Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches

The Riddles of Culture

Author: Marvin Harris

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307801225

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 9952

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One of America's leading anthropolgists offers solutions to the perplexing question of why people behave the way they do. Why do Hindus worship cows? Why do Jews and Moslems refuse to eat pork? Why did so many people in post-medieval Europe believe in witches? Marvin Harris answers these and other perplexing questions about human behavior, showing that no matter how bizarre a people's behavior may seem, it always stems from identifiable and intelligble sources.

Cows, Pigs, Wars, & Witches

The Riddles of Culture

Author: Marvin Harris

Publisher: Singapore Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 276

View: 4229

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An anthropologist speculates on the origins of bizarre and mysterious human lifestyles, customs, and institutions throughout history

Das Mensch-Tier-Verhältnis

Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Einführung

Author: Renate Brucker,Melanie Bujok,Birgit Mütherich,Martin Seeliger,Frank Thieme

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531941100

Category: Social Science

Page: 343

View: 2708

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Das Mensch-Tier-Verhältnis ist in modernen Gesellschaften durch Ambivalenzen gekennzeichnet. Auf der einen Seite als Ding und Material benutzt und fabrikmäßig aufbereitet, werden Tiere andererseits als eigenständige Subjekte und Teil konkreter Sozialbeziehungen mit Menschen wahrgenommen. Das Buch soll – erstmals als sozialwissenschaftliche Einführung – einen Querschnitt der aktuellen Forschung zum Mensch-Tier-Verhältnis bieten. Die Autorinnen und Autoren folgen dabei ihren unterschiedlichen Schwerpunkten und veranschaulichen u. a. aus sozialhistorischer, kulturwissenschaftlicher und herrschaftssoziologischer Perspektive die Breite dieses Themas und seine Verflochtenheit mit anderen Forschungsgebieten.

Handbook of Material Culture

Author: Chris Tilley,Webb Keane,Susanne Kuechler,Mike Rowlands,Patricia Spyer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446206432

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 4033

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The study of material culture is concerned with the relationship between persons and things in the past and in the present, in urban and industrialized and in small-scale societies across the globe. The Handbook of Material Culture provides a critical survey of the theories, concepts, intellectual debates, substantive domains and traditions of study characterizing the analysis of things. It is cutting-edge: rather than simply reviewing the field as it currently exists. It also attempts to chart the future: the manner in which material culture studies may be extended and developed. The Handbook of Material Culture is divided into five sections. • Section I maps material culture studies as a theoretical and conceptual field. • Section II examines the relationship between material forms, the human body and the senses. • Section III focuses on subject-object relations. • Section IV considers things in terms of processes and transformations in terms of production, exchange and consumption, performance and the significance of things over the long-term. • Section V considers the contemporary politics and poetics of displaying, representing and conserving material and the manner in which this impacts on notions of heritage, tradition and identity. The Handbook charts an interdisciplinary field of studies that makes an unique and fundamental contribution to an understanding of what it means to be human. It will be of interest to all who work in the social and historical sciences, from anthropologists and archaeologists to human geographers to scholars working in heritage, design and cultural studies.

Everyone Eats

Understanding Food and Culture

Author: E. N. Anderson

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814704956

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 2721

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Florence Nightingale (1820-1920) is famous as the heroine of the Crimean War and later as a campaigner for health care founded on a clean environment and good nursing. Though best known for her pioneering demonstration that disease rather than wounds killed most soldiers, she was also heavily allied to social reform movements and to feminist protest against the enforced idleness of middle-class women. This original edition provides bold new insights into Nightingale's beliefs and a new picture of the relationship between feminism and religion. Suggestions for Thought to the Searchers after Truth Among the Artisans of England (1860), which contains the novel Cassandra, is a central text in 19th-century history of feminist thought and is published here for the first time. Nightingale argues that work was the means by which every individual sought self-fulfillment and served God. She wrote influentially about the group most Victorians declared to be above work: unmarried, middle-class women.

Witchcraft Continued

Popular Magic in Modern Europe

Author: Willem De Blécourt,Owen Davies

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719066580

Category: History

Page: 219

View: 7959

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An important collection of essays that use a variety of different approaches and sources to uncover the continued relevance of witchcraft and magic in nineteenth and twentieth-century Europe.

