Theory and Decision

Essays in Honor of Werner Leinfellner

Author: G. Eberlein,H.A. Berghel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400938950

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

View: 2403

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This collection of articles contains contributions from a few of Werner Leinfellner's many friends and colleagues. Some of them are former students of Werner's. Others were colleagues of his at various American and European universities. Further, some have come to know Werner through his research, his long-standing editorship of Theory and Deci sion and his extensive participation in international conferences and congresses. The following articles are new to this volume. The areas covered are those in which Werner continues to play an active professional role. We offer them as a tribute to the many and multi-faceted contributions to the scientific enterprise for which Werner Leinfellner is so widely known. We believe such a festschrift to be fitting and long overdue. Because of the breadth of Werner's professional associations, it was difficult to select representatives from among his many spheres of influence. We apologize to the many scholars who could not be in cluded because of time and space considerations. Finally, we wish to express appreciation to Dean John Guilds of the University of Arkansas for providing financial support early on in the evolution of this project, to Jennifer Bauman for her bravura performance in copy-editing the manuscripts, and to our publisher at Reidel for bringing this volume to press.

Social and Personality Development

An Advanced Textbook

Author: Michael E. Lamb,Marc H. Bornstein

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 113669966X

Category: Education

Page: 536

View: 3039

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First Published in 2011. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology

An Epistemology of the Applied and Social Sciences

Author: Richard Mattessich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027708373

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 4271

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This book has been written primarily for the applied and social scientist and student who longs for an integrated picture of the foundations on which his research must ultimately rest; but hopefully the book may also serve philosophers interested in applied disciplines and in systems methodology. If integration was the major motto, the need for a method ology, appropriate to the teleological peculiarities of all applied sciences, was the main impetus behind the conception of the present work. This need I felt a long time ago in my own area of analytical and empirical research in accounting theory and management science; later I had the opportunity to teach, for almost a decade, graduate seminars in Methodology which offered particular insight into the methodological needs of students of such applied disciplines as business administration, education, engineering, infor matics, etc. Out of this effort grew the present book which among other things tries, on one side, to illuminate the difference and relationship between methods of cognition and methods of decision and on the other, to sketch a framework suitable for depicting means-end relationships in a holistic setting. I believe that a systems methodology which incorporates recent endeavours of deontic logic, decision theory, information economics and related areas would be eminently suited to break the ground for such a future framework. Yet systems theory has two major shortcomings which might prevent it from evolving into the desired methodology of applied science.

Decision Theory and Social Ethics

Issues in Social Choice

Author: H.W. Gottinger,W. Leinfellner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400998384

Category: Social Science

Page: 351

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Ethics, as one of the most respectable disciplines of philosophy, has undergone a drastic and revolutionary change in recent time. There are three main trends of this development. The first trend can be described as a tendency towards a rigorous formal and analytical language. This means simply that ethics has created beside its own formalized set theoretical language a variety of new formalized, logical and mathemati cal methods and concepts. Thus ethics has become a formalized meta or epidiscipline which is going to replace the traditional concepts, principles and ethical methods in the realm of social sciences. It is clear that a formalized form of ethics can be used more easily in social, economic and political theories if there are ethical conflicts to be solved. This first trend can be regarded as a conditio sine qua non for application in, and imposing ethical solutions on, social scientific theories. The second trend may be characterized as an association- or unification-tendency of a formalized and analytical ethics with decision theory. Decision theory as a new interdiscipline of social sciences is actually an assemblage of a variety of subtheories such as value-utility theory, game theory, collective decision theory, etc. Harsanyi has called this complex of subtheories a general theory of human behavior. Analytical or formal ethics is actually using this general theory of human behavior as a vehicle simply because this theory deals from the beginning with conflict solution, i. e.

