Contemporary hydrology

towards holistic environmental science

Author: Robert L. Wilby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: 9780471966364

Category: Science

Page: 354

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Traditional approaches to hydrology have favoured a reductionist perspective. This text argues that hydrologists of the 21st century must increasingly look beyond the traditional boundaries of river channel or river catchment areas to consider new questions: firstly, how water resources should be managed in an integrated and sustainable way with a growing appreciation of the global dimension to water resource problems; secondly, how the search for solutions to water pollution, flooding, drought and environmental degradation requires a broader understanding of transboundary connections between components of the hydrosphere across a range of spatial and temporal scales. In an emerging age of water shortage, increasing dependence will also be placed upon existing monitoring and water distribution networks. Advances in data gathering systems and hydrological modelling have created new opportunities for assessing and managing these water resources. Similarly ecohydrology and palaeohydrological techniques are generating new types of data for model development and testing. This text will provide an excellent overview for post-graduates and researchers studying hydrology, meterology, environmental science and related topics. It will also be useful as supplementary reading for 2nd/3rd year undergraduates in these areas. The ruins of the flooded Derwent village emerged from Ladybower Reservoir, Derbyshire UK in autumn 1995. This image highlights a number of issues pertinent to contemporary hydrology such as: winter droughts severely restrict the replenishment on upland communities; the uneasy relationship between forestry and water resources in water supply catchments; water quality problems associated with acidification, turbidity and sedimentation; the aesthetic and ammenity value of impounded waters

Progress in Modern Hydrology

Past, Present and Future

Author: John C. Rodda,Mark Robinson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119074274

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 9332

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Hydrology is vital to human civilisations as well as to natural ecosystems, yet it has only emerged as a distinct scientific discipline during the last 50 years or so. This book reviews the development of modern hydrology primarily through the experiences of the multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers at Wallingford, near Oxford, who have been at the forefront of many of the developments in UK hydrological research. These topics include: * The development of basic understanding through the collection of data with specialised instrumentation in experimental basins * The study of extreme flows - both floods and droughts * The role moisture in the soil * Studies of the processes controlling evaporation * Water resource studies * Modelling and prediction of the extremes of flow improved * Understanding of water quality issues * A widening recognition of the importance of an ecosystem approach * Meeting the challenges of climate change, * Data handling * Future developments in hydrology and the pressures which generate them. Readership: hydrologists in both academia and a wide range of applied fields such as civil engineering, meteorology, geography and physics, as well as advanced students in earth science, environmental science and physical geography programmes worldwide.

Modern Hydrology and Sustainable Water Development

Author: S. K. Gupta

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444347722

Category: Science

Page: 464

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The material of this book will derive its scientific under-pinning from basics of mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, meteorology, engineering, soil science, and related disciplines and will provide sufficient breadth and depth of understanding in each sub-section of hydrology. It will start with basic concepts: Water, its properties, its movement, modelling and quality The distribution of water in space and time Water resource sustainability Chapters on ‘global change’ and ‘water and ethics’ aim respectively to emphasize the central role of hydrological cycle and its quantitative understanding and monitoring for human well being and to familiarize the readers with complex issues of equity and justice in large scale water resource development process. Modern Hydrology for Sustainable Development is intended not only as a textbook for students in earth and environmental science and civil engineering degree courses, but also as a reference for professionals in fields as diverse as environmental planning, civil engineering, municipal and industrial water supply, irrigation and catchment management.

