Differential Dynamical Systems

Author: James D. Meiss

Publisher: SIAM

ISBN: 0898716357

Category: Mathematics

Page: 412

View: 6536

Differential equations are the basis for models of any physical systems that exhibit smooth change. This book combines much of the material found in a traditional course on ordinary differential equations with an introduction to the more modern theory of dynamical systems. Applications of this theory to physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering are shown through examples in such areas as population modeling, fluid dynamics, electronics, and mechanics.Differential Dynamical Systems begins with coverage of linear systems, including matrix algebra; the focus then shifts to foundational material on nonlinear differential equations, making heavy use of the contraction-mapping theorem. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with dynamical systems conceptsflow, stability, invariant manifolds, the phase plane, bifurcation, chaos, and Hamiltonian dynamics. Throughout the book, the author includes exercises to help students develop an analytical and geometrical understanding of dynamics. Many of the exercises and examples are based on applications and some involve computation; an appendix offers simple codes written in Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB software to give students practice with computation applied to dynamical systems problems. Audience This textbook is intended for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in pure and applied mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. Readers should be comfortable with elementary differential equations and linear algebra and should have had exposure to advanced calculus. Contents List of Figures; Preface; Acknowledgments; Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Linear Systems; Chapter 3: Existence and Uniqueness; Chapter 4: Dynamical Systems; Chapter 5: Invariant Manifolds; Chapter 6: The Phase Plane; Chapter 7: Chaotic Dynamics; Chapter 8: Bifurcation Theory; Chapter 9: Hamiltonian Dynamics; Appendix: Mathematical Software; Bibliography; Index

Exact Finite-Difference Schemes

Author: Sergey Lemeshevsky,Piotr Matus,Dmitriy Poliakov

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110489724

Category: Mathematics

Page: 246

View: 8451

Exact Finite-Difference Schemes is a first overview of the topic also describing the state-of-the-art in this field of numerical analysis. Construction of exact difference schemes for various parabolic and elliptic partial differential equations are discussed, including vibrations and transport problems. After this, applications are discussed, such as the discretisation of ODEs and PDEs and numerical methods for stochastic differential equations. Contents: Basic notation Preliminary results Hyperbolic equations Parabolic equations Use of exact difference schemes to construct NSFD discretizations of differential equations Exact and truncated difference schemes for boundary-value problem Exact difference schemes for stochastic differential equations Numerical blow-up time Bibliography

Dynamical System Models in the Life Sciences and Their Underlying Scientific Issues

Author: Frederic Y M Wan

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813143355

Category: Mathematics

Page: 400

View: 3190

Broadly speaking, there are two general approaches to teaching mathematical modeling: 1) the case study approach, and 2) the method based approach (that teaches mathematical techniques with applications to relevant mathematical models). This text emphasizes instead the scientific issues for modeling different phenomena. For the natural or harvested growth of a fish population, we may be interested in the evolution of the population, whether it reaches a steady state (equilibrium or cycle), stable or unstable with respect to a small perturbation from equilibrium, or whether a small change in the environment would cause a catastrophic change, etc. Each scientific issue requires an appropriate model and a different set of mathematical tools to extract information from the model. Models examined are chosen to help explain or justify empirical observations such as cocktail drug treatments are more effective and regenerations after injuries or illness are fast-tracked (compared to original developments). Volume I of this three-volume set limits its scope to phenomena and scientific issues that are modeled by ordinary differential equations (ODE). Scientific issues such as signal and wave propagation, diffusion, and shock formation involving spatial dynamics to be modeled by partial differential equations (PDE) will be treated in Vol. II. Scientific issues involving randomness and uncertainty are examined in Vol. III. Request Inspection Copy Contents: Mathematical Models and the Modeling CycleGrowth of a Population:Evolution and EquilibriumStability and BifurcationInteracting Populations:Linear InteractionsNonlinear Autonomous InteractionsHIV Dynamics and Drug TreatmentsIndex Theory, Bistability and FeedbackOptimization:The Economics of GrowthOptimization over a Planning PeriodModifications of the Basic ProblemBoundary Value Problems are More ComplexConstraints and Control:"Do Your Best" and the Maximum PrincipleChlamydia TrachomatisGenetic Instability and CarcinogenesisMathematical Modeling RevisitedAppendices:First Order ODEBasic Numerical MethodsAssignments Readership: Undergraduates in mathematical biology, mathematical modeling of dynamical systems, optimization and control, viral dynamics (infectious diseases), oncology.

