Drugs, Crime, and Other Deviant Adaptations

Longitudinal Studies

Author: Howard B. Kaplan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489909702

Category: Psychology

Page: 253

View: 3591

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This volume brings together a sample of the best of the studies that illustrate two recent trends in research on deviant behavior. The first of these trends is the investigation of deviant behavior in longitudinal perspective. Panels of subjects are followed over long periods of time to establish temporal relationships be tween deviant behavior and the antecedents and consequences of deviant behav ior. The second trend in contemporary research on deviance is the recognition of the association among forms of deviant behavior such as violence, drug abuse, and theft. The recognition of the covariation among forms of deviance stimulated questions regarding the nature of the relationships among multiple forms of de viance. Is one form of deviant behavior a cause or a consequence of other forms of deviant behavior? What variables mediate and moderate such causal relation ships? Do different forms of deviant behavior have common antecedents and consequences? Independent of the foregoing relationships, do particular forms of deviant behavior have unique antecedents and consequences? The eight original research studies that, along with the introduction and overview, constitute this volume are based on data drawn from among the most influential longitudinal studies in the general area of deviant behavior. These studies variously consider common and pattern-specific antecedents and conse quences, reciprocal influences, and intervening and moderating variables in causal relationships among drug use, crime, and other forms of deviance.

Taking Stock of Delinquency

An Overview of Findings from Contemporary Longitudinal Studies

Author: Terence P. Thornberry,Marvin D. Krohn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306479451

Category: Psychology

Page: 332

View: 5313

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This volume is the comprehensive synthesis of the empirical findings of seven important ongoing longitudinal studies of delinquency. It aims to examine the extent to which these studies answer the basic question of the origins of delinquent and criminal careers despite their varying guiding theories, methods, and settings. This book is an important resource for criminologists, psychologists, sociologists, and students on juvenile delinquency, criminology, developmental psychology, and deviant behavior.

Out of Options

A Cognitive Model of Adolescent Suicide and Risk-Taking

Author: Kate Sofronoff,Len Dalgleish,Robert Kosky

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521812382

Category: Medical

Page: 205

View: 4405

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book tackles an area of adolescent behavior that presents a significant challenge for parents, teachers and professionals the world over. Whilst much has been written on the topic of adolescent suicide we see continued high rates throughout industrialized nations. The overlap between suicidal behaviors and other forms of serious risk-taking is a relatively new avenue of research and gives insight into the motivations of some adolescents. The cognitive model developed and evaluated in this book provides further insight into the progression from early problems faced by young people to the serious outcomes of suicide and risk-taking. The model allows us to suggest points of intervention for young people and to demonstrate that whilst there are overlapping features, attempts to intervene would target different problem areas for suicidal adolescents than for risk-taking adolescents.

Handbook of Crime Correlates

Author: Lee Ellis,Kevin M. Beaver,John Wright

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080920092

Category: Psychology

Page: 264

View: 9490

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Over the past two centuries, many aspects of criminal behavior have been investigated. Finding this information and making sense of it all is difficult when many studies would appear to offer contradictory findings. The Handbook of Crime Correlates collects in one source the summary analysis of crime research worldwide. It provides over 400 tables that divide crime research into nine broad categories: Pervasiveness and intra-offending relationships Demographic factors Ecological and macroeconomic factors Family and peer factors Institutional factors Behavioral and personality factors Cognitive factors Biological factors Crime victimization and fear of crime Within these broad categories, tables identify regions of the world and how separate variables are or are not positively or negatively associated with criminal behavior. Criminal behavior is broken down into separate offending categories of violent crime, property crime, drug offenses, sex offenses, delinquency, general and adult offenses, and recidivism. Accompanying each table is a description of what each table indicates in terms of the positive or negative association of specific variables with specific types of crime by region. This book should serve as a valuable resource for criminal justice personnel and academics in the social and life sciences interested in criminal behavior.

