Discrete Causal Theory

Emergent Spacetime and the Causal Metric Hypothesis

Author: Benjamin F. Dribus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331950083X

Category: Science

Page: 558

View: 7758

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This book evaluates and suggests potentially critical improvements to causal set theory, one of the best-motivated approaches to the outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Spacetime structure is of central importance to physics beyond general relativity and the standard model. The causal metric hypothesis treats causal relations as the basis of this structure. The book develops the consequences of this hypothesis under the assumption of a fundamental scale, with smooth spacetime geometry viewed as emergent. This approach resembles causal set theory, but differs in important ways; for example, the relative viewpoint, emphasizing relations between pairs of events, and relationships between pairs of histories, is central. The book culminates in a dynamical law for quantum spacetime, derived via generalized path summation.

Effective Spacetime

Understanding Emergence in Effective Field Theory and Quantum Gravity

Author: Karen Crowther

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319395084

Category: Science

Page: 205

View: 2557

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This book discusses the notion that quantum gravity may represent the "breakdown" of spacetime at extremely high energy scales. If spacetime does not exist at the fundamental level, then it has to be considered "emergent", in other words an effective structure, valid at low energy scales. The author develops a conception of emergence appropriate to effective theories in physics, and shows how it applies (or could apply) in various approaches to quantum gravity, including condensed matter approaches, discrete approaches, and loop quantum gravity.

Beyond Peaceful Coexistence

The Emergence of Space, Time and Quantum

Author: Ignazio Licata

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783268336

Category: Science

Page: 740

View: 5644

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"It may be that a real synthesis of quantum and relativity theories requires not just technical developments but radical conceptual renewal." J S Bell Beyond Peaceful Coexistence: The Emergence of Space, Time and Quantum brings together leading academics in mathematics and physics to address going beyond the 'peaceful coexistence' of space-time descriptions (local and continuous ones) and quantum events (discrete and non-commutative ones). Formidable challenges waiting beyond the Standard Model require a new semantic consistency within the theories in order to build new ways of understanding, working and relating to them. The original A. Shimony meaning of the peaceful coexistence (the collapse postulate and non-locality) appear to be just the tip of the iceberg in relation to more serious fundamental issues across physics as a whole. Chapters in this book present perspectives on emergent, discrete, geometrodynamic and topological approaches, as well as a new interpretative spectrum of quantum theories after Copenhagen, discrete time theories, time-less approaches and 'super-fluid' pictures of space-time. As well as stimulating further research among established theoretical physicists, the book can also be used in courses on the philosophy and mathematics of theoretical physics. Contents:Foreword (Gerard 't Hooft)From Peaceful Coexistence to Co-Emergence (Ignazio Licata)The Algebraic Way (B J Hiley)Fermi Blobs and the Symplectic Camel: A Geometric Picture of Quantum States (Maurice A de Gosson)Space–Time in Quantum Gravity: Does Space–Time have Quantum Properties? (Reiner Hedrich)Introduction to the Quantum Theory of Elementary Cycles (Donatello Dolce)Observers and Reality (George Jaroszkiewicz)The Stability of Physical Theories Principle (R Vilela Mendes)Factory of Realities: On the Emergence of Virtual Spatiotemporal Structures (Romàn R Zapatrin)Space–Time from Topos Quantum Theory (Cecilia Flori)From Born Reciprocity to Reciprocal Relativity: A Paradigm for Space–Time Physics (Peter Jarvis)On Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Space–Time and Quantum Gravity (Joakim Munkhammar)World Crystal Model of Gravity (Hagen Kleinert)Quantum Features of Natural Cellular Automata (Hans-Thomas Elze)Structurally Dynamic Cellular Networks as Models for Planck-Scale Physics and the Quantum Vacuum (Manfred Requardt)On a Time–Space Operator (and other Non-Self-adjoint Operators) for Observables in QM and QFT (Erasmo Recami, Michel Zamboni-Rached and Ignazio Licata)Emergent Space–Time (George Chapline)The Idea of a Stochastic Space–Time: Theory and Experiments (M Consoli and A Pluchino)... And Kronos Ate His Sons (Giuseppe Vitiello)The Emergence of Space–Time: Transactions and Causal Sets (Ruth E Kastner)An Adynamical, Graphical Approach to Quantum Gravity and Unification (W M Stuckey, Michael Silberstein and Timothy McDevitt)Is Bohr's Challenge Still Relevant? (Leonardo Chiatti)In and out of the screen. On Some New Considerations about Localization and Delocalization in Archaic Theory (Ignazio Licata)Schrödinger–Milne Big Bang — Creating a "Universe of Threeness" (Geoffrey F Chew)Quantized Fields à la Clifford and Unification (Matej Pavšič)Non-commutative Einstein, almost Kähler–Finsler and Quantum Deformations (Sergiu I Vacaru) Readership: Theoretical physicists and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics of theoretical physics.

