Deviant Women

Female Crime and Criminology in Revolutionary Russia, 1880-1930

Author: Sharon A. Kowalsky

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 314

View: 7395

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After seizing power in 1917, the Bolsheviks initiated reforms aimed at abolishing the old way of life in Russia. A new Family Code liberalized marriage procedures, promoted communal living arrangements, and abolished the concept of illegitimacy. Other decrees legalized abortion, deregulated prostitution, and emancipated women. The Bolsheviks' Marxist ideology that guided these reforms was also behind the assertion that crime, an artifact of bourgeois capitalist exploitation, would disappear under socialism. As crime persisted, Soviet criminologists—a cohort of jurists, doctors, sociologists, anthropologists, psychiatrists, statisticians, and forensic experts—were charged with examining its causes and motives to determine the most effective methods to eliminate it. The problem of female crime occupied a prominent position in criminologists' studies. In explaining “traditional” female crimes of the domestic sphere—infanticide, spouse murder, and petty theft, among others—criminologists pointed to the offenders' backwardness and ignorance, material circumstances, and even biology. Kowalsky examines the position of women in early Soviet society through the lens of deviance, exploring how Soviet criminologists understood female crime and how their attitudes helped shape the development of Soviet social and behavioral norms. Deviant Women looks at the emergence of criminology in early Soviet Russia, tracing the development of principles and theories—particularly that of female deviance—and highlighting the ways in which criminologists were able to conduct innovative social science research under the constraints of Bolshevik ideology. Kowalsky then focuses on the analyses of female crime and criminologists' attitudes concerning sexuality, geography, and class. Concluding with a close study of infanticide, the most “typical” crime committed by women, Kowalsky discusses the social attitudes that were revealed in the professional discussion of this crime. Historians of modern Russia and the USSR, scholars of gender studies, and those studying criminology will be fascinated by this original study.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

Author: Paul Knepper,Anja Johansen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019935233X

Category: Crime

Page: 720

View: 4236

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The historical study of crime has expanded in criminology during the past few decades, forming an active niche area in social history. Indeed, the history of crime is more relevant than ever as scholars seek to address contemporary issues in criminology and criminal justice. Thus, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice provides a systematic and comprehensive examination of recent developments across both fields. Chapters examine existing research, explain on-going debates and controversies, and point to new areas of interest, covering topics such as criminal law and courts, police and policing, and the rise of criminology as a field. This Handbook also analyzes some of the most pressing criminological issues of our time, including drug trafficking, terrorism, and the intersections of gender, race, and class in the context of crime and punishment. The definitive volume on the history of crime, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice is an invaluable resource for students and scholars of criminology, criminal justice, and legal history.

Women’s History in Russia

(Re)Establishing the Field

Author: Natalia Novikova,Marianna Muravyeva

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443871370

Category: History

Page: 277

View: 8698

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This collection of essays, all by Russian scholars, is the first of its kind to address a broad English-speaking audience. It presents the theories and methodologies employed by Russian national historiography to make sense of Russian gender and women's history. The essays in this volume discuss women's and gender history in Russia, highlighting sensitive areas in the Russian academic community and in Russian society in general. The book appears in the context of an intense backlash against t...

The Palgrave Handbook of Women and Gender in Twentieth-Century Russia and the Soviet Union

Author: Melanie Ilic

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113754905X

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 4650

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This handbook brings together recent and emerging research in the broad areas of women and gender studies focusing on pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and the post-Soviet Russian Federation. For the Soviet period in particular, individual chapters extend the geographic coverage of the book beyond Russia itself to examine women and gender relations in the Soviet ‘East’ (Tatarstan), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Within the boundaries of the Russian Federation, the scope moves beyond the typically studied urban centres of Moscow and St Petersburg to examine the regions (Krasnodar, Novosibirsk), rural societies and village life. Its chapters examine the construction of gender identities and shifts in gender roles during the twentieth century, as well as the changing status and roles of women vis-a-vis men in Soviet political institutions, the workplace and society more generally. This volume draws on a broad range of disciplinary and methodological approaches currently being employed in the academic field of Russian studies. The origins of the individual contributions can be identified in a range of conventional subject disciplines – history, literature, sociology, political science, cultural studies – but the chapters also adopt a cross- and inter-disciplinary approach to the topic of study. This handbook therefore builds on and extends the foundations of Russian women’s and gender studies as it has emerged and developed in recent decades, and demonstrate the international, indeed global, reach of such research

The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime

Author: Rosemary Gartner,Bill McCarthy

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199838704

Category: Law

Page: 723

View: 2957

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The editors, Rosemary Gartner and Bill McCarthy, have assembled a diverse cast of criminologists, historians, legal scholars, psychologists, and sociologists from a number of countries to discuss key concepts and debates central to the field. The Handbook includes examinations of the historical and contemporary patterns of women's and men's involvement in crime; as well as biological, psychological, and social science perspectives on gender, sex, and criminal activity. Several essays discuss the ways in which sex and gender influence legal and popular reactions to crime. An important theme throughout The Handbook is the intersection of sex and gender with ethnicity, class, age, peer groups, and community as influences on crime and justice. Individual chapters investigate both conventional topics - such as domestic abuse and sexual violence - and topics that have only recently drawn the attention of scholars - such as human trafficking, honor killing, gender violence during war, state rape, and genocide.