Resilience and Vulnerability

Adaptation in the Context of Childhood Adversities

Author: Suniya S. Luthar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521001618

Category: Medical

Page: 574

View: 1712

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book explores positive adaptation in at-risk children, providing suggestions for intervention and social policy.

AJPH

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Public health

Page: N.A

View: 7901

DOWNLOAD NOW »

New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research

Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Committee on Law and Justice,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade: Phase II

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309285151

Category: Social Science

Page: 442

View: 5635

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Each year, child protective services receive reports of child abuse and neglect involving six million children, and many more go unreported. The long-term human and fiscal consequences of child abuse and neglect are not relegated to the victims themselves -- they also impact their families, future relationships, and society. In 1993, the National Research Council (NRC) issued the report, Under-standing Child Abuse and Neglect, which provided an overview of the research on child abuse and neglect. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research updates the 1993 report and provides new recommendations to respond to this public health challenge. According to this report, while there has been great progress in child abuse and neglect research, a coordinated, national research infrastructure with high-level federal support needs to be established and implemented immediately. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research recommends an actionable framework to guide and support future child abuse and neglect research. This report calls for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to child abuse and neglect research that examines factors related to both children and adults across physical, mental, and behavioral health domains--including those in child welfare, economic support, criminal justice, education, and health care systems--and assesses the needs of a variety of subpopulations. It should also clarify the causal pathways related to child abuse and neglect and, more importantly, assess efforts to interrupt these pathways. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research identifies four areas to look to in developing a coordinated research enterprise: a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system, a new generation of researchers, and changes in the federal and state programmatic and policy response.

Lifespan Development and the Brain

The Perspective of Biocultural Co-Constructivism

Author: Paul B. Baltes,Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz,Frank Rösler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113945675X

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 9491

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The book focuses on the developmental analysis of the brain-culture-environment dynamic and argues that this dynamic is interactive and reciprocal. Brain and culture co-determine each other. As a whole, this book refutes any unidirectional conception of the brain-culture dynamic. Each is influenced by and modifies the other. To capture the ubiquitous reach and significance of the mutually dependent brain-culture system, the metaphor of biocultural co-constructivism is invoked. Distinguished researchers from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology and developmental psychology review the evidence in their respective fields. A special focus of the book is its coverage of the entire human lifespan from infancy to old age.

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders

The Evidence for Stigma Change

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on the Science of Changing Behavioral Health Social Norms

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309439124

Category: Social Science

Page: 170

View: 3723

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 4 Americans will experience a mental health problem or will misuse alcohol or drugs in their lifetimes. These disorders are among the most highly stigmatized health conditions in the United States, and they remain barriers to full participation in society in areas as basic as education, housing, and employment. Improving the lives of people with mental health and substance abuse disorders has been a priority in the United States for more than 50 years. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 is considered a major turning point in America's efforts to improve behavioral healthcare. It ushered in an era of optimism and hope and laid the groundwork for the consumer movement and new models of recovery. The consumer movement gave voice to people with mental and substance use disorders and brought their perspectives and experience into national discussions about mental health. However over the same 50-year period, positive change in American public attitudes and beliefs about mental and substance use disorders has lagged behind these advances. Stigma is a complex social phenomenon based on a relationship between an attribute and a stereotype that assigns undesirable labels, qualities, and behaviors to a person with that attribute. Labeled individuals are then socially devalued, which leads to inequality and discrimination. This report contributes to national efforts to understand and change attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that can lead to stigma and discrimination. Changing stigma in a lasting way will require coordinated efforts, which are based on the best possible evidence, supported at the national level with multiyear funding, and planned and implemented by an effective coalition of representative stakeholders. Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change explores stigma and discrimination faced by individuals with mental or substance use disorders and recommends effective strategies for reducing stigma and encouraging people to seek treatment and other supportive services. It offers a set of conclusions and recommendations about successful stigma change strategies and the research needed to inform and evaluate these efforts in the United States.

