Crystallography

A Very Short Introduction

Author: A. M. Glazer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198717598

Category: Science

Page: 140

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Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Introduction to Crystallography

Author: Donald E. Sands

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136809

Category: Science

Page: 192

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Clear, concise explanation of logical development of basic crystallographic concepts. Topics include crystals and lattices, symmetry, x-ray diffraction, and more. Problems, with answers. 114 illustrations. 1969 edition.

Crystallography Made Crystal Clear

A Guide for Users of Macromolecular Models

Author: Gale Rhodes

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323137784

Category: Science

Page: 202

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Crystallography Made Crystal Clear is designed to meet the need for an X-ray analysis that is between brief textbook sections and complete treatments. The book provides non-crystallographers with an intellectually satisfying explanation of the principles of how protein models are gleaned from X-ray analysis. The understanding of these concepts will foster wise use of the models, including the recognition of the strengths and weaknesses of pictures or computer graphics. Since proteins comprise the majority of the mass of macromolecules in cells and carry out biologically important tasks, the book will be of interest to biologists. Provides accessible descriptions of principles of x-ray crystallography, built on simple foundations for anyone with a basic science background Leads the reader through clear, thorough, unintimidating explanations of the mathematics behind crystallography Explains how to read crystallography papers in research journals If you use computer-generated models of proteins or nucleic acids for: Studying molecular interactions Designing ligands, inhibitors, or drugs Engineering new protein functions Interpreting chemical, kinetic, thermodynamic, or spectroscopic data Studying protein folding Teaching macromolecule structure,and if you want to read new structure papers intelligently; become a wiser user of macromolecular models; and want to introduce undergraduates to the important subject of x-ray crystallography, then this book is for you.

Minerals

A Very Short Introduction

Author: David Vaughan

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199682844

Category: Science

Page: 137

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Minerals existed long before any forms of life, playing a key role in the origin and evolution of life; an interaction with biological systems that we are only now beginning to understand. Exploring the traditional strand of mineralogy, which emphasises the important mineral families, the well-established analytical methods (optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction) and the dramatic developments made in techniques over recent decades, David Vaughan also introduces the modern strand of mineralogy, which explores the role minerals play in the plate tectonic cycle and how they interact with the living world. Demonstrating how minerals can be critical for human health and illness by providing essential nutrients and releasing poisons, Vaughan explores the multitude of ways in which minerals have aided our understanding of the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Crystal Structure Determination

Author: Werner Massa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662042487

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 4729

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A concise introduction to modern crystal structure determination, emphasizing both the crystallographic background and the successive practical steps. In the theoretical sections, more importance is attached to a good understanding, than to a rigorous mathematical treatment. The most important measuring techniques, including the use of modern area detectors, and the methods of data reduction, structure solution and refinement are discussed from a practical point of view. Special emphasis is put on the ability to recognize and avoid possible errors and traps, and to judge the quality of results.

Geometric Crystallography

An Axiomatic Introduction to Crystallography

Author: P. Engel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400947607

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 4416

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In the last decade mathematical crystallography has found increasing interest. Siginificant results have been obtained by algebraic, geometric, and group theoretic methods. Also classical crystallography in three-dimen sional Euclidean space has been extended to higher dimen sions in order to understand better the dimension independent crystallographic properties. The aim of this note is to introduce the reader to the fascinating and rich world of geometric crystallography. The prerequisites for reading it are elementary geometry and topological notations, and basic knowledge of group theory and linear algebra. Crystallography is geometric by its nature. In many cases, geometric arguments are the most appropriate and can thus best be understood. Thus the geometric point of view is emphasized here. The approach is axiomatic start ing from discrete point sets in Euclidean space. Symmetry comes in very soon and plays a central role. Each chapter starts with the necessary definitions and then the subject is treated in two- and three-dimensional space. Subsequent sections give an extension to higher dimensions. Short historical remarks added at the end of the chapters will show the development of the theory. The chapters are main ly self-contained. Frequent cross references, as well as an extended subject index, will help the reader who is only interested in a particular subject.

Nothing: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199225869

Category: History

Page: 157

View: 9911

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An exploration of the concept of "nothing" journeys from ancient ideas and cultural traditions to the latest scientific research, discussing the history of the vacuum, theories on the nature of time and space, and other discoveries.

The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

Author: Christopher Hammond

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019156771X

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 9386

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This book provides a clear introduction to topics which are essential to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines but which are otherwise only covered in specialised and mathematically detailed texts. It shows how crystal structures may be built up from simple ideas of atomic packing and co-ordination, it develops the concepts of crystal symmetry, point and space groups by way of two dimensional examples of patterns and tilings, it explains the concept of the reciprocal lattice in simple terms and shows its importance in an understanding of light, X-ray and electron diffraction. Practical examples of the applications of these techniques are described and also the importance of diffraction in the performance of optical instruments. The book is also of value to the general reader since it shows, by biographical and historical references, how the subject has developed and thereby indicates some of the excitement of scientific discovery.

Atoms and Molecules Interacting with Light

Atomic Physics for the Laser Era

Author: Peter van der Straten,Harold Metcalf

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107090148

Category: Science

Page: 541

View: 3618

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Focusing on atom-light interactions and with numerous exercises, this in-depth textbook prepares students for research in a fast-growing field.