Eco-Hydrology

Author: Andrew J. Baird,Robert L. Wilby

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134715439

Category: Science

Page: 420

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^iEco-Hydrology is the first book to offer an overview of the complex relationships between plants and water across a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Leading ecologists and hydrologists present reviews of the eco-hydrology of drylands, wetlands, temperate and tropical rain forests, streams, and rivers and lakes. Contents include: * background information on the water relations of plants, from individual cells to strands of plants * the role of mathematical models in eco-hydrology * explanations of how plants affect patterns and rates of water movement and storage in a range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Fundamentals of Hydrology

Author: Tim Davie

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415399866

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 1603

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In order to manage the world's increasingly scarce water resources we must have a sound understanding of how water moves around the planet and what influences water quality. Fundamentals of Hydrology provides an engaging and comprehensive introduction to this subject and provides real-life examples of water resource management in a changing world. The second edition of this popular book brings the text up-to-date with additional case studies and diagrams and a greater synthesis of water quality with physical hydrology. The chapters on runoff and evaporation have been updated and the final chapter on hydrology in a changing world has more material on water resource management strategies. Additionally the chapter on streamflow analysis now includes a more in-depth section on modelling runoff. The book begins with a comprehensive coverage of precipitation, evaporation, water stored in the ground and as snow and ice, and runoff. These physical hydrological processes show with respect to the fundamental knowledge about the process, its measurement and estimation and how it ties in with water quality. Following this is a section on analyzing streamflow data, including using computer models and combining hydrology and ecology for in-stream flow assessment. A chapter on water quality shows how to measure and estimate it in a variable environment and finishes with a section on pollution treatment. The final chapter brings the text together to discuss water resource management andreal-life issues that are faced by hydrologists in a constantly changing world. Fundamentals of Hydrology is a lively and accessible introduction to the study of hydrology at university level. This new edition continues to provide an understanding of hydrological processes, knowledge of the techniques used to assess water resources and an up-to-date overview of water resource management in a changing world. Throughout the text, wide-ranging examples and case studies are used to clearly explain ideas and methods. Short chapter summaries, essay questions, guides to further reading and a glossary are also included.

Global Hydrology

Processes, Resources and Environmental Management

Author: J. A. A. Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317894731

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 9864

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Global Hydrology illustrates in detail the growing importance of understanding hydrological processes and pathways as a means of effective and safe management of water resources. It describes current management practices and past environmental impact. It analyses the options for improving water supply and protecting the environment, emphasizing the need for international collaboration in a changing societal and environmental context

Res

Anthropology and Aesthetics, 59/60: Spring/Autumn 2011

Author: Francesco Pellizzi

Publisher: Peabody Museum Press

ISBN: 0873658620

Category: Art

Page: 372

View: 3082

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RES 59/60 includes “The making of architectural types” by Joseph Rykwert; “Traces of the sun and Inka kinetics” by Tom Cummins and Bruce Mannheim; “Inka water management and display fountains” by Carolyn Dean; “Guaman Poma’s pictures of huacas” by Lisa Trever; “Peruvian nature up close” by Daniela Bleichmar; and other papers.

Mine Water

Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation

Author: Paul L. Younger,S.A. Banwart,Robert S. Hedin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402001376

Category: Nature

Page: 442

View: 6845

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Nowhere is the conflict between economic progress and environmental quality more apparent than in the mineral extraction industries. The latter half of the 20th century saw major advances in the reclamation technologies. However, mine water pollution problems have not been addressed. In many cases, polluted mine water long outlives the life of the mining operation. As the true cost of long-term water treatment responsibilities has become apparent, interest has grown in the technologies that would decrease the production of contaminated water and make its treatment less costly. This is the first book to address the mine water issue head-on. The authors explain the complexities of mine water pollution by reviewing the hydrogeological context of its formation, and provide an up-to-date presentation of prevention and treatment technologies. The book will be a valuable reference for all professionals who encounter polluted mine water on a regular or occasional basis.