Anthropology and Religion

What We Know, Think, and Question

Author: Robert L. Winzeler

Publisher: AltaMira Press

ISBN: 0759121915

Category: Social Science

Page: 338

View: 6206

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Drawing from ethnographic examples found throughout the world, this revised and updated text, hailed as the “best general text on religion in anthropology available,” offers an introduction to what anthropologists know or think about religion, how they have studied it, and how they interpret or explain it since the late 19th century.

Down to Earth Sociology: 14th Edition

Introductory Readings, Fourteenth Edition

Author: James M. Henslin

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439108951

Category: Social Science

Page: 624

View: 7729

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For thirty-five years and through thirteen editions, Jim Henslin's Down to Earth Sociology has opened new windows onto the social realities that shape our world. Now in its fourteenth edition, the most popular anthology in sociology includes new articles on our changing world while also retaining its classic must-read essays. Focusing on social interaction in everyday life, the forty-six selections bring students face-to-face with the twin projects of contemporary sociology: understanding the individual's experience of society and analyzing social structure. The fourteenth edition's exceptional new readings include selections on the role of sympathy in everyday life, mistaken perceptions of the American family, the effects of a criminal record on getting a job, and the major social trends affecting our future. Together with these essential new articles, the selections by Peter Berger, Herbert Gans, Erving Goffman, Donna Eder, Zella Luria, C. Wright Mills, Deborah Tannen, Barrie Thorne, Sidney Katz, Philip Zimbardo, and many others provide firsthand reporting that gives students a sense of "being there." Henslin also explains basic methods of social research, providing insight into how sociologists explore the social world. The selections in Down to Earth Sociology highlight the most significant themes of contemporary sociology, ranging from the sociology of gender, power, politics, and religion to the contemporary crises of racial tension, crime, rape, poverty, and homelessness.

The Culture-Bound Syndromes

Folk Illnesses of Psychiatric and Anthropological Interest

Author: Ronald C. Simons,C.C. Hughes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400952511

Category: Social Science

Page: 518

View: 9158

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In the last few years there has been a great revival of interest in culture-bound psychiatric syndromes. A spate of new papers has been published on well known and less familiar syndromes, and there have been a number of attempts to put some order into the field of inquiry. In a review of the literature on culture-bound syndromes up to 1969 Yap made certain suggestions for organizing thinking about them which for the most part have not received general acceptance (see Carr, this volume, p. 199). Through the seventies new descriptive and conceptual work was scarce, but in the last few years books and papers discussing the field were authored or edited by Tseng and McDermott (1981), AI-Issa (1982), Friedman and Faguet (1982) and Murphy (1982). In 1983 Favazza summarized his understanding of the state of current thinking for the fourth edition of the Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, and a symposium on culture-bound syndromes was organized by Kenny for the Eighth International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnology. The strong est impression to emerge from all this recent work is that there is no substantive consensus, and that the very concept, "culture-bound syndrome" could well use some serious reconsideration. As the role of culture-specific beliefs and prac tices in all affliction has come to be increasingly recognized it has become less and less clear what sets the culture-bound syndromes apart.

Illegal Drugs

Author: Paul Gahlinger

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440650246

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 480

View: 9447

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Does Ecstasy cause brain damage? Why is crack more addictive than cocaine? What questions regarding drugs are legal to ask in a job interview? When does marijuana possession carry a greater prison sentence than murder? Illegal Drugs is the first comprehensive reference to offer timely, pertinent information on every drug currently prohibited by law in the United States. It includes their histories, chemical properties and effects, medical uses and recreational abuses, and associated health problems, as well as addiction and treatment information. Additional survey chapters discuss general and historical information on illegal drug use, the effect of drugs on the brain, the war on drugs, drugs in the workplace, the economy and culture of illegal drugs, and information on thirty-three psychoactive drugs that are legal in the United States, from caffeine, alcohol and tobacco to betel nuts and kava kava.

Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology

Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands

Author: William L. Balée,Clark L. Erickson

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231509618

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 8770

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This collection of studies by anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, and biologists is an important contribution to the emerging field of historical ecology. The book combines cutting-edge research with new perspectives to emphasize the close relationship between humans and their natural environment. Contributors examine how alterations in the natural world mirror human cultures, societies, and languages. Treating the landscape like a text, these researchers decipher patterns and meaning in the Ecuadorian Andes, Amazonia, the desert coast of Peru, and other regions in the neotropics. They show how local peoples have changed the landscape over time to fit their needs by managing and modifying species diversity, enhancing landscape heterogeneity, and controlling ecological disturbance. In turn, the environment itself becomes a form of architecture rich with historical and archaeological significance. Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology explores thousands of years of ecological history while also addressing important contemporary issues, such as biodiversity and genetic variation and change. Engagingly written and expertly researched, this book introduces and exemplifies a unique method for better understanding the link between humans and the biosphere.

Food and Faith in Christian Culture

Author: Ken Albala,Trudy Eden

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520794

Category: Cooking

Page: 272

View: 6026

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Without a uniform dietary code, Christians around the world used food in strikingly different ways, developing widely divergent practices that spread, nurtured, and strengthened their religious beliefs and communities. Featuring never-before published essays, this anthology follows the intersection of food and faith from the fourteenth to the twenty-first century, charting the complex relationship among religious eating habits and politics, culture, and social structure. Theoretically rich and full of engaging portraits, essays consider the rise of food buying and consumerism in the fourteenth century, the Reformation ideology of fasting and its resulting sanctions against sumptuous eating, the gender and racial politics of sacramental food production in colonial America, and the struggle to define "enlightened" Lenten dietary restrictions in early modern France. Essays on the nineteenth century explore the religious implications of wheat growing and breadmaking among New Zealand's Maori population and the revival of the Agape meal, or love feast, among American brethren in Christ Church. Twentieth-century topics include the metaphysical significance of vegetarianism, the function of diet in Greek Orthodoxy, American Christian weight loss programs, and the practice of silent eating rituals among English Benedictine monks. Two introductory essays detail the key themes tying these essays together and survey food's role in developing and disseminating the teachings of Christianity, not to mention providing a tangible experience of faith.

Gambling

Behavior Theory, Research, and Application

Author: Mark Dixon,Patrick Ghezzi,Charles Lyons,Ginger Wilson

Publisher: New Harbinger Publications

ISBN: 1608827798

Category: Psychology

Page: 260

View: 9961

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The rise in legalized gambling in the United States over the last fifteen years has led to much debate among scientists and practitioners about how to conceptualize and study the phenomenon, treat persons who experience difficulties controlling their level of play, and prevent individuals from becoming problem or 'pathological' gamblers. The current volume brings together a group of basic and applied behavior scientists to discuss these matters. Gambling is designed to allow readers familiar with the general concepts and principles of behavior analysis to understand how the field is addressing the area of gambling. Graduate students taking classes in behavioral applications, or those enrolled in seminars specific to gambling, will find this collection of papers a vital resource. The book will also be useful to clinicians interested in understanding the basic and conceptual foundations that underlie successful prevention and treatment approaches.

Rethinking Our Story

Can We Be Christian in the Quantum Era?

Author: G. Douglas Hammack

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630871516

Category: Religion

Page: 246

View: 8250

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If it ain't broke, don't fix it. But it's no secret that the Christian church is broke, and does need fixing. Despite great effort, things are going badly for us. We've tried trendy and tech-savvy, entrepreneurial and coffee-house gritty. They're not helping. Our problem is deeper than that. Our problem is our instincts--instincts informed by our story. There was a time when the Christian church was a powerfully transformative presence in society. It can be again--but it will require radical rethinking of the story that informs our instincts. And it's time! It's been five hundred years since the Reformation, our last major update. Today is a pivotal moment in history. With our worldview upended by quantum physics, history is demanding we renew the Christian story for our times. Rethinking Our Story reframes the elements of the Christian narrative for the new era. It explores quantum ways of thinking about God, human nature, Jesus, salvation, and the afterlife. The future of the church and the health of our society depend on our willingness to rethink, retell, and live out a better story. We will either update our instincts and contribute to the earth's well-being--or disappear into oblivion.

