Crystallography

A Very Short Introduction

Author: A. M. Glazer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198717598

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 9798

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Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Kristallstrukturbestimmung

Author: Werner Massa

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658094125

Category: Science

Page: 243

View: 1642

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In anschaulicher Form – unterstützt durch zahlreiche Abbildungen – wird in diesem aktualisierten Lehrbuch in die Methode der Kristallstrukturbestimmung eingeführt. Die kristallographischen Grundlagen und einzelne praktische Schritte der modernen Kristallstrukturbestimmung werden verständlich und nachvollziehbar erklärt.

Faszination Kristalle und Symmetrie

Einführung in die Kristallographie

Author: Frank Hoffmann

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658095814

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 9524

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Dieses Buch lädt Sie zu einer systematischen Rundreise durch die faszinierende Welt der Kristalle und ihrer Symmetrien ein. Sie werden mit der Symmetrie äußerer Kristallformen (Morphologie) ebenso vertraut gemacht wie mit ihrer inneren Struktur und lernen sämtliche Symmetrieelemente kennen, die zu Klassifizierung und Beschreibung von Kristallstrukturen benötigt werden. Das Buch erklärt die Zusammenhänge auf eine sehr anschauliche, nicht-mathematische Art und Weise und besticht durch klare, hochwertige Abbildungen. Online-Materialien begleiten das Buch; so unterstützen 3D-Modelle, die Sie am Bildschirm erkunden können, das räumliche Verständnis des Aufbaus von Kristallen. Nach der Lektüre des Werkes werden Sie nicht nur wissen, was eine Raumgruppe ist und wie die Internationalen Tabellen für Kristallographie zu lesen sind, sondern auch kristallographische Spezifikationen in Fachpublikationen deuten können. Und wenn Sie wirklich etwas nicht verstehen, haben Sie Gelegenheit, auf der Website zum Buch dem Autor Fragen zu stellen.

Evolution

eine Einführung

Author: Brian Charlesworth,Deborah Charlesworth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150187050

Category:

Page: 211

View: 9135

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Evolution auf den Punkt gebracht. Eine kurze Einführung in die Prinzipien und Fragen der Entstehung und Entwicklung des Lebens auf unserem Planeten.

Statistische Thermodynamik

Author: A. Münster

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642882560

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 852

View: 4415

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Das vorliegende Buch ist aus Vorlesungen entstanden, die seit 1949 an der Universität Frankfurt gehalten wurden. Der ursprüngliche Plan ist jedoch erheblich erweitert worden, um auch den Bedürfnissen des wissenschaftlich arbeitenden Physikers und Physikochemikers Rechnung zu tragen. Bei der Aus wahl des Stoffes habe ich mich auf die Theorie der Gleichgewichtseigenschaften der Materie beschränkt. Auch in dem dadurch gegebenen Rahmen mußte noch mals eine gewisse Auswahl stattfinden, wenn ein vernünftiger Umfang und der im wesentlichen lehrbuchartige Charakter der Darstellung gewahrt bleiben sollten. Ich habe mich dabei bemüht, wenigstens unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Methode eine gewisse Vollständigkeit zu erreichen in dem Sinne, daß alle grundsätzlich wichtigen Verfahren (nicht aber die oft zahlreichen Varianten) ausführlich be handelt sind. Es liegt in der Natur der Sache, daß dadurch auch die Mehrzahl der in diesem Zusammenhang wichtigen physikalischen Probleme erfaßt wird. Nicht aufgenommen sind daher in erster Linie solche Anwendungen, bei denen der statistische Teil der Theorie trivial ist oder wenigstens keine wesentlich neuen Gesichtspunkte bietet. Bei einigen Problemen (z. B. kritischer Punkt der Kon densation, A,-Punkt des Heliums) hielt ich eine Darstellung in diesem Rahmen noch nicht für zweckmäßig.