Crystallography

Author: Christian Bök

Publisher: Coach House Books

ISBN: 9781552451199

Category: Science

Page: 157

View: 1107

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Crystallography is the mineral science whose name means 'lucid writing.' Long out of print, but now available again in an elegant revised edition, this extraordinary work of avant-garde literature explores the boundary between science and poetry, suggesting that to write with clarity in either discipline involves the most intense thought, much like an act of 'lucid dreaming.' The book reveals that, within the sediment of everyday language, poems are the crystalline formations. -- Back cover.

Electron Crystallography

Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Author: Xiaodong Zou,Sven Hovmöller,Peter Oleynikov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199580200

Category: Science

Page: 332

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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Symmetry in Crystallography

Understanding the International Tables

Author: Paolo Radaelli

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199550654

Category: Mathematics

Page: 126

View: 5093

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A fresh approach to teaching crystallographic symmetry. Rather than being swamped by heavy algebraic notation, the reader is taken through a series of simple and beautiful examples from the visual arts, and taught how to analyse them employing the 'pictorial' diagrams used in the International Tables of Crystallography.

Symmetry

An Introduction to Group Theory and Its Applications

Author: R. McWeeny

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483226247

Category: Mathematics

Page: 262

View: 8516

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Symmetry: An Introduction to Group Theory and its Application is an eight-chapter text that covers the fundamental bases, the development of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the group theory. Chapter 1 deals with the elementary concepts and definitions, while Chapter 2 provides the necessary theory of vector spaces. Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to an opportunity of actually working with groups and representations until the ideas already introduced are fully assimilated. Chapter 5 looks into the more formal theory of irreducible representations, while Chapter 6 is concerned largely with quadratic forms, illustrated by applications to crystal properties and to molecular vibrations. Chapter 7 surveys the symmetry properties of functions, with special emphasis on the eigenvalue equation in quantum mechanics. Chapter 8 covers more advanced applications, including the detailed analysis of tensor properties and tensor operators. This book is of great value to mathematicians, and math teachers and students.

Rocks: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Jan Zalasiewicz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191038318

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 1247

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Rocks, more than anything else, underpin our lives. They make up the solid structure of the Earth and of other rocky planets, and are present at the cores of gas giant planets. We live on the rocky surface of the planet, grow our food on weathered debris derived from rocks, and we obtain nearly all of the raw materials with which we found our civilization from rocks. From the Earth's crust to building bricks, rocks contain our sense of planetary history, and are a guide to our future. In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalsiewicz looks at the nature and variety of rocks, and the processes by which they are formed. Starting from the origin of rocks and their key role in the formation of the Earth, he considers what we know about the deep rocks of the mantle and core, and what rocks can tell us about the evolution of the Earth, and looks at those found in outer space and on other planets. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Blundell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019954090X

Category: Science

Page: 151

View: 2311

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Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious phenomena, this Very Short Introduction also explores the deep implications of the theory, and its potential to revolutionize the physics and technology of the future.

Relativity: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Russell Stannard

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191574047

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 3617

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100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live for ever. And that was just the Special Theory. With the General Theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, and changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos. This authoritative and entertaining Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity accessible and understandable. Using very little mathematics, Russell Stannard explains the important concepts of relativity, from E=mc2 to black holes, and explores the theory's impact on science and on our understanding of the universe. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Crystal Structure Refinement

A Crystallographer's Guide to SHELXL

Author: Peter Muller

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198570767

Category: Science

Page: 213

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Accompanying CD-ROM contains all the files necessary to reproduce the refinements covered in the text.

Materials: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Christopher Hall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191653101

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 6740

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The study of materials is a major field of research that supports and drives innovation in technology. Using modern scientific techniques, materials scientists and engineers explore and manipulate materials, and create new ones with remarkable strength and extraordinary optical and electrical properties. In this Very Short Introduction, Christopher Hall looks at a wide range of materials, from steel, wood, and rubber, to gold, silicon, and graphene, describing how materials are used, how their properties arise from their internal structure, and how useful and novel things are made from them. He concludes by looking at how the global scale of materials consumption now threatens the goal of sustainability. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Introduction to Protein Structure

Author: Carl-Ivar Brändén,John Tooze

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0815323050

Category: Medical

Page: 410

View: 1964

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This new edition gives an up-to-date account of the principles of protein structure, with examples of key proteins in their biological context, illustrated in colour to illuminate the structural principles described in the text.

Introduction to Macromolecular Crystallography

Author: Alexander McPherson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210638

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 6962

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A comprehensive and approachable introduction to crystallography — now updated in a valuable new edition The Second Edition of this well-received book continues to offer the most concise, authoritative, and easy-to-follow introduction to the field of crystallography. Dedicated to providing a complete, basic presentation of the subject that does not assume a background in physics or math, the book's content flows logically from basic principles to methods, such as those for solving phase problems, interpretation of Patterson maps and the difference Fourier method, the fundamental theory of diffraction and the properties of crystals, and applications in determining macromolecular structure. This new edition includes a vast amount of carefully updated materials, as well as two completely new chapters on recording and compiling X-ray data and growing crystals of proteins and other macromolecules. Richly illustrated throughout to clarify difficult concepts, this book takes a non-technical approach to crystallography that is ideal for professionals and graduate students in structural biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology who are studying the subject for the first time.