The Sociology and Politics of Development

A Theoretical Study

Author: Baidya Nath Varma

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113685567X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

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Originally published in 1980, this work answers the crucial question of how social change should be guided in the developing countries. Professor Varma begins by posing the problems of the general scope of modernization and the general criteria used in the modernization process. He examines carefully some of the models that have been used for this purpose in the past, providing extensive summaries of the views on modernization of theorists in various social science disciplines, including sociology, politics, economics, and anthropology, and stresses the importance of these views in guiding policy decisions. The book concludes with a comparison of the development processes of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Japan and India.

Methodological Issues in Accounting Research

Theories, Methods and Issues

Author: Zahirul Hoque

Publisher: Spiramus Press Ltd

ISBN: 9781904905134

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 538

View: 7052

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A major problem confronting a researcher is which theoretical perspective is considered most apt. This book provides a good guideline as to why and how to choose a particular theory or method to study an organizational phenomenon such as accounting. The contributors to this collection are world-renowned in their respective field. Each chapter documents the latest research in accounting and control systems. The book is primarily intended for research students and academic researchers in the areas of accounting and practices in organizations. The book can also be used for undergraduate and postgraduate accounting methodology courses, and research organizations/consulting firms in the accounting and business field.

Environmental Social Sciences

Methods and Research Design

Author: Ismael Vaccaro,Eric Alden Smith,Shankar Aswani

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139491725

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

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The relationship between human communities and the environment is extremely complex. In order to resolve the issues involved with this relationship, interdisciplinary research combining natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities is necessary. In this 2010 book, specialists summarise methods and research strategies for various aspects of social research devoted to environmental issues. Each chapter is illustrated with ethnographic and environmental examples, ranging from Australia to Amazonia, from Madagascar to the United States, and from prehistoric and historic cases to contemporary rural and urban ones. It deals with climate change, deforestation, environmental knowledge, natural reserves, politics and ownership of natural resources, and the effect of differing spatial and temporal scales. Contributing to the intellectual project of interdisciplinary environmental social science, this book shows the possibilities social science can provide to environmental studies and to larger global problems and thus will be of equal interest to social and natural scientists and policy makers.

Methods of Research in Sport Sciences

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

Author: Gershon Tenenbaum,Marcy Perkins Driscoll

Publisher: Meyer & Meyer Verlag

ISBN: 1841261335

Category: Social Science

Page: 774

View: 4505

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This handbook consists of a solid theoretical and scientific rationale that is presented in a simple language. It also presents a balance between quantitative and qualitative methods of research and analysis, and advocates for problem-focused methodology, and mixed design when the questions asked by the researcher or the scientists require doing so. The most distinctive feature of the book is that the contents are presented in a hierarchy in terms of complexity

Essays on Ethics, Social Behaviour, and Scientific Explanation

Author: J.C. Harsanyi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940109327X

Category: Social Science

Page: 278

View: 9984

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When John Harsanyi came to Stanford University as a candidate for the Ph.D., I asked him why he was bothering, since it was most un likely that he had anything to learn from us. He was already a known scho lar; in addition to some papers in economics, the first two papers in this vol ume had already been published and had dazzled me by their originality and their combination of philosophical insight and technical competence. However, I am very glad I did not discourage him; whether he learned any thing worthwhile I don't know, but we all learned much from him on the foundations of the theory of games and specifically on the outcome of bar gaining. The central focus of Harsanyi's work has continued to be in the theory of games, but especially on the foundations and conceptual problems. The theory of games, properly understood, is a very broad approach to social interaction based on individually rational behavior, and it connects closely with fundamental methodological and substantive issues in social science and in ethics. An indication of the range of Harsanyi's interest in game the ory can be found in the first paper of Part B -though in fact his owncontri butions are much broader-and in the second paper the applications to the methodology of social science. The remaining papers in that section show more specifically the richness of game theory in specific applications.