A First Course in Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Dynamical Systems, and Biomathematics

Theory and Applications

Author: Laécio Carvalho de Barros,Rodney Carlos Bassanezi,Weldon Alexander Lodwick

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662533243

Category: Computers

Page: 299

View: 8865

This book provides an essential introduction to the field of dynamical models. Starting from classical theories such as set theory and probability, it allows readers to draw near to the fuzzy case. On one hand, the book equips readers with a fundamental understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of fuzzy sets and fuzzy dynamical systems. On the other, it demonstrates how these theories are used to solve modeling problems in biomathematics, and presents existing derivatives and integrals applied to the context of fuzzy functions. Each of the major topics is accompanied by examples, worked-out exercises, and exercises to be completed. Moreover, many applications to real problems are presented. The book has been developed on the basis of the authors’ lectures to university students and is accordingly primarily intended as a textbook for both upper-level undergraduates and graduates in applied mathematics, statistics, and engineering. It also offers a valuable resource for practitioners such as mathematical consultants and modelers, and for researchers alike, as it may provide both groups with new ideas and inspirations for projects in the fields of fuzzy logic and biomathematics.

Differential Geometry Applied to Dynamical Systems

Author: Jean-Marc Ginoux

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814277150

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 6920

This book aims to present a new approach called Flow Curvature Method that applies Differential Geometry to Dynamical Systems. Hence, for a trajectory curve, an integral of any n-dimensional dynamical system as a curve in Euclidean n-space, the curvature of the trajectory OCo or the flow OCo may be analytically computed. Then, the location of the points where the curvature of the flow vanishes defines a manifold called flow curvature manifold. Such a manifold being defined from the time derivatives of the velocity vector field, contains information about the dynamics of the system, hence identifying the main features of the system such as fixed points and their stability, local bifurcations of codimension one, center manifold equation, normal forms, linear invariant manifolds (straight lines, planes, hyperplanes). In the case of singularly perturbed systems or slow-fast dynamical systems, the flow curvature manifold directly provides the slow invariant manifold analytical equation associated with such systems. Also, starting from the flow curvature manifold, it will be demonstrated how to find again the corresponding dynamical system, thus solving the inverse problem.

Hysteresis Phenomena in Biology

Author: Hamid Reza Noori

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642382185

Category: Mathematics

Page: 45

View: 9698

The occurrence of hysteresis phenomena has been traditionally associated with mechanical and magnetic properties of materials. However, recent studies on the dynamics of biological processes suggest switch-like behavior that could be described by mathematical models of hysteresis. This book presents the milestones and perspectives of biological hysteresis and provides a comprehensive and application-oriented introduction to this subject. The target audience primarily comprises researchers but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Matrix Diagonal Stability in Systems and Computation