Land Surface — Atmosphere Interactions for Climate Modeling

Observations, Models and Analysis

Author: E.F. Wood

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400921551

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 6721

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It is well known that the interactions between land surfaces and the atmosphere, and the resulting exchanges in water and energy have a tremendous affect on climate. The inadequate representation of land-atmosphere interactions is a major weakness in current climate models, and is providing the motivation for the HAPEX and ISLSCP experiments as well as the proposed Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. The inadequate representation reflects the recognition that the well-known phys ical relationships, which are well described at small scales, result in different relationships when represented at the scales used in climate models. Understanding this transition in the mathematical relationships with increased space-time scales appears to be very difficult, and has led to different approaches; at one extreme, the famous "bucket" model where the land-surface is a simple one layer storage without vegetation; the other extreme may be Seller's Simple Biosphere Model (Sib) where one big leaf covers the climate model grid. Given the heterogeneous nature of landforms, soils and vegetation within a climate model grid, the development of new land surface parameterizations, and their verification through large scale experiments is perceived to be a challenging area of research for the hydrology and meteorology communities. This book evolved from a workshop held at Princeton University to explore the status of land surface parameterizations within climate models, and how observa tional data can be used to assess these parameterizations and improve models.

Introduction to Physical Hydrology

Author: Martin Hendriks

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199296847

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 5035

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Introduction to Physical Hydrology provides a solid grounding in the principles of the subject. Exploring the principal rules that govern the flow of water on the land, it considers the three major types of water: atmospheric, ground, and soil. It gives insights into the major hydrologicalprocesses, and shows how the principles of physical hydrology inform our understanding of climate and global hydrology - the large-scale study of hydrology with which we need to grapple to fully understand the impact of the climate on water supply.The study of physical properties is done most effectively through mathematical representations of concepts and processes. Introduction to Physical Hydrology includes a carefully-developed and class-tested learning framework: an extensive range of examples and exercises, and further maths support inthe form of a series of Maths Toolboxes help the reader engage with and understand the maths required to master the subject.With hydrology now being approached from environmental and social perspectives, in addition to the more traditional physical geography and civil engineering perspectives, there has never been a more important time to develop a sound understanding of the subject. Introduction to Physical Hydrology isthe perfect course companion while you develop this understanding.

Hydroinformatics

Data Integrative Approaches in Computation, Analysis, and Modeling

Author: Praveen Kumar,Mike Folk,Momcilo Markus,Jay C. Alameda

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420038001

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 552

View: 3922

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Modern hydrology is more interdisciplinary than ever. Staggering amounts and varieties of information pour in from GIS and remote sensing systems every day, and this information must be collected, interpreted, and shared efficiently. Hydroinformatics: Data Integrative Approaches in Computation, Analysis, and Modeling introduces the tools, approaches, and system considerations necessary to take full advantage of the abundant hydrological data available today. Linking hydrological science with computer engineering, networking, and database science, this book lays a pedagogical foundation in the concepts underlying developments in hydroinformatics. It begins with an introduction to data representation through Unified Modeling Language (UML), followed by digital libraries, metadata, the basics of data models, and Modelshed, a new hydrological data model. Building on this platform, the book discusses integrating and managing diverse data in large datasets, data communication issues such as XML and Grid computing, the basic principles of data processing and analysis including feature extraction and spatial registration, and modern methods of soft computing such as neural networks and genetic algorithms. Today, hydrological data are increasingly rich, complex, and multidimensional. Providing a thorough compendium of techniques and methodologies, Hydroinformatics: Data Integrative Approaches in Computation, Analysis, and Modeling is the first reference to supply the tools necessary to confront these challenges successfully.

Peatland Biogeochemistry and Watershed Hydrology at the Marcell Experimental Forest

Author: Randall Kolka,Stephen Sebestyen,Elon S. Verry,Kenneth Brooks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439814253