The Problem of Time

Quantum Mechanics Versus General Relativity

Author: Edward Anderson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319588486

Category: Science

Page: 920

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This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon entertaining background independence in classical (rather than quantum) physics. By this development, and interpreting shape theory as modelling background independence, this book further establishes background independence as a field of study. Background independent mechanics, as well as minisuperspace (spatially homogeneous) models of GR and perturbations thereabout are used to illustrate these points. As hitherto formulated, the different facets of the Problem of Time greatly interfere with each others' attempted resolutions. This book explains how, none the less, a local resolution of the Problem of Time can be arrived at after various reconceptualizations of the facets and reformulations of their mathematical implementation. Self-contained appendices on mathematical methods for basic and foundational quantum gravity are included. Finally, this book outlines how supergravity is refreshingly different from GR as a realization of background independence, and what background independence entails at the topological level and beyond.

General Relativity

Author: Robert M. Wald

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226870373

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 4112

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"Wald's book is clearly the first textbook on general relativity with a totally modern point of view; and it succeeds very well where others are only partially successful. The book includes full discussions of many problems of current interest which are not treated in any extant book, and all these matters are considered with perception and understanding."—S. Chandrasekhar "A tour de force: lucid, straightforward, mathematically rigorous, exacting in the analysis of the theory in its physical aspect."—L. P. Hughston, Times Higher Education Supplement "Truly excellent. . . . A sophisticated text of manageable size that will probably be read by every student of relativity, astrophysics, and field theory for years to come."—James W. York, Physics Today

Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale

Contemporary Theories in Quantum Gravity

Author: Craig Callender,Nick Huggett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521664455

Category: Science

Page: 365

View: 5263

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Was the first book to examine the exciting area of overlap between philosophy and quantum mechanics with chapters by leading experts from around the world.

The Physics of Reality

Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos : Proceedings of the 8th Symposium Honoring Mathematical Physicist Jean-Pierre Vigier, Covent Garden, London, UK, 15 -18 August 2012

Author: Richard L. Amoroso

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814504785

Category: Electronic books

Page: 552

View: 6588

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A truly Galilean-class volume, this book introduces a new method in theory formation, completing the tools of epistemology. It covers a broad spectrum of theoretical and mathematical physics by researchers from over 20 nations from four continents. Like Vigier himself, the Vigier symposia are noted for addressing avant-garde, cutting-edge topics in contemporary physics. Among the six proceedings honoring J.-P. Vigier, this is perhaps the most exciting one as several important breakthroughs are introduced for the first time. The most interesting breakthrough in view of the recent NIST experimental violations of QED is a continuation of the pioneering work by Vigier on tight bound states in hydrogen. The new experimental protocol described not only promises empirical proof of large-scale extra dimensions in conjunction with avenues for testing string theory, but also implies the birth of the field of unified field mechanics, ushering in a new age of discovery. Work on quantum computing redefines the qubit in a manner that the uncertainty principle may be routinely violated. Other breakthroughs occur in the utility of quaternion algebra in extending our understanding of the nature of the fermionic singularity or point particle. There are several other discoveries of equal magnitude, making this volume a must-have acquisition for the library of any serious forward-looking researchers.

A Different Universe

Reinventing Physics From the Bottom Down

Author: Robert B. Laughlin

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786722185

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 9681

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In this age of superstring theories and Big Bang cosmology, we're used to thinking of the unknown as impossibly distant from our everyday lives. But in A Different Universe, Nobel Laureate Robert Laughlin argues that the scientific frontier is right under our fingers. Instead of looking for ultimate theories, Laughlin considers the world of emergent properties-meaning the properties, such as the hardness and shape of a crystal, that result from the organization of large numbers of atoms. Laughlin shows us how the most fundamental laws of physics are in fact emergent. A Different Universe is a truly mind-bending book that shows us why everything we think about fundamental physical laws needs to change.

Questioning the Foundations of Physics

Which of Our Fundamental Assumptions Are Wrong?

Author: Anthony Aguirre,Brendan Foster,Zeeya Merali

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319130455

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 2325

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The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of readers with a basic grounding in physics. The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality, but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources.