Author: Eugenius Kaszkurewicz,Amit Bhaya

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461213460

Category: Mathematics

Page: 267

View: 7789

This monograph presents a collection of results, observations, and examples related to dynamical systems described by linear and nonlinear ordinary differential and difference equations. In particular, dynamical systems that are susceptible to analysis by the Liapunov approach are considered. The naive observation that certain "diagonal-type" Liapunov functions are ubiquitous in the literature attracted the attention of the authors and led to some natural questions. Why does this happen so often? What are the spe cial virtues of these functions in this context? Do they occur so frequently merely because they belong to the simplest class of Liapunov functions and are thus more convenient, or are there any more specific reasons? This monograph constitutes the authors' synthesis of the work on this subject that has been jointly developed by them, among others, producing and compiling results, properties, and examples for many years, aiming to answer these questions and also to formalize some of the folklore or "cul ture" that has grown around diagonal stability and diagonal-type Liapunov functions. A natural answer to these questions would be that the use of diagonal type Liapunov functions is frequent because of their simplicity within the class of all possible Liapunov functions. This monograph shows that, although this obvious interpretation is often adequate, there are many in stances in which the Liapunov approach is best taken advantage of using diagonal-type Liapunov functions. In fact, they yield necessary and suffi cient stability conditions for some classes of nonlinear dynamical systems.

Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems

Author: Muthusamy Lakshmanan,Dharmapuri Vijayan Senthilkumar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642149382

Category: Science

Page: 313

View: 2043

Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different branches of science and technology as well as to the synchronization of their coupled versions. Last but not least, the presentation as a whole strives for a balance between the necessary mathematical description of the basics and the detailed presentation of real-world applications.

Current Challenges in Stability Issues for Numerical Differential Equations

Cetraro, Italy 2011, Editors: Luca Dieci, Nicola Guglielmi

Author: Wolf-Jürgen Beyn,Luca Dieci,Nicola Guglielmi,Ernst Hairer,Jesús María Sanz-Serna,Marino Zennaro

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319013009

Category: Mathematics

Page: 313

View: 8095

This volume addresses some of the research areas in the general field of stability studies for differential equations, with emphasis on issues of concern for numerical studies. Topics considered include: (i) the long time integration of Hamiltonian Ordinary DEs and highly oscillatory systems, (ii) connection between stochastic DEs and geometric integration using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, (iii) computation of dynamic patterns in evolutionary partial DEs, (iv) decomposition of matrices depending on parameters and localization of singularities, and (v) uniform stability analysis for time dependent linear initial value problems of ODEs. The problems considered in this volume are of interest to people working on numerical as well as qualitative aspects of differential equations, and it will serve both as a reference and as an entry point into further research.

Geometric Theory of Discrete Nonautonomous Dynamical Systems

Author: Christian Pötzsche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642142575

Category: Mathematics

Page: 399

View: 4729

The goal of this book is to provide an approach to the corresponding geometric theory of nonautonomous discrete dynamical systems in infinite-dimensional spaces by virtue of 2-parameter semigroups (processes).

Mathematical Modelling in Biomedicine

Optimal Control of Biomedical Systems

Author: Y. Cherruault

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027721495

Category: Mathematics

Page: 258

View: 2646

Approach your problems from the right It isn't that they can't see the solution. It end and begin with the answers. Then is that they can't see the problem. one day, perhaps you will find the final question. G.K. Chesterton. The Scandal of Father Brown 'The point of a Pin'. 'The Hermit Clad in Crane Feathers' in R. van Gulik's The Chinese Maze Murders. Growing specialization and diversification have brought a host of monographs and textbooks on increasingly specialized topics. However, the "tree" of knowledge of mathematics and related fields does not grow only by putting forth new branches. It also happens, quite often in fact, that branches which were thought to be completely disparate are suddenly seen to be related. Further, the kind and level of sophistication of mathematics applied in various sciences has changed drastically in recent years: measure theory is used (non-trivially) in regional and theoretical economics; algebraic geometry interacts with physics; the Minkowsky lemma, cod ing theory and the structure of water meet one another in packing and covering theory; quantum fields, crystal defects and mathematical pro gramming profit from homotopy theory; Lie algebras are relevant to filtering; and prediction and electrical engineering can use Stein spaces.

Mathematical Epidemiology

Author: Fred Brauer,Pauline van den Driessche,J. Wu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540789103

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 5128

Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downloaded at the web site of the Centre for Disease Modeling (www.cdm.yorku.ca).