Evolution and Constitution

The Evolutionary Selfconstruction of Law

Author: Erhard Oeser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402017841

Category: History

Page: 210

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Evolution and Constitution for the first time brings together case law and law based on norms. It offers the reader a survey and a new explanation of evolutionary emergence of social contracts and constitutions in the European history, and -after all - should help to build a bridge between 'two cultures', science and humanities. Evolutionary approach to law had been advocated already at the time of Darwin by English ethnologists of law like Sumner Maine and American anthropologists like Morgan. The present work is an attempt to apply evolutionary thought to the continental legal philosophy and juristic methodology. Although in the 19th century the idea of an evolution of law was present also on the continent it was burdened with reproaches of social Darwinism (proved nowadays as unreasonable). Grounds for the negotiability of evolutionary approach to complex social systems are provided by the latest research in evolutionary theory of cognition and evolutionary ethics as well as by the theory of complex systems in the sense of Friedrich von Hayek. This book provides a profounder (conformable to the biological theory of evolution) explanatory basis not only for anthropology and history of law but also for juristic methodology. In addition it offers a practical model of juristic argumentation processes, illustrated by many examples.

The Handbook of Social Work Research Methods

Author: Bruce Thyer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761919056

Category: Social Science

Page: 546

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This volume is the definitive resource for anyone doing research in social work. It details both quantitative and qualitative methods and data collection, as well as suggesting the methods appropriate to particular types of studies. It also covers issues such as ethics, gender and ethnicity, and offers advice on how to write up and present your research.

Quantitative Sociodynamics

Stochastic Methods and Models of Social Interaction Processes

Author: D. Helbing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792331926

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 9868

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Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioural changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics but they have very often proved their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces the most important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches a very fundamental dynamic model is obtained which seems to open new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models as special cases, e.g. the logistic equation, the gravity model, some diffusion models, the evolutionary game theory and the social field theory, but it also implies numerous new results. Examples concerning opinion formation, migration, social field theory; the self-organization of behavioural conventions as well as the behaviour of customers and voters are presented and illustrated by computer simulations. Quantitative Sociodynamics is relevant both for social scientists and natural scientists who are interested in the application of stochastic and synergetics concepts to interdisciplinary topics.

Theory Construction and Model-building Skills

A Practical Guide for Social Scientists

Author: James Jaccard,Jacob Jacoby

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606233408

Category: Psychology

Page: 391

View: 8843

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Meeting a crucial need for graduate students and newly minted researchers, this innovative text provides hands-on tools for generating ideas and translating them into formal theories. It is illustrated with numerous practical examples drawn from multiple social science disciplines and research settings. The authors offer clear guidance for defining constructs, thinking through relationships and processes that link constructs, and deriving new theoretical models (or building on existing ones) based on those relationships. Step by step, they show readers how to use causal analysis, mathematical modeling, simulations, and grounded and emergent approaches to theory construction. A chapter on writing about theories contains invaluable advice on crafting effective papers and grant applications. Useful pedagogical features in every chapter include: Application exercises and concept exercises Lists of key terms and engaging topical boxes Annotated suggestions for further reading. This book is intended for graduate students in a range of disciplines, including psychology, education, sociology, health, and management, as well as social scientists pursing research careers in academic or other settings. It can serve as a primary text in graduate-level courses in theory construction or as a supplemental text in courses on research methodology, theories of a particular discipline, grant writing, or the dissertation.

Decision Making and Change in Human Affairs

Proceedings of the Fifth Research Conference on Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, Darmstadt, 1–4 September, 1975

Author: H. Jungermann,G. De Zeeuw

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401012768

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

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It is only just recently that people have the tools to judge how well they are doing when making decisions. These tools were conceptualized in the seventeenth century. Since then many people have worked to sharpen the concepts, and to explore how these can be applied further. The problems of decision-making and the theory developed correspondingly have drawn the interest of mathematicians, psychologists, statisticians, economists, philosophers, organizational experts, sociologists, not only for their general relevance, but also for a more intrinsic fascination. There are quite a few institutionalized activities to disseminate results and stimulate research in decision-making. For about a decade now a European organizational structure, centered mainly around the psy chological interest in decision-making. There have been conferences in Hamburg, Amsterdam, Uxbridge, Rome and Darmstadt. Conference papers have been partly published+. The organization has thus stabilized, and its re latively long history makes it interesting to see what kind of developments occurred, within the area of interest.

Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration, Second Edition

Author: Gerald J. Miller,Kaifeng Yang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420013276

Category: Political Science

Page: 992

View: 3749

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Describing new techniques and novel applications, Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration, Second Edition demonstrates the use of tools designed to meet the increased complexity of problems in government and non-profit organizations with ever-more rigorous and systematic research. It presents detailed information on conceptualizing, planning, and implementing research projects involving a wide variety of available methodologies. Providing a reference of systematic research methods, this second edition explains how these techniques aid in understanding traditional issues, and reveals how they might be applied to answer emerging theoretical and practical questions. Following a linear, logical organization, this handbook meets systematic goals and objectives through eight groups of chapters. The first group explains the logic of inquiry and the practical problems of locating existing research. The second group deals with research design and the third examines pitfalls in measurement and data collection. The authors give practical, considered advice in the fourth section to anticipate and solve data management problems. They include numerous illustrations to supplement two separate sections devoted to basic and advanced quantitative analysis. The seventh section covers unique analytical techniques used to gain insight specific to the non-market sector’s knotty problems. The final section addresses the impact of research and describes how to overcome illusive, tricky, and sizeable barriers to influence other researchers, decision makers, foundations, and grant making institutions. With a comprehensive survey of research methods and an examination of their practical and theoretical application in the past, present, and future, Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration, Second Edition gives you the tools to make informed decisions.

The EU, ASEAN and Interregionalism

Regionalism Support and Norm Diffusion between the EU and ASEAN

Author: L. Allison

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137494816

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 6756

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Using a framework of norm diffusion to determine the EU's international actorness in the context of its relations with ASEAN, this book provides a timely and in-depth analysis of EU-ASEAN relations. By investigating three aspects of regionalism support by the EU it presents a comprehensive account of norm diffusion between the EU and ASEAN.

Perspectives on Uncertainty and Risk

The PRIMA Approach to Decision Support

Author: Marjolein Van Asselt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792366560

Category: Nature

Page: 436

View: 1667

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This volume is intended to stimulate a change in the practice of decision support, advocating an interdisciplinary approach centred on both social and natural sciences, both theory and practice. It addresses the issue of analysis and management of uncertainty and risk in decision support corresponding to the aims of Integrated Assessment. A pluralistic method is necessary to account for legitimate plural interpretations of uncertainty and multiple risk perceptions. A wide range of methods and tools is presented to contribute to adequate and effective pluralistic uncertainty management and risk analysis in decision support endeavours. Special attention is given to the development of one such approach, the Pluralistic fRamework for Integrated uncertainty Management and risk Analysis (PRIMA), of which the practical value is explored in the context of the Environmental Outlooks produced by the Dutch Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM). Audience: This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners whose work involves decision support, uncertainty management, risk analysis, environmental planning, and Integrated Assessment.

Concepts of Law

Comparative, Jurisprudential, and Social Science Perspectives

Author: Dr Lukas Heckendorn Urscheler,Dr Seán Patrick Donlan

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472401549

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 5245

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Debates surrounding the concept of law are not new. For a wide variety of reasons and in a wide variety of ways, the meaning of 'law' has long been an important part of Western thought, both within legal scholarship and beyond. The contributors to Concepts of Law are international experts from the fields of comparative law, legal philosophy, and the social sciences. Combining theoretical analyses with case studies, they explore various legal concepts and contexts from diverse national and disciplinary perspectives. Legal and normative pluralism is a theme throughout. Some chapters discuss the development of state law and legal systems. Others wrestle with law’s rhetoric and the potential utility of alternative vocabularies, e.g., 'governance' and ‘governmentality’. Others reveal the rich polyjurality of the present, from the local to the global. The result is a rich picture of both present scholarship on laws and norms and the state of contemporary legal complexity, each crossing traditional boundaries.