Symmetriebeziehungen zwischen verwandten Kristallstrukturen

Anwendungen der kristallographischen Gruppentheorie in der Kristallchemie

Author: Ulrich Müller

Publisher: Vieweg+Teubner Verlag

ISBN: 9783834817990

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 6944

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In der Kristallchemie und -physik spielen die Beziehungen zwischen den Symmetriegruppen (Raumgruppen) kristalliner Feststoffe eine besondere Rolle. In Teil 1 dieses Buches sind die mathematischen Hilfsmittel zusammengestellt: die Grundbegriffe der Kristallographie, insbesondere der Symmetrielehre, die Theorie der kristallographischen Gruppen und die Formalismen der hier gebrauchten kristallographischen Berechnungen. In Teil 2 des Buches wird die Anwendung auf Probleme der Kristallchemie aufgezeigt. Zahlreiche Beispiele illustrieren, wie man die kristallographische Gruppentheorie heranziehen kann, um Verwandtschaften zwischen Kristallstrukturen aufzuzeigen, Ordnung in die Unmenge der Kristallstrukturen zu bringen, mögliche Kristallstrukturtypen vorherzusagen, Phasenumwandlungen zu analysieren, das Phänomen der Domänen- und Zwillingsbildung in Kristallen zu verstehen und Fehler bei der Kristallstrukturanalyse zu vermeiden.

Minerals: A Very Short Introduction

Author: David Vaughan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191505331

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 9640

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Minerals existed long before any forms of life, playing a key role in the origin and evolution of life; an interaction with biological systems that we are only now beginning to understand. Exploring the traditional strand of mineralogy, which emphasises the important mineral families, the well-established analytical methods (optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction) and the dramatic developments made in techniques over recent decades, David Vaughan also introduces the modern strand of mineralogy, which explores the role minerals play in the plate tectonic cycle and how they interact with the living world. Demonstrating how minerals can be critical for human health and illness by providing essential nutrients and releasing poisons, Vaughan explores the multitude of ways in which minerals have aided our understanding of the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Symmetry: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191652741

Category: Mathematics

Page: 152

View: 2228

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In the 1800s mathematicians introduced a formal theory of symmetry: group theory. Now a branch of abstract algebra, this subject first arose in the theory of equations. Symmetry is an immensely important concept in mathematics and throughout the sciences, and its applications range across the entire subject. Symmetry governs the structure of crystals, innumerable types of pattern formation, how systems change their state as parameters vary; and fundamental physics is governed by symmetries in the laws of nature. It is highly visual, with applications that include animal markings, locomotion, evolutionary biology, elastic buckling, waves, the shape of the Earth, and the form of galaxies. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart demonstrates its deep implications, and shows how it plays a major role in the current search to unify relativity and quantum theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Introduction to Crystallography

Author: Donald E. Sands

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136809

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 508

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Clear, concise explanation of logical development of basic crystallographic concepts. Topics include crystals and lattices, symmetry, x-ray diffraction, and more. Problems, with answers. 114 illustrations. 1969 edition.

Emotion

Eine sehr kurze Einführung

Author: Dylan Evans

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783456852959

Category:

Page: 176

View: 9684

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Galileos Finger

die zehn großen Ideen der Naturwissenschaft

Author: Peter W. Atkins

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783608941258

Category: Discoveries in science

Page: 526

View: 2968

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Work: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Fineman

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019164241X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 160

View: 4743

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The image of a job captures our imagination from an early age, usually prompted by the question 'What do you want to be when you grow up?'. Work — paid, unpaid, voluntary, or obligatory — is woven into the fabric of all human societies. For many of us, it becomes part of our identity. For others it is a tedious necessity. Living is problematic without paid work, and for many it is catastrophic. Steve Fineman tells the fascinating story of work - how we strive for security, reward, and often, meaning. Looking at how we classify 'work'; the cultural and social factors that influence the way we work; the ethics of certain types of work; and the factors that will affect the future of work, from globalization to technology, this Very Short Introduction considers work as a concept and as a practical experience, drawing upon ideas from psychology, sociology, management, and social history. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Materials: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Christopher Hall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191653101

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 9889

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The study of materials is a major field of research that supports and drives innovation in technology. Using modern scientific techniques, materials scientists and engineers explore and manipulate materials, and create new ones with remarkable strength and extraordinary optical and electrical properties. In this Very Short Introduction, Christopher Hall looks at a wide range of materials, from steel, wood, and rubber, to gold, silicon, and graphene, describing how materials are used, how their properties arise from their internal structure, and how useful and novel things are made from them. He concludes by looking at how the global scale of materials consumption now threatens the goal of sustainability. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Anorganische Strukturchemie