Quantum Gravity

Author: Carlo Rovelli

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139456156

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Quantum gravity is perhaps the most important open problem in fundamental physics. It is the problem of merging quantum mechanics and general relativity, the two great conceptual revolutions in the physics of the twentieth century. The loop and spinfoam approach, presented in this 2004 book, is one of the leading research programs in the field. The first part of the book discusses the reformulation of the basis of classical and quantum Hamiltonian physics required by general relativity. The second part covers the basic technical research directions. Appendices include a detailed history of the subject of quantum gravity, hard-to-find mathematical material, and a discussion of some philosophical issues raised by the subject. This fascinating text is ideal for graduate students entering the field, as well as researchers already working in quantum gravity. It will also appeal to philosophers and other scholars interested in the nature of space and time.

Re-Thinking Time at the Interface of Physics and Philosophy

The Forgotten Present

Author: Albrecht von Müller,Thomas Filk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319104462

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 5012

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The current volume of the Parmenides Series “On Thinking” addresses our deepest and most personal experience of the world, the experience of “the present,” from a modern perspective combining physics and philosophy. Many prominent researchers have contributed articles to the volume, in which they present models and express their opinions on and, in some cases, also their skepticism about the subject and how it may be (or may not be) addressed, as well as which aspects they consider most relevant in this context. While Einstein might have once hoped that “the present” would find its place in the theory of general relativity, in a later discussion with Carnap he expressed his disappointment that he was never able to achieve this goal. This collection of articles provides a unique overview of different modern approaches, representing not only a valuable summary for experts, but also a nearly inexhaustible source of profound and novel ideas for those who are simply interested in this question.

The Ontology of Spacetime

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080461885

Category: Science

Page: 306

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This book contains selected papers from the First International Conference on the Ontology of Spacetime. Its fourteen chapters address two main questions: first, what is the current status of the substantivalism/relationalism debate, and second, what about the prospects of presentism and becoming within present-day physics and its philosophy? The overall tenor of the four chapters of the book’s first part is that the prospects of spacetime substantivalism are bleak, although different possible positions remain with respect to the ontological status of spacetime. Part II and Part III of the book are devoted to presentism, eternalism, and becoming, from two different perspectives. In the six chapters of Part II it is argued, in different ways, that relativity theory does not have essential consequences for these issues. It certainly is true that the structure of time is different, according to relativity theory, from the one in classical theory. But that does not mean that a decision is forced between presentism and eternalism, or that becoming has proved to be an impossible concept. It may even be asked whether presentism and eternalism really offer different ontological perspectives at all. The writers of the last four chapters, in Part III, disagree. They argue that relativity theory is incompatible with becoming and presentism. Several of them come up with proposals to go beyond relativity, in order to restore the prospects of presentism. · Space and time in present-day physics and philosophy · Introduction from scratch of the debates surrounding time · Broad spectrum of approaches, coherently represented

Approaches to Quantum Gravity

Toward a New Understanding of Space, Time and Matter

Author: Daniele Oriti

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521860458

Category: Science

Page: 583

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Containing contributions from leading researchers in this field, this book provides a complete overview of this field from the frontiers of theoretical physics research for graduate students and researchers. It introduces the most current approaches to this problem, and reviews their main achievements.

Rhythms of the Brain

Author: Gyorgy Buzsaki

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019804125X

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 909

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This book provides eloquent support for the idea that spontaneous neuron activity, far from being mere noise, is actually the source of our cognitive abilities. In a sequence of "cycles," György Buzsáki guides the reader from the physics of oscillations through neuronal assembly organization to complex cognitive processing and memory storage. His clear, fluid writing-accessible to any reader with some scientific knowledge-is supplemented by extensive footnotes and references that make it just as gratifying and instructive a read for the specialist. The coherent view of a single author who has been at the forefront of research in this exciting field, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in our rapidly evolving understanding of the brain.

Relativity and the Dimensionality of the World

Author: Vesselin Petkov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402063172

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 4744

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The main focus of this volume is the question: is spacetime nothing more than a mathematical space (which describes the evolution in time of the ordinary three-dimensional world) or is it a mathematical model of a real four-dimensional world with time entirely given as the fourth dimension? The book contains fourteen invited papers which either directly address the main question of the nature of spacetime or explore issues related to it.