Social Theory of Fear

Terror, Torture, and Death in a Post-Capitalist World

Author: Geoffrey R. Skoll

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230103499

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 7303

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Fear has long served elites. They rely on fear to keep and expand their privileges and control the masses. In the current crisis of the capitalist world system, elites in the United States, along with other central countries, promote fear of crime and terrorism. They shaped these fears so that people looked to authorities for security, which permitted extension of apparatuses of coercion like police and military forces. In the face of growing oppression, rebellion against elite hegemony remains possible. This book offers an analysis of the crisis and strategies for rebellion. This ebook is participating in an experiment and is available Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) licence. Users are free to disseminate and reuse the ebook. The licence does not however permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission. To view a copy of this license visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0. For more information about the experiment visit our FAQs

Criminology For Dummies

Author: Steven Briggs

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118052668

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 9407

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Your thorough guide to comprehending and combating crime Are you fascinated by criminology, forensics, and detective work? This you-are-there guide takes you deep into the world of crime, giving you a better understanding of the dark recesses of the criminal mind and how law enforcement officials investigate crime. You'll gain real-world knowledge of the reasons for and consequences of crime, the way society responds to it, and, most important, how crime can be prevented. Enter the world of crime — understand what crime is, how it is measured, and the various ways crime affects victims and society Identify different types of crime — from white-collar crime to organized crime to terrorism, examine the nature of crime and why certain criminals are attracted to specific crimes Know who commits crimes, and why — explore different theories that attempt to explain why people commit crimes Take it to the streets — follow law enforcement officials and federal agencies as they chase and apprehend the bad guys Seek justice — meet the key players in the criminal justice system and see why and how the guilty are punished Deal with juveniles — know the differences between adult and juvenile systems, realize why youths are treated differently, and review modern methods for treatment Open the book and find: Common criminal traits The causes of violent crimes Recent efforts to secure victims' rights The processes used to solve crimes A step-by-step walkthrough of the criminal justice process Ways to recognize and fight back against crime Jobs in the criminal justice field Ten notorious, unsolved crimes

Seeing like a state

How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed

Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300128789

Category: Political Science

Page: 463

View: 5870

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Why do well-intentioned plans for improving the human condition go tragically awry? In a wide-ranging and original study, James C. Scott analyzes failed cases of large-scale authoritarian plans in a variety of fields. He argues that centrally managed social plans derail when schematic visions are imposed on long-established structures without taking into account preexisting interdependencies.

Handbook of European Homicide Research

Patterns, Explanations, and Country Studies

Author: Marieke C. A. Liem,William Alex Pridemore

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461404668

Category: Social Science

Page: 513

View: 5646

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This comprehensive work provides a sourcebook of information about the substantive, methodological, and policy-oriented aspects of homicide research in Europe. Part one of this work covers the most recent substantive and methodological information about European homicide research. The second part will contains detailed case studies on homicide research in 15-20 individual European nations. This work will be both conceptual and practical. conceptual and practical. Conceptual aspects will focus on theoretical frameworks and patterns and trends of violence in Europe. Practical aspects will examine the results of empirical research, topics relating to different data sources and the variation of legal definitions of violence throughout Europe, and policy issues relating to variation in homicide prevention and punishment of homicide offenders throughout Europe. This handbook will not only provide an up-to-date reference that brings together known information, but will also offer previously unpublished comprehensive literature reviews and original research findings. The editors’ distinctive approach is to provide readers with an English-language central source of information about the voluminous literature on European homicide research that is currently spread widely in dozens of different European and American journals.

How Was Life? Global Well-being since 1820

Global Well-being since 1820

Author: van Zanden Jan Luiten,Baten Joerg,Mira d’Ercole Marco,Rijpma Auke,Timmer Marcel

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264214267

Category:

Page: 272

View: 3508

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This book presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population.

Cultures and Crimes

Policing in Four Nations

Author: Norman Dennis,George Erdos

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781903386385

Category: Law enforcement

Page: 234

View: 8761

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Chaos of Disciplines

Author: Andrew Abbott

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226001059

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 3272

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In this vital new study, Andrew Abbott presents a fresh and daring analysis of the evolution and development of the social sciences. Chaos of Disciplines reconsiders how knowledge actually changes and advances. Challenging the accepted belief that social sciences are in a perpetual state of progress, Abbott contends that disciplines instead cycle around an inevitable pattern of core principles. New schools of thought, then, are less a reaction to an established order than they are a reinvention of fundamental concepts. Chaos of Disciplines uses fractals to explain the patterns of disciplines, and then applies them to key debates that surround the social sciences. Abbott argues that knowledge in different disciplines is organized by common oppositions that function at any level of theoretical or methodological scale. Opposing perspectives of thought and method, then, in fields ranging from history, sociology, and literature, are to the contrary, radically similar; much like fractals, they are each mutual reflections of their own distinctions.

