Documenting Individual Identity

The Development of State Practices in the Modern World

Author: Jane Caplan,John Torpey

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691186855

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 7016

This book addresses one of the least studied yet most pervasive aspects of modern life--the techniques and mechanisms by which official agencies certify individual identity. From passports and identity cards to labor registration and alien documentation, from fingerprinting to much-debated contemporary issues such as DNA-typing, body surveillance, and the catastrophic results of colonial-era identity documentation in postcolonial Rwanda, Documenting Individual Identity offers the most comprehensive historical overview of this fascinating topic ever published. The nineteen essays in this volume represent the collaborative effort of historians, sociologists, historians of science, political scientists, economists, and specialists in international relations. Together they cover a period from the emergence of systematic practices of written identification in early modern Europe through to the present day, and a geographic range that includes Europe, the Soviet Union, North and South America, and Africa. While the book is attuned to the nefarious possibilities of states' increasing capacity to identify individuals, it recognizes that these same techniques also certify citizens' eligibility for significant positive rights, such as welfare benefits and voting. Unprecedented in subject and scope, Documenting Individual Identity promises to shape a whole new field of research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and is of broad public and academic significance. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Valentin Groebner, Gérard Noiriel, Charles Steinwedel, Marc Garcelon, Jon Agar, Martine Kaluszynski, Peter Becker, Anne Joseph, Kristin Ruggiero, Andrea Geselle, Andreas Fahrmeier, Leo Lucassen, Pamela Sankar, David Lyon, Gary Marx, Dita Vogel, and Timothy Longman.

Identifying the English

A History of Personal Identification 1500 to the Present

Author: Edward Higgs

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441138013

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 5972

Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.

Our Biometric Future

Facial Recognition Technology and the Culture of Surveillance

Author: Kelly Gates

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814732097

Category: Computers

Page: 263

View: 2161

Since the 1960s, a significant effort has been underway to program computers to “see” the human face—to develop automated systems for identifying faces and distinguishing them from one another—commonly known as Facial Recognition Technology. While computer scientists are developing FRT in order to design more intelligent and interactive machines, businesses and states agencies view the technology as uniquely suited for “smart” surveillance—systems that automate the labor of monitoring in order to increase their efficacy and spread their reach. Tracking this technological pursuit, Our Biometric Future identifies FRT as a prime example of the failed technocratic approach to governance, where new technologies are pursued as shortsighted solutions to complex social problems. Culling news stories, press releases, policy statements, PR kits and other materials, Kelly Gates provides evidence that, instead of providing more security for more people, the pursuit of FRT is being driven by the priorities of corporations, law enforcement and state security agencies, all convinced of the technology’s necessity and unhindered by its complicated and potentially destructive social consequences. By focusing on the politics of developing and deploying these technologies, Our Biometric Future argues not for the inevitability of a particular technological future, but for its profound contingency and contestability.

Identification and Registration Practices in Transnational Perspective

People, Papers and Practices

Author: J. Brown,I. About,G. Lonergan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137367318

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 809

This collection examines the subject of identification and surveillance from 16th C English parish registers to 21st C DNA databases. The contributors, who range from historians to legal specialists, provide an insight into the historical development behind such issues as biometric identification, immigration control and personal data use.