Topological Geometrodynamics

Revised Edition

Author: Matti Pitkanen

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1681081792

Category: Science

Page: 920

View: 7015

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Topological geometrodynamics (TGD) is a modification of the theory of general relativity inspired by the problems related to the definition of inertial and gravitational energies in the earlier hypotheses. TGD is also a generalization of super string models. TGD brings forth an elegant theoretical projection of reality and builds upon the work by renowned scientists (Wheeler, Feynman, Penrose, Einstein, Josephson to name a few). In TGD, Physical space-time planes are visualized as four-dimensional surfaces in a certain 8-dimensional space (H). The choice of H is fixed by symmetries of standard model and leads to a geometric mapping of known classical fields and elementary particle numbers. TGD differs from Einstein’s geometrodynamics in the way space-time planes or ‘sheets’ are lumped together. Extending the theory based on fusing number concepts implies a further generalisation of the space-time concept allowing the identification of space-time correlates of cognition and intentionality. Additionally, zero energy ontology forces an extension of quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness and a hierarchy of phases is identified. Dark matter is thus predicted with far reaching implications for the understanding of consciousness and living systems. Therefore, it sets a solid foundation for modeling our universe in geometric terms. Topological Geometrodynamics: An Overview explains basic and advanced concepts about TGD. The book covers introductory information and classical TGD concepts before delving into twistor-space theory, particle physics, infinite-dimensional spinor geometry, generalized number theory, Planck constants, and the applications of TGD theory in research. The book is a valuable guide to TDG theory for researchers and advanced graduates in theoretical physics and cosmology.

Quantized Detector Networks

The Theory of Observation

Author: George Jaroszkiewicz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108548512

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Scientists have been debating the meaning of quantum mechanics for over a century. This book for graduate students and researchers gets to the root of the problem; the contextual nature of empirical truth, the laws of observation and how these impact on our understanding of quantum physics. Bridging the gap between non-relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, this novel approach to quantum mechanics extends the standard formalism to cover the observer and their apparatus. The author demystifies some of the aspects of quantum mechanics that have traditionally been regarded as extraordinary, such as wave-particle duality and quantum superposition, by emphasizing the scientific principles rather than the mathematical modelling involved. Including key experiments and worked examples throughout to encourage the reader to focus on empirically sound concepts, this book avoids metaphysical speculation and also alerts the reader to the use of computer algebra to explore quantum experiments of virtually limitless complexity.

Causation and Its Basis in Fundamental Physics

Author: Douglas Kutach

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019993620X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 334

View: 6803

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This book is the first comprehensive attempt to solve what Hartry Field has called "the central problem in the metaphysics of causation": the problem of reconciling the need for causal notions in the special sciences with the limited role of causation in physics. If the world evolves fundamentally according to laws of physics, what place can be found for the causal regularities and principles identified by the special sciences? Douglas Kutach answers this question by invoking a novel distinction between fundamental and derivative reality and a complementary conception of reduction. He then constructs a framework that allows all causal regularities from the sciences to be rendered in terms of fundamental relations. By drawing on a methodology that focuses on explaining the results of specially crafted experiments, Kutach avoids the endless task of catering to pre-theoretical judgments about causal scenarios. This volume is a detailed case study that uses fundamental physics to elucidate causation, but technicalities are eschewed so that a wide range of philosophers can profit. The book is packed with innovations: new models of events, probability, counterfactual dependence, influence, and determinism. These lead to surprising implications for topics like Newcomb's paradox, action at a distance, Simpson's paradox, and more. Kutach explores the special connection between causation and time, ultimately providing a never-before-presented explanation for the direction of causation. Along the way, readers will discover that events cause themselves, that low barometer readings do cause thunderstorms after all, and that we humans routinely affect the past more than we affect the future.

Lectures on Hyperhamiltonian Dynamics and Physical Applications

Author: Giuseppe Gaeta,Miguel A. Rodríguez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331954358X

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 2358

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This book provides the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyperhamiltonian dynamics, together with a discussion of physical applications. In addition, some open problems are discussed. Hyperhamiltonian mechanics represents a generalization of Hamiltonian mechanics, in which the role of the symplectic structure is taken by a hyperkähler one (thus there are three Kähler/symplectic forms satisfying quaternionic relations). This has proved to be of use in the description of physical systems with spin, including those which do not admit a Hamiltonian formulation. The book is the first monograph on the subject, which has previously been treated only in research papers.

Good and Real

Demystifying Paradoxes from Physics to Ethics

Author: Gary L. Drescher

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262042339

Category: Philosophy

Page: 347

View: 2223

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Examining a series of provocative paradoxes about consciousness, choice, ethics, andother topics, Good and Real tries to reconcile a purely mechanical view of the universe with keyaspects of our subjective impressions of our own existence.