Hunters, Herders, and Hamburgers

The Past and Future of Human-Animal Relationships

Author: Richard W. Bulliet

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231503962

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 7301

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Richard W. Bulliet has long been a leading figure in the study of human-animal relations, and in his newest work, Hunters, Herders, and Hamburgers, he offers a sweeping and engaging perspective on this dynamic relationship from prehistory to the present. By considering the shifting roles of donkeys, camels, cows, and other domesticated animals in human society, as well as their place in the social imagination, Bulliet reveals the different ways various cultures have reinforced, symbolized, and rationalized their relations with animals. Bulliet identifies and explores four stages in the history of the human-animal relationship-separation, predomesticity, domesticity, and postdomesticity. He begins with the question of when and why humans began to consider themselves distinct from other species and continues with a fresh look at how a few species became domesticated. He demonstrates that during the domestic era many species fell from being admired and even worshipped to being little more than raw materials for various animal-product industries. Throughout the work, Bulliet discusses how social and technological developments and changing philosophical, religious, and aesthetic viewpoints have shaped attitudes toward animals. Our relationship to animals continues to evolve in the twenty-first century. Bulliet writes, "We are today living through a new watershed in human-animal relations, one that appears likely to affect our material, social, and imaginative lives as profoundly as did the original emergence of domestic species." The United States, Britain, and a few other countries are leading a move from domesticity, marked by nearly universal familiarity with domestic species, to an era of postdomesticity, in which dependence on animal products continues but most people have no contact with producing animals. Elective vegetarianism and the animal-liberation movement have combined with new attitudes toward animal science, pets, and the presentation of animals in popular culture to impart a distinctive moral, psychological, and spiritual tone to postdomestic life.

The Indianization of Lewis and Clark

Author: William R. Swagerty

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 0806188219

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 820

View: 1481

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Although some have attributed the success of the Lewis and Clark expedition primarily to gunpowder and gumption, historian William R. Swagerty demonstrates in this two-volume set that adopting Indian ways of procuring, processing, and transporting food and gear was crucial to the survival of the Corps of Discovery. The Indianization of Lewis and Clark retraces the well-known trail of America’s most famous explorers as a journey into the heart of Native America—a case study of successful material adaptation and cultural borrowing. Beginning with a broad examination of regional demographics and folkways, Swagerty describes the cultural baggage and material preferences the expedition carried west in 1804. Detailing this baseline reveals which Indian influences were already part of Jeffersonian American culture, and which were progressive adaptations the Corpsmen made of Indian ways in the course of their journey. Swagerty’s exhaustive research offers detailed information on both Indian and Euro-American science, medicine, cartography, and cuisine, and on a wide range of technologies and material culture. Readers learn what the Corpsmen wore, what they ate, how they traveled, and where they slept (and with whom) before, during, and after the return. Indianization is as old as contact experiences between Native Americans and Europeans. Lewis and Clark took the process to a new level, accepting the hospitality of dozens of Native groups as they sought a navigable water route to the Pacific. This richly illustrated, interdisciplinary study provides a unique and complex portrait of the material and cultural legacy of Indian America, offering readers perspective on lessons learned but largely forgotten in the aftermath of the epic journey.

Übergangsriten

Author: Arnold Van Gennep

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 9783593378367

Category: Rites and ceremonies

Page: 258

View: 8494

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Ethnischer Radikalismus

Ursachen und Folgen gewaltsamer Minderheitenkonflikte am Beispiel des Baskenlandes, Nordirlands und Quebecs

Author: Peter Waldmann

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322919218

Category: Social Science

Page: 437

View: 1816

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Im Mittelpunkt der Studie steht die Frage, unter welchen Bedingungen ethnische Protestbewegungen einen gewaltsamen Verlauf nehmen. Hierzu werden zentrale Hypothesen entwickelt und durch den Vergleich von vier Fällen des Ethnoregionalismus (spanisches Baskenland, Katalonien, Nordirland, Québec) systematisch überprüft. Auch das bisher in der Literatur vernachlässigte Problem der strukturellen Folgen anhaltender Minderheitenkonflikte wird behandelt. Der Band endet mit Vorschlägen der Eindämmung dieser Konflikte.