Projected Dynamical Systems and Variational Inequalities with Applications

Author: Anna Nagurney,Ding Zhang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146152301X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 296

View: 2809

Equilibrium is a concept used in operations research and economics to understand the interplay of factors and problems arising from competitive systems in the economic world. The problems in this area are large and complex and have involved a variety of mathematical methodologies. In this monograph, the authors have widened the scope of theoretical work with a new approach, `projected dynamical systems theory', to previous work in variational inequality theory. While most classical work in this area is static, the introduction to the theory of projected dynamical systems will allow many real-life dynamic situations and problems to be handled and modeled. This monograph includes: a new theoretical approach, `projected dynamical system', which allows the researcher to model real-life situations more accurately; new mathematical methods allowing researchers to combine other theoretical approaches with the projected dynamical systems approach; a framework in which research can adequately model natural, financial and human (real life) situations in competitive equilibrium problems; the computational and numerical methods for the implementation of the methods and theory discussed in the book; stability analysis, algorithms and computational procedures are offered for each set of applications.

Dynamic Speech Models

Author: Li Deng

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598290657

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 118

View: 6952

Speech dynamics refer to the temporal characteristics in all stages of the human speech communication process. This speech “chain” starts with the formation of a linguistic message in a speaker's brain and ends with the arrival of the message in a listener's brain. Given the intricacy of the dynamic speech process and its fundamental importance in human communication, this monograph is intended to provide a comprehensive material on mathematical models of speech dynamics and to address the following issues: How do we make sense of the complex speech process in terms of its functional role of speech communication? How do we quantify the special role of speech timing? How do the dynamics relate to the variability of speech that has often been said to seriously hamper automatic speech recognition? How do we put the dynamic process of speech into a quantitative form to enable detailed analyses? And finally, how can we incorporate the knowledge of speech dynamics into computerized speech analysis and recognition algorithms? The answers to all these questions require building and applying computational models for the dynamic speech process. What are the compelling reasons for carrying out dynamic speech modeling? We provide the answer in two related aspects. First, scientific inquiry into the human speech code has been relentlessly pursued for several decades. As an essential carrier of human intelligence and knowledge, speech is the most natural form of human communication. Embedded in the speech code are linguistic (as well as para-linguistic) messages, which are conveyed through four levels of the speech chain. Underlying the robust encoding and transmission of the linguistic messages are the speech dynamics at all the four levels. Mathematical modeling of speech dynamics provides an effective tool in the scientific methods of studying the speech chain. Such scientific studies help understand why humans speak as they do and how humans exploit redundancy and variability by way of multitiered dynamic processes to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of human speech communication. Second, advancement of human language technology, especially that in automatic recognition of natural-style human speech is also expected to benefit from comprehensive computational modeling of speech dynamics. The limitations of current speech recognition technology are serious and are well known. A commonly acknowledged and frequently discussed weakness of the statistical model underlying current speech recognition technology is the lack of adequate dynamic modeling schemes to provide correlation structure across the temporal speech observation sequence. Unfortunately, due to a variety of reasons, the majority of current research activities in this area favor only incremental modifications and improvements to the existing HMM-based state-of-the-art. For example, while the dynamic and correlation modeling is known to be an important topic, most of the systems nevertheless employ only an ultra-weak form of speech dynamics; e.g., differential or delta parameters. Strong-form dynamic speech modeling, which is the focus of this monograph, may serve as an ultimate solution to this problem. After the introduction chapter, the main body of this monograph consists of four chapters. They cover various aspects of theory, algorithms, and applications of dynamic speech models, and provide a comprehensive survey of the research work in this area spanning over past 20~years. This monograph is intended as advanced materials of speech and signal processing for graudate-level teaching, for professionals and engineering practioners, as well as for seasoned researchers and engineers specialized in speech processing