Synchrone Welten

Zeitenräume jüdischer Geschichte

Author: Dan Diner

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525350904

Category: History

Page: 318

View: 2384

English summary: This first volume of a new series of essays on Jewish history and culture shows the broad focus of studies initiated by the Simon Dubnow Institute, Leipzig. Its first concern is to integrate Jewish history in terms of content and method into universal history. Jewish history - conceived as a plural history of the Jews in complex intercultural historical spaces - is as a matter of basic principle investigated in its transnational, European context. German description: Mit Synchrone Welten startet eine neue Reihe des Leipziger Simon-Dubnow-Instituts, die Essays zur judischen Geschichte und Kultur prasentiert. Der von Dan Diner, dem Direktor des Instituts, herausgegebene erste Band versammelt eine Reihe von Studien, die sich mit den Besonderheiten der ostmitteleuropaischen judischen Geschichtserfahrung beschaftigen. Hier, wie in allen weiteren Banden dieser Reihe, werden Fragen judischer Geschichte stets im Kontext der allgemeinen Geschichte prasentiert, als Erfahrungen einer nicht-territorialen Bevolkerungsgruppe im Zeitalter von Nationalstaat und Nationalismus. Dan Diners Uberlegungen zum sakral versiegelten Zeitempfinden, wie es in Toldot, dem hebraischen Begriff fur Geschichte enthalten ist, leiten den Band ein. Die weiteren Beitrage befassen sich mit mikrologisch gearbeiteten Epochenfragen judischer Geschichte in der Spannung zwischen vormoderner Institution und modernen Integrationserwartungen. Reflektiert werden diasporische Lebensformen, Phanomene von Mobilitat, Migration und Urbanitat, sowie Metaphern judischer Existenz in der Moderne. Die Reihe wird mit Essays zum Luftmenschentum (Nicolas Berg) und zur judischen Diplomatie (Markus Kirchhoff) fortgesetzt.

Technology, Literacy, and the Evolution of Society

Implications of the Work of Jack Goody

Author: David R. Olson,Michael Cole

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134813058

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 384

View: 5436

Inspired by the seminal work of Jack Goody, a historical anthropologist specializing in the study of social structure and change, Technology, Literacy, and the Evolution of Society gathers diverse perspectives of 20 distinguished historians, anthropologists, psychologists, and educators to address the role of technologies in social stability and change in traditional and modern societies. In this interdisciplinary text, scholars examine the ways in which local languages and cultural traditions, modes of production and communication, patterns of local knowledge and authority affect how people and cultures resist or accommodate demands for such change. With work from acclaimed contributors, this pioneering volume is the first analysis of the influence of Jack Goody. It provides a thorough look at the relations between societies of different practices, customs, and values, determining the mechanisms behind sociocultural stability and change. Technology, Literacy, and the Evolution of Society is intended for graduate students and academics in history, anthropology, psychology, sociology, and education, as well as academics and all others interested in pursuing the directions and implications of the work and influence of Jack Goody.

Fantasies of Identification

Disability, Gender, Race

Author: Ellen Samuels

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479821373

Category: Social Science

Page: 273

View: 406

In the mid-nineteenth-century United States, as it became increasingly difficult to distinguish between bodies understood as black, white, or Indian; able-bodied or disabled; and male or female, intense efforts emerged to define these identities as biologically distinct and scientifically verifiable in a literally marked body. Combining literary analysis, legal history, and visual culture, Ellen Samuels traces the evolution of the “fantasy of identification”—the powerful belief that embodied social identities are fixed, verifiable, and visible through modern science. From birthmarks and fingerprints to blood quantum and DNA, she examines how this fantasy has circulated between cultural representations, law, science, and policy to become one of the most powerfully institutionalized ideologies of modern society. Yet, as Samuels demonstrates, in every case, the fantasy distorts its claimed scientific basis, substituting subjective language for claimed objective fact. From its early emergence in discourses about disability fakery and fugitive slaves in the nineteenth century to its most recent manifestation in the question of sex testing at the 2012 Olympic Games, Fantasies of Identification explores the roots of modern understandings of bodily identity.

Journal of the Civil War Era

Fall 2014 Issue

Author: William A. Blair

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469615991

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 1516

The Journal of the Civil War Era Volume 4, Number 3, September 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Editor's Note, William Blair Articles Felicity Turner Rights and the Ambiguities of Law: Infanticide in the Nineteenth-Century U.S. South Paul Quigley Civil War Conscription and the International Boundaries of Citizenship Jay Sexton William H. Seward in the World Review Essay Patick J. Kelly the European Revolutions of 1848 and the Transnational turn in Civil War History Book Reviews Books Received Notes on Contributors

Mit Gott handeln

von den Zürcher Gotteslästerern der Frühen Neuzeit zu einer Kulturgeschichte des Religiösen

Author: Francisca Loetz

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525351734

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 3702

Worte können verletzen. Diesem Phänomen geht die Studie von Francisca Loetz am Beispiel der Gotteslästerung nach. In einer Langzeitstudie vom ausgehenden 15. bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts fragt sie danach, wie Blasphemiker mit ihren Flüchen, Schwüren und Schmähungen Gottes im damaligen Verständnis die Ehre Gottes angreifen konnten. Auf der Grundlage der Zürcher Justizakten und der theologischen Schriften Ulrich Zwinglis und Heinrich Bullingers wird gezeigt, dass die blasphemischen Provokationen als verbale Handlung über die eigentliche Schmähung hinaus immer auch auf spezifische, soziale und religiöse Kontexte verwiesen und entsprechende Reaktionen auslösten. Das Delikt der Gotteslästerung zu analysieren, heißt daher nach der Bedeutung religiöser Normen in frühneuzeitlichen Gesellschaften und damit nach den Möglichkeiten einer Kulturgeschichte des Religiösen zu fragen.