Criminally Queer

Homosexuality and Criminal Law in Scandinavia, 1842-1999

Author: Jens Rydström,Kati Mustola

Publisher: Aksant Academic Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 311

View: 568

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This book provides a coherent history of criminal law and homosexuality in Scandinavia from 1842 to 1999, a period during which same-sex love was outlawed or subject to severe legal restrictions in the Scandinavian penal codes. This was the case in most countries in Northern Europe, but the book argues that the development in Scandinavia was different, partly determined by the structure of the welfare state. Five experienced scholars of the history of homosexuality describe how same-sex desire has been regulated in their respective countries during the past 160 years. With backgrounds in history, sociology, and gender studies, the contributors represent an interdisciplinary approach. Their contributions present for the first time a comprehensive history of homosexuality in Scandinavia. Among other things, it includes the most extensive study yet written in any language about Iceland's gay and lesbian history. Also for the first time, the book discusses in detail same-sex sexuality between women. Female homosexuality was outlawed in Eastern Scandinavia, but not in the Western parts of this region. It also analyes the modern tendency to include lesbian women in the criminal aspect of the medicaliation of homosexuality and the growing influence of medical discourse on the law. Jens Rydstrm is lecturer in history, particularly gender history, at Stockholm University (Sweden) and the author of Sinners and Citiens: Bestiality and Homosexuality in Sweden, 18801950. He is currently working on the history of laws on registered partnership in the Nordic countries. Kati Mustola is a research fellow at the Department of Sociology of the University of Helsinki (Finland). She is currently involved in research on the situation of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people in the workplace. She also specialies in Finnish lesbian and gay history. She has edited several books in lesbian and gay studies and for many years was responsible for the teaching of lesbian studies at the Christina Institute for Women's Studies at the University of Helsinki.

Renovating Russia

The Human Sciences and the Fate of Liberal Modernity, 1880–1930

Author: Daniel Beer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801468477

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 2319

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Renovating Russia is a richly comparative investigation of late Imperial and early Soviet medico-scientific theories of moral and social disorder. Daniel Beer argues that in the late Imperial years liberal psychiatrists, psychologists, and criminologists grappled with an intractable dilemma. They sought to renovate Russia, to forge a modern enlightened society governed by the rule of law, but they feared the backwardness, irrationality, and violent potential of the Russian masses. Situating their studies of degeneration, crime, mental illness, and crowd psychology in a pan-European context, Beer shows how liberals' fears of societal catastrophe were only heightened by the effects of industrial modernization and the rise of mass politics. In the wake of the orgy of violence that swept the Empire in the 1905 Revolution, these intellectual elites increasingly put their faith in coercive programs of scientific social engineering. Their theories survived liberalism's political defeat in 1917 and meshed with the Bolsheviks' radical project for social transformation. They came to sanction the application of violent transformative measures against entire classes, culminating in the waves of state repression that accompanied forced industrialization and collectivization. Renovating Russia thus offers a powerful revisionist challenge to established views of the fate of liberalism in the Russian Revolution.

Selling to the Masses

Retailing in Russia, 1880-1930

Author: Marjorie L. Hilton

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 0822977486

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 2259

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A captivating history of consumer culture in Russia from the 1880s to the early 1930s. Hilton highlights the critical role of consumerism as a vehicle for shaping class and gender identities, modernity, urbanism, and as a mechanism of state power in the transition from tsarist autocracy to Soviet socialism. She follows the evolution of retailing and retailers alike, from crude outdoor stalls to elite establishments, through the competition of private versus state-run stores during the NEP, and finally to a system of total state control, indifferent workers, rationing, and shortages under a consolidating Stalinist state.

The Invention of International Crime

A Global Issue in the Making, 1881–1914

Author: P. Knepper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230251129

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 2963

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We live in the age of international crime but when did it begin? This book examines the period when crime became an international issue (1881-1914), exploring issues such as 'world-shrinking' changes in transportation, communication and commerce, and concerns about alien criminality, white slave trading and anarchist outrages.

Sonia's Daughters

Prostitutes and Their Regulation in Imperial Russia

Author: Laurie Bernstein

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780520089167

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 4359

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"This excellent treatment of Russian prostitution during the late tsarist era . . . expands our growing knowledge of the dark side of Russian society."--David Ransel, author of "Mothers of Misery: Child Abandonment in Russia" "This book will contribute significantly to our understanding of late Imperial Russian history. Not only does it constitute the first comprehensive treatment of the phenomenon of prostitution in the Russian empire during this period, but it uses this phenomenon to illuminate a number of important issues that have concerned scholars over the past several years."--William G. Wagner, author of "Marriage, Property, and Law in Late Imperial Russia"

Killing Infants

Studies in the World Practice of Infanticide

Author: Brigitte Bechtold,Donna Cooper Graves

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 418

View: 2009

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Contains a collection of twelve essays about the practice of infanticide in different parts of the world. This book includes a multidisciplinary bibliography of the infanticide literature.

The Taming of Chance

Author: Ian Hacking

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521388849

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 4337

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This book combines detailed scientific historical research with characteristic philosophic breadth and verve.