Category: Nature

Page: 512

View: 5909

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The Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) in Minnesota serves as a living laboratory and provides scientists with a fundamental understanding of peatland hydrology, acid rain impacts, nutrient and carbon cycling, trace gas emissions, and controls on mercury transport in boreal watersheds. Its important role in scientific research continues to grow as the data gathered offers invaluable insight into environmental changes over the last century and goes far in answering many of today’s pressing questions at landscape and global scales. Synthesizing five decades of research, Peatland Biogeochemistry and Watershed Hydrology at the Marcell Experimental Forest includes hundreds of research publications, dozens of graduate theses, and even some previously unpublished studies. Research at the MEF has been at the forefront of many scientific disciplines and these 15 chapters offer the depth and breadth of long-term studies on hydrology, biogeochemistry, ecology, and forest management on peatland watersheds at the MEF. Focusing on peatlands, lakes, and upland landscapes, the book begins with the pioneering research on hydrology done during the 1960s. It presents the innovative 1970’s studies of atmospheric deposition; the 1980’s research into nutrient cycles including carbon, nitrogen, and methane emissions; and the 1990’s investigations into mercury deposition. The book concludes with a look at the latest and on-going studies such as this century’s research into controls on methylmercury production and landscape-level carbon storage and cycling. Covering 50 years of research and written by a veritable who’s who in peatland and forestry science, this important milestone in the collection of ecological data highlights bright prospects for future research, including the continuation of existing long-term measurements, the initiation of new monitoring programs, and plans for unprecedented studies on climate change.

Highlights in Environmental Research

Professorial Inaugural Lectures at Imperial College

Author: Basil John Mason

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9781860941030

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 189

View: 447

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This book contains recent inaugural lectures by professors of environmental science and technology at Imperial College in London. It covers a variety of topics illustrating the diverse and interdisciplinary nature of environmental problems.

Flood Issues in Contemporary Water Management

Author: J. Marsalek,W. Ed Watt,Evzen Zeman,Friedhelm Sieker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401141401

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3224

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In 1997 disastrous flooding running through the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany took the lives of a great number of people and caused economic damage estimated in tens of billions of dollars. Flooding of the Yangtze river in 1998 killed more than 3000 people, dislocated 230 million souls, and caused direct damage of more than $ 45 billion. Both the general public and the experts are asking what we can learn from these recent events to reduce loss of life and flood damage. The 1997 floods were dealt with by experts from the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany, who presented timely reports on combatting floods, both success stories and shortcomings. This experience is further extended by reports from experts drawn from 13 other countries, developing a broad overview of flood risk management, covering the ecosystem approach to flood management, including socioeconomic issues, flood impacts on water quality, human health, and natural ecosystems.

Stochastic Methods in Hydrology

Author: O E Barndorff-Nielsen,V K Gupta,V Pérez-Abreu,E Waymire

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814496499

Category: Mathematics

Page: 224

View: 8799

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This book communicates some contemporary mathematical and statistical developments in river basin hydrology as they pertain to space-time rainfall, spatial landform and network structures and their role in understanding averages and fluctuations in the hydrologic water balance of river basins. While many of the mathematical and statistical nations have quite classical mathematical roots, the river basin data structure has led to many variations on the problems and theory. Contents:Stochastic Spatial-Temporal Models for Rain (D R Cox & V Isham)On Scaling Theories of Space-Time Rainfall: Some Recent Results and Open Problems (E Foufoula-Georgiou)Modeling of Drop Size Distribution and Its Applications to Rainfall Measurements from Radar (J M Porrà et al.)Spatial Channel Network Models in Hydrology (B M Troutman & M R Karlinger)Some Mathematical Aspects of Rainfall, Land-Forms, and Floods (V K Gupta & E C Waymire)Efficient Extraction of River Networks and Hydrologic Measurements from Digital Elevation Data (S D Peckham) Readership: Statisticians. Keywords:River Networks;Scaling Random Fields;Fractals;Floods;Space-Time Variability;Stochastic Point Processes;Geomorphology;Hydrometeorology;Multiscaling;Space-Time Rainfall;Stochastic Hydrology;Digital Elevation Maps;Self-Similar Networks;Ungauged River Basin;Point Process Models;Multiplicative Cascades;Statistical Hydrology;Surface Water HydrologyReviews: “This book presents an exciting review of developments in stochastic hydrology (with a helpful index) and includes many useful references.” International Statistical Institute