The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia

Refugees, Boundaries, Histories

Author: Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231511019

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 5445

Nation-states often shape the boundaries of historical enquiry, and thus silence the very histories that have sutured nations to territorial states. "India" and "Pakistan" were drawn onto maps in the midst of Partition's genocidal violence and one of the largest displacements of people in the twentieth century. Yet this historical specificity of decolonization on the very making of a nationalized cartography of modern South Asia has largely gone unexamined. In this remarkable study based on more than two years of ethnographic and archival research, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar argues that the combined interventions of the two postcolonial states were enormously important in shaping these massive displacements. She examines the long, contentious, and ambivalent process of drawing political boundaries and making distinct nation-states in the midst of this historic chaos. Zamindar crosses political and conceptual boundaries to bring together oral histories with north Indian Muslim families divided between the two cities of Delhi and Karachi with extensive archival research in previously unexamined Urdu newspapers and government records of India and Pakistan. She juxtaposes the experiences of ordinary people against the bureaucratic interventions of both postcolonial states to manage and control refugees and administer refugee property. As a result, she reveals the surprising history of the making of the western Indo-Pak border, one of the most highly surveillanced in the world, which came to be instituted in response to this refugee crisis, in order to construct national difference where it was the most blurred. In particular, Zamindar examines the "Muslim question" at the heart of Partition. From the margins and silences of national histories, she draws out the resistance, bewilderment, and marginalization of north Indian Muslims as they came to be pushed out and divided by both emergent nation-states. It is here that Zamindar asks us to stretch our understanding of "Partition violence" to include this long, and in some sense ongoing, bureaucratic violence of postcolonial nationhood, and to place Partition at the heart of a twentieth century of border-making and nation-state formation.

The Passport in America

The History of a Document

Author: Craig Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199779899

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 8592

In today's world of constant identification checks, it's difficult to recall that there was ever a time when "proof of identity" was not a part of everyday life. And as anyone knows who has ever lost a passport, or let one expire on the eve of international travel, the passport has become an indispensable document. But how and why did this form of identification take on such a crucial role? In the first history of the passport in the United States, Craig Robertson offers an illuminating account of how this document, above all others, came to be considered a reliable answer to the question: who are you? Historically, the passport originated as an official letter of introduction addressed to foreign governments on behalf of American travelers, but as Robertson shows, it became entangled in contemporary negotiations over citizenship and other forms of identity documentation. Prior to World War I, passports were not required to cross American borders, and while some people struggled to understand how a passport could accurately identify a person, others took advantage of this new document to advance claims for citizenship. From the strategic use of passport applications by freed slaves and a campaign to allow married women to get passports in their maiden names, to the "passport nuisance" of the 1920s and the contested addition of photographs and other identification technologies on the passport, Robertson sheds new light on issues of individual and national identity in modern U.S. history. In this age of heightened security, especially at international borders, Robertson's The Passport in America provides anyone interested in questions of identification and surveillance with a richly detailed, and often surprising, history of this uniquely important document.

Borderlands in World History, 1700-1914

Author: P. Readman,C. Radding,C. Bryant

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137320583

Category: History

Page: 345

View: 328

Covering two hundred years, this groundbreaking book brings together essays on borderlands by leading experts in the modern history of the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia to offer the first historical study of borderlands with a global reach.

Renaissance Impostors and Proofs of Identity

Author: M. Eliav-Feldon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137291370

Category: History

Page: 291

View: 2687

Early Modern Europe was teeming with impostors. Identity theft was only one form of misrepresentation: royal pretenders, envoys from imaginary lands, religious dissimulators, cross-dressers, false Gypsies - all these caused deep anxiety, leading authorities to invent increasingly sophisticated means for unmasking deception.

