimental and data-gathering unit, and the fundamentalunit for water management. The book explores a considerable number of methodological frameworks. Most of these are scientific; an acceptable replacement for problem-solving by data collection, analysis, and prediction has yet to be found. However, it also considers non-digital values-attitudes, preferences, policies, laws-especially in the case of the freshwater environment, where key data are still relatively scarce. Having developed a holistic approach to river basins, the author concludes by considering the utility of our current knowledge of environment hydrology to provide the reader with a practical response to the conservation of fresh water.

Forest Hydrology

Processes, Management and Assessment

Author: Devendra Amatya,Thomas Williams,Leon Bren,Carmen de Jong

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780646607

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 308

View: 2967

Forests cover approximately 26% of the world's land surface area and represent a distinct biotic community. They interact with water and soil in a variety of ways, providing canopy surfaces which trap precipitation and allow evaporation back into the atmosphere, thus regulating how much water reaches the forest floor as through fall, as well as pull water from the soil for transpiration. The discipline "forest hydrology" has been developed throughout the 20th century. During that time human intervention in natural landscapes has increased, and land use and management practices have intensified. The book will be useful for graduate students, professionals, land managers, practitioners, and researchers with a good understanding of the basic principles of hydrology and hydrologic processes.

Groundwater Geochemistry

A Practical Guide to Modeling of Natural and Contaminated Aquatic Systems

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540746683

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 324

To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology

Author: John M. Sharp

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1138001597

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 2634

Fractured rocks extend over much of the world, cropping out in shields, massifs, and the cores of major mountain ranges. They also form the basement below younger sedimentary rocks; at depth; they represent a continuous environment of extended and deep regional groundwater flow. Understanding of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rocks is vital for analysis of water resources, water quality and environmental protection, geotechnical and engineering projects, and geothermal energy production. Book chapters include theoretical and practical analyses using numerical modelling, geochemistry, isotopes, aquifer tests, laboratory tests, field mapping, geophysics, geological analyses, and some unique combinations of these types of investigation. Current water resource and geotechnical problems in many countries—and the techniques now used to address them—are also discussed. The importance of geological interpretation is re-emphasised in analysing the hydrogeology of fractured, mostly crystalline rocks and in how critical this is for understanding their hydrology and the wise utilisation of resources. This is indeed hydrogeology in its broadest sense. The importance of, but great difficulty in, extending or upscaling fractured rock hydraulic properties is also made clear. This book is aimed at practicing hydrogeologists, engineers, ecologists, resource managers, and perhaps most importantly, students and earth scientists not yet familiar with the ubiquity and importance of fractured rock systems.

Military Aspects of Hydrogeology

Author: Edward P. F. Rose,J. D. Mather

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862393400

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 2022

This book contains 20 papers from authors in the UK, USA, Germany and Austria. Historically, it gives examples of the influence of groundwater on battlefield tactics and fortress construction; describes how groundwater was developed for water supply and overcome as an obstacle to military engineering and cross-country vehicular movement by both sides in World Wars I and II; and culminates with examples of the application of hydrogeology to site boreholes in recent conflicts, notably in Afghanistan. Examples of current research described include hydrological model development; the impact of variations in soil moisture on explosive threat detection and cross-country vehicle mobility; contamination arising from defence sites and its remediation; privatization of water supplies; and the equitable allocation of resources derived from an international transboundary aquifer.

Groundwater Quality Sustainability

Author: Piotr Maloszewski,Stanisław Witczak,Grzegorz Malina

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203137655

Category: Science

Page: 370

View: 3345

Sustainable groundwater development requires knowledge of the appropriate recharge and transport-processes. This is a prerequisite to understanding: (i) groundwater resources and their availability, and (ii) the dependence between groundwater and the environment. Conceptual understanding of groundwater flow at both temporal and spatial scales (local and regional) is essential for management that will support engineering, industry, agriculture, ecology, and all environmentally related issues. This book has been prepared for scientists, researchers, students, engineers, water resources specialists, groundwater consultants, government administrators and teachers. It is of direct and applied interest to practitioners in hydrogeology and groundwater (resources, quality, pollution, protection and clean-up), geochemistry and hydrogeochemical modelling, and investigators into environmental hydrology, groundwater dependent ecosystems, and other practical environmental issues.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology

Author: Derek Ford,Paul D. Williams

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118684990

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 8873

Originally published in 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated. The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical application of karst studies are explained throughout the text. "This new edition strengthens the book's position as the essential reference in the field. Karst geoscientists will not dare to stray beyond arm's reach of this volume. It is certain to remain the professional standard for many decades." Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, August 2007

Water Resources and Water Management

Author: M.K. Jermar

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080870199

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 2671

The size and number of water projects and other development activities which influence the hydrological cycle have reached such proportions that the majority of problems involved extend beyond the boundaries of the traditional disciplines of hydraulics, hydrochemistry, hydrology and hydrogeology. New scientific methods for the solution of the contemporary problems in water management include analogy, operation research, system analysis and cybernetics. The distinctive features of these methods are their emphasis on measurement and on the use of conceptual models described in quantitative terms, the verification of their theoretical predictions, and their awareness that concepts are conditional and subject to growth and continuous change. This new approach should be defined within the framework of water resources management, i.e. within a complex of activities whose objective is the optimum utilization of water resources with regard to their quality and availability and the requirements of society. These water management activities should at the same time also ensure an optimum living environment, above all through protection of water resources against deterioration and exhaustion as well as through the protection of society against the harmful effects of water. In the course of these activities water resources management should avail itself of the entire spectrum of explicit sciences, gradually coming to form the sphere of its own theory. This monograph deals with the fundamental interdisciplinary problems of this complex sphere, an understanding of which is indispensable for successful water resources management in the widest sense of its social functions and environmental consequences. Thus, a common basis is provided for the mutual understanding of specialists from different backgrounds.

Assessing and Managing Groundwater in Different Environments

Author: Jude Cobbing,Shafick Adams,Ingrid Dennis,Kornelius Riemann

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315886227

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 7923

This collection of papers is a snapshot of modern hydrogeology in which highly technical methods and approaches sit side-by-side with overlapping legal, social, organisational, institutional and governance considerations. Groundwater is integral to many human and environmental systems. Indeed, there appears to be a growing realisation that some of the most pressing physical problems in the field of hydrogeology - over-abstraction, salinization or pollution - can only really be solved by taking a multi-disciplinary approach to the issues that takes all other related professions into account. Whilst a ‘technical’ solution may be readily deciphered, the larger challenge usually lies in the sustainably-funded and widely-accepted implementation of that measure. This book ranges from discussion and debate on the hot topic of hydraulic fracturing of wells or ‘fraccing’ for shale gas and its potential to disrupt groundwater systems, to the application of highly technical modelling procedures to help solve complex, real world problems. It is a window on the preoccupations of modern hydrogeologists and an insight into the way in which hydrogeological techniques and methods are being holistically adapted to address problems in the real world. This book is targeted at professional hydrogeologists, sociologists, experts in governance, law and policy as well as ecologists and other professionals that nowadays all sit alongside groundwater understanding. The book will also appeal to politicians, resource managers, regulators and others interested in sustainable water supply.