Visual Hydrology

Author: Peter A. Mantz

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 1843390566

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 2641

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One approach to the introduction of computational material to the classroom is to supplement a textbook with modern computer codes. Unfortunately most codes are expensive, designed for commercial use, without source code and may require special software. Visual Hydrology provides a cheaper and simpler alternative, supplying computational exercises that can be fully assimilated by students, and allowing them to activate, understand and reproduce modern computer code. Visual Hydrology aims to: explain the structure of modern object-oriented computer code provide the source code for worked examples numerically check the worked examples used in text show how worked examples can be used with alternative data describe and reference the underlying theory provide additional exercises with each worked example use Microsoft Excel software alone Requiring only a basic knowledge of Microsoft Excel, this Primer teaches the use of modern and readily-available computer code for engineering computation. Visual Hydrology demonstrates codes for common and practical examples used in hydrological engineering, and will be a valuable resource to students, research workers and consulting engineers in the water-related sector. Examples of source code to accompany this publication can be downloaded by clicking here.

A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport

An Integrated Approach with Chemistry, Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Environmental Legislation

Author: Frank M. Dunnivant,Elliot Anders

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471758124

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 701

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A uniquely accessible text on environmental modeling designedfor both students and industry personnel Pollutant fate and modeling are becoming increasingly importantin both regulatory and scientific areas. However,the complexity ofthe software and models often act as an inhibitor to theadvancement of water quality science. A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transportfills the need for a basic instructional tool for students andenvironmental professionals who lack the rigorous mathematicalbackground necessary to derive the governing fate and transportequations. Taking a refreshingly simple approach to the subjectthat requires only a basic knowledge of algebra and first-yearcollege chemistry, the book presents and integrates all of theaspects of fate and transport, including chemistry, modeling, riskassessment, and relevant environmental legislation; approachingeach topic first conceptually before introducing the math necessaryto model it. The first half of the book is dedicated to the chemistry andphysics behind the fate and transport models, while the second halfteaches and reinforces the logical concepts underlying fate andtransport modeling. This better prepares students for support jobsin the environmental arena surrounding chemical industry andSuperfund sites. Contributing to the book's ease of use are: An extremely user-friendly software program, Fate, which usesbasic models to predict the fate and transport of pollutants inlakes, rivers, groundwater, and atmospheric systems The use of "canned" models to evaluate the importance of modelparameters and sensitivity analysis A wealth of easy-to-understand examples and problems A chapter on environmental legislation in the United States andEurope A set of lab exercises, as well as a downloadable set ofteaching aids A much-needed basic text for contemporary hydrology orenvironmental chemistry courses and support courses fortheenvironmental industry, this is a valuable desk reference foreducators and industry professionals.

Hydrologic Frequency Modeling

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Flood Frequency and Risk Analyses, 14–17 May 1986, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, U.S.A.

Author: Vijay Singh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027725721

Category: Science

Page: 645

View: 473

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Floods constitute a persistent and serious problem throughout the United States and many other parts of the world. They are respon sible for losses amounting to billions of dollars and scores of deaths annually. Virtually all parts of the nation--coastal, mountainous and rural--are affected by them. Two aspects of the problem of flooding that have long been topics of scientific inquiry are flood frequency and risk analyses. Many new, even improved, techniques have recently been developed for performing these analyses. Nevertheless, actual experience points out that the frequency of say a 100-year flood, in lieu of being encountered on the average once in one hundred years, may be as little as once in 25 years. It is therefore appropriate to pause and ask where we are, where we are going and where we ought to be going with regard to the technology of flood frequency and risk analyses. One way to address these questions is to provide a forum where people from all quarters of the world can assemble, discuss and share their experience and expertise pertaining to flood frequency and risk analyses. This is what constituted the motivation for organizing the International Symposium on Flood Frequency and Risk Analyses held May 14-17, 1986, at Louisiana State University, Bat-on Rouge, Louisiana.