A Companion to Border Studies

Author: Thomas M. Wilson,Hastings Donnan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118255259

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 3689

A Companion to Border Studies introduces an excitingand expanding field of interdisciplinary research, through thewriting of an international array of scholars, from diverseperspectives that include anthropology, development studies,geography, history, political science and sociology. Explores how nations and cultural identities are beingtransformed by their dynamic, shifting borders where mobility issometimes facilitated, other times impeded or prevented Offers an array of international views which together form anauthoritative guide for students, instructors and researchers Reflects recent significant growth in the importance ofunderstanding the distinctive characteristics of borders andfrontiers, including cross-border cooperation, security andcontrols, migration and population displacements, hybridity, andtransnationalism

Histories of State Surveillance in Europe and Beyond

Author: Kees Boersma,Rosamunde van Brakel,Chiara Fonio,Pieter Wagenaar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134104936

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 9768

Does the development of new technology cause an increase in the level of surveillance used by central government? Is the growth in surveillance merely a reaction to terrorism, or a solution to crime control? Are there more structural roots for the increase in surveillance? This book attempts to find some answers to these questions by examining how governments have increased their use of surveillance technology. Focusing on a range of countries in Europe and beyond, this book demonstrates how government penetration into private citizens' lives was developing years before the ‘war on terrorism.’ It also aims to answer the question of whether central government actually has penetrated ever deeper into the lives of private citizens in various countries inside and outside of Europe, and whether citizens are protected against it, or have fought back. The main focus of the volume is on how surveillance has shaped the relationship between the citizen and the State. The contributors and editors of the volume look into the question of how central government came to intrude on citizens’ private lives from two perspectives: identification card systems and surveillance in post-authoritarian societies. Their aim is to present the heterogeneity of the European historical surveillance past in the hope that this might shed light on current trends. Essential reading for criminologists, sociologists and political scientists alike, this book provides some much-needed historical context on a highly topical issue.

MCAT Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills Review

New for MCAT 2015

Author: Princeton Review

Publisher: Princeton Review

ISBN: 1101882441

Category: Study Aids

Page: 384

View: 4506

Publisher's Note: This eBook contains detailed color diagrams and art and is best viewed on tablets or other color-capable devices with zooming ability. We do not recommend this title for black-and-white E Ink devices. Get everything you need to ace the new Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills section on the updated MCAT exam! Designed specifically for students taking the longer, tougher exam debuting in 2015, The Princeton Review's MCAT CRITICAL ANALYSIS AND REASONING SKILLS REVIEW features: Everything You Need to Know to Help Achieve a High Score: · Access to our online Student Tools portal for up-to-the-moment information on late-breaking AAMC changes to the exam · In-depth coverage of the challenging critical analysis and reasoning skills needed for this important test · Bulleted chapter summaries for quick review · A fundamental 6-step approach to cracking any reading passage, including an annotated model passage to demonstrate this process · Strategic guidance and effective test-taking techniques More Practice Than Ever: · 3 full-length practice tests online · End-of-chapter practice questions · MCAT-style practice passages In MCAT CRITICAL ANALYSIS AND REASONING SKILLS REVIEW, you'll gain mastery of: · MCAT 2015 Basics · Critical Reasoning Skills Development · Active Reading · Passage Annotating and Mapping · Question Types and Formats · Process of Elimination and Attractors · Ranking and Ordering Passages · Strategy and Tactics · Mental Preparation And more!