Author: Ulrich Mueller

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3835190431

Category: Science

Page: 391

View: 7804

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In dem Lehrbuch für Studenten der Chemie werden wichtige Aspekte und Zusammenhänge der Strukturen anorganisch-chemischer Verbindungen dargelegt. Die Strukturmerkmale von Molekülverbindungen wie auch von Festkörpern werden behandelt und an anschaulichen Beispielen erläutert. So weit wie möglich werden diese Strukturen mit einfachen und eingängigen Theorien erklärt (Gillespie-Nyholm-Theorie, Ligandenfeldtheorie, Ionenradienverhältnisse, Pauling-Regeln, (8-N)-Regel u.ä.), es wird aber auch auf die moderne Bindungstheorie eingegangen. Wichtige Festkörperstrukturen werden wiederholte Male und dabei jedes Mal von einem anderen Standpunkt betrachtet. Zusammenhänge zwischen Struktur und physikalischen Eigenschaften werden herausgearbeitet. Für die 5. Auflage wurde die Darstellung auf den aktuellen Stand des Wissens gebracht und an zahlreichen Stellen erweitert.

Fascism: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Kevin Passmore

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019150856X

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 1376

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What is fascism? Is it revolutionary? Or is it reactionary? Can it be both? Fascism is notoriously hard to define. How do we make sense of an ideology that appeals to streetfighters and intellectuals alike? That is overtly macho in style, yet attracts many women? That calls for a return to tradition while maintaining a fascination with technology? And that preaches violence in the name of an ordered society? In the new edition of this Very Short Introduction, Kevin Passmore brilliantly unravels the paradoxes of one of the most important phenomena in the modern world—tracing its origins in the intellectual, political, and social crises of the late nineteenth century, the rise of fascism following World War I, including fascist regimes in Italy and Germany, and the fortunes of 'failed' fascist movements in Eastern Europe, Spain, and the Americas. He also considers fascism in culture, the new interest in transnational research, and the progress of the far right since 2002. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

Author: Ute Kolb,Kenneth Shankland,Louisa Meshi,Anatoly Avilov,William I.F David

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400755805

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 569

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The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination. This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of disciplines and materials stretching from archeometry to zeolites. As such, it is a comprehensive and valuable resource for those wishing to gain an understanding of the broad applicability of these two rapidly developing fields.

Geometric Crystallography

An Axiomatic Introduction to Crystallography

Author: P. Engel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400947607

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 5443

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In the last decade mathematical crystallography has found increasing interest. Siginificant results have been obtained by algebraic, geometric, and group theoretic methods. Also classical crystallography in three-dimen sional Euclidean space has been extended to higher dimen sions in order to understand better the dimension independent crystallographic properties. The aim of this note is to introduce the reader to the fascinating and rich world of geometric crystallography. The prerequisites for reading it are elementary geometry and topological notations, and basic knowledge of group theory and linear algebra. Crystallography is geometric by its nature. In many cases, geometric arguments are the most appropriate and can thus best be understood. Thus the geometric point of view is emphasized here. The approach is axiomatic start ing from discrete point sets in Euclidean space. Symmetry comes in very soon and plays a central role. Each chapter starts with the necessary definitions and then the subject is treated in two- and three-dimensional space. Subsequent sections give an extension to higher dimensions. Short historical remarks added at the end of the chapters will show the development of the theory. The chapters are main ly self-contained. Frequent cross references, as well as an extended subject index, will help the reader who is only interested in a particular subject.

Time-resolved Macromolecular Crystallography

Proceedings of a Royal Society Discussion Meeting, Held on 29 and 30 January 1992

Author: Royal Society (Great Britain)

Publisher: Oxford [England] ; New York : Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198557814

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 784

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X-ray diffraction studies have made outstanding contributions to structural molecular biology. The advent of high-intensity synchrotron radiation sources, coupled with the revival of the Laue method, has now made possible the rapid collection of X-ray crystallography data. As a result, proteinand virus crystallography is now progressing from studies of equilibrium structures to time-resolved studies of structures at reaction stages. The full exploitation of the synchrotron Laue method for the study of dynamic events in crystals requires many developments in physics, chemistry, andbiochemistry: the papers presented in this volume aim to report some of the striking results that have already been obtained and to discuss and identify necessary future developments.

High-Pressure Crystallography

From Fundamental Phenomena to Technological Applications

Author: Elena Boldyreva,Przemyslaw Dera

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048192609

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 9846

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This unique book is devoted to the theme of crystallographic studies at high pressure. It places emphasis on the phenomena characteristic to the compressed state of matter, as well as experimental and theoretical techniques, used to study these phenomena.