The Baron's Cloak

A History of the Russian Empire in War and Revolution

Author: Willard Sunderland

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801471060

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 3727

Baron Roman Fedorovich von Ungern-Sternberg (1885–1921) was a Baltic German aristocrat and tsarist military officer who fought against the Bolsheviks in Eastern Siberia during the Russian Civil War. From there he established himself as the de facto warlord of Outer Mongolia, the base for a fantastical plan to restore the Russian and Chinese empires, which then ended with his capture and execution by the Red Army as the war drew to a close. In The Baron’s Cloak, Willard Sunderland tells the epic story of the Russian Empire’s final decades through the arc of the Baron’s life, which spanned the vast reaches of Eurasia. Tracking Ungern’s movements, he transits through the Empire’s multinational borderlands, where the country bumped up against three other doomed empires, the Habsburg, Ottoman, and Qing, and where the violence unleashed by war, revolution, and imperial collapse was particularly vicious. In compulsively readable prose that draws on wide-ranging research in multiple languages, Sunderland recreates Ungern’s far-flung life and uses it to tell a compelling and original tale of imperial success and failure in a momentous time. Sunderland visited the many sites that shaped Ungern’s experience, from Austria and Estonia to Mongolia and China, and these travels help give the book its arresting geographical feel. In the early chapters, where direct evidence of Ungern’s activities is sparse, he evokes peoples and places as Ungern would have experienced them, carefully tracing the accumulation of influences that ultimately came together to propel the better documented, more notorious phase of his career Recurring throughout Sunderland’s magisterial account is a specific artifact: the Baron’s cloak, an essential part of the cross-cultural uniform Ungern chose for himself by the time of his Mongolian campaign: an orangey-gold Mongolian kaftan embroidered in the Khalkha fashion yet outfitted with tsarist-style epaulettes on the shoulders. Like his cloak, Ungern was an imperial product. He lived across the Russian Empire, combined its contrasting cultures, fought its wars, and was molded by its greatest institutions and most volatile frontiers. By the time of his trial and execution mere months before the decree that created the USSR, he had become a profoundly contradictory figure, reflecting both the empire’s potential as a multinational society and its ultimately irresolvable limitations.

Coming to Terms with the Nation

Ethnic Classification in Modern China

Author: Thomas Mullaney

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520947630

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 699

China is a vast nation comprised of hundreds of distinct ethnic communities, each with its own language, history, and culture. Today the government of China recognizes just 56 ethnic nationalities, or minzu, as groups entitled to representation. This controversial new book recounts the history of the most sweeping attempt to sort and categorize the nation's enormous population: the 1954 Ethnic Classification project (minzu shibie). Thomas S. Mullaney draws on recently declassified material and extensive oral histories to describe how the communist government, in power less than a decade, launched this process in ethnically diverse Yunnan. Mullaney shows how the government drew on Republican-era scholarship for conceptual and methodological inspiration as it developed a strategy for identifying minzu and how non-Party-member Chinese ethnologists produced a "scientific" survey that would become the basis for a policy on nationalities.

Inventing Luxembourg

Representations of the Past, Space and Language from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-first Century

Author: N.A

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004181768

Category: History

Page: 383

View: 8454

The grand duchy of Luxembourg was created after the Napoleonic Wars, but at the time there was no 'nation' that identified with the emergent state. This book analyses how politicians, scholars and artists have initiated and contributed to nation-building processes in Luxembourg since the nineteenth century, processes that as this book argues are still ongoing. The focus rests on three types of representations of nationhood: a shared past, a common homeland and a national language. History was written so as to justify the country's political independence. Territorial borders shifted meaning, constantly repositioning the national community. The local dialect initially considered German variant was gradually transformed into the 'national language', Luxembourgish.

Grenzen der Freizügigkeit

Migrationskontrolle in Grossbritannien und Deutschland, 1880-1930

Author: Christiane Reinecke

Publisher: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag


Category: Emigration and immigration

Page: 420

View: 8275

Migrationskontrolle ist im Zeichen von Terrorbekampfung und Sicherheitsdenken aktueller denn je. Wie Staaten ihre Grenzen kontrollieren, warum und auf welche Weise sie Reisende uberprufen, ein- oder aus-schliessen diese Fragen wurden bereits in den 1880er Jahren rege diskutiert. Das 19. Jahrhundert brachte ungeahnte Formen weltweiter Mobilitat mit sich, und Staaten griffen vermehrt in Wanderungsprozesse ein. Christiane Reinecke beleuchtet dieses Spannungsverhaltnis zwischen Offenheit und Abschirmung anhand der britischen und deutschen Migrationspolitik des spaten 19. und fruhen 20. Jahrhunderts. Dabei wird deutlich, wie die ordnenden Ambitionen der Burokratie sich mit nationalistischen bzw. rassistischen Denkweisen verschrankten, in ein verstarktes Bedurfnis nach staatlicher Kontrolle mundeten und so der Freizugigkeit Grenzen setzten