Electrodermal Activity

Author: Wolfram Boucsein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475750935

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 9985

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Electrodermal activity is one of the most frequently used psychophysiological evaluations in psychology research. Based on the 1992 edition of this work Electrodermal Activity covers advances in the field since the first publication in 1992. The current volume includes updated information on brain imaging techniques such as PET and fMRI, which provide further insight into the brain mechanisms underlying EDA. In addition, this volume is able to describe more reliably hypotheses that have been successfully tested since the first publication.

Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309298091

Category: Social Science

Page: 182

View: 2647

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Behavioral and Social Sciences examines how to update human subjects protections regulations so that they effectively respond to current research contexts and methods. With a specific focus on social and behavioral sciences, this consensus report aims to address the dramatic alterations in the research landscapes that institutional review boards (IRBs) have come to inhabit during the past 40 years. The report aims to balance respect for the individual persons whose consent to participate makes research possible and respect for the social benefits that productive research communities make possible. The ethics of human subjects research has captured scientific and regulatory attention for half a century. To keep abreast of the universe of changes that factor into the ethical conduct of research today, the Department of Health and Human Services published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) in July 2011. Recognizing that widespread technological and societal transformations have occurred in the contexts for and conduct of human research since the passage of the National Research Act of 1974, the ANPRM revisits the regulations mandated by the Act in a correspondingly comprehensive manner. Its proposals aim to modernize the Common Rule and to improve the efficiency of the work conducted under its auspices. Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Behavioral and Social Sciences identifies issues raised in the ANPRM that are critical and feasible for the federal government to address for the protection of participants and for the advancement of the social and behavioral sciences. For each identified issue, this report provides guidance for IRBs on techniques to address it, with specific examples and best practice models to illustrate how the techniques would be applied to different behavioral and social sciences research procedures.

A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health

Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems

Author: Teresa L. Scheid,Eric R. Wright

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108184081

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 2203

DOWNLOAD NOW »
With chapters written by leading scholars and researchers, the third edition of A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health provides an updated, comprehensive review of the sociology of mental health. The volume presents an overview of the historical, social, and institutional frameworks for understanding mental health and illness. Part I examines the social factors that shape psychiatric diagnosis and the measurement of mental health and illness, the theories that explain the definition and treatment of mental disorders, and cultural variability in mental health. The section addresses the DSM-5 and its potential influence on diagnosis and research on mental health outcomes. Part II investigates the effects of social context on mental health and illness. Part III focuses on the organization, delivery, and social context of mental health treatment. The chapters in Part III address the likely impact of the Affordable Care Act on mental health care. This volume is a key resource for students, researchers, advocates, and policymakers seeking to understand mental health and mental health delivery systems.

Behavioral and Social Science Research:

A National Resource

Author: Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309032784

Category: Social Science

Page: 121

View: 1401

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Behavioral and Social Science Research: A National Resource specifies appropriate criteria for assessing the value, significance, and social utility of basic research in the social sciences. This report identifies illustrative areas of basic research in the social sciences that have developed analytic frameworks of high social utility and describes the development of these frameworks and their utilization. It also identifies illustrative areas of basic research in the social sciences that are likely to be of high value, significance, and/or social utility in the near future, reviews the current state of knowledge in these areas, and indicates research efforts needed to bring these areas to their full potential.

Aggression

A Social Learning Analysis

Author: Albert Bandura

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 9235

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Understanding Violence Against Women

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Panel on Research on Violence Against Women

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309175838

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 2966

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Violence against women is one factor in the growing wave of alarm about violence in American society. High-profile cases such as the O.J. Simpson trial call attention to the thousands of lesser-known but no less tragic situations in which women's lives are shattered by beatings or sexual assault. The search for solutions has highlighted not only what we know about violence against women but also what we do not know. How can we achieve the best understanding of this problem and its complex ramifications? What research efforts will yield the greatest benefit? What are the questions that must be answered? Understanding Violence Against Women presents a comprehensive overview of current knowledge and identifies four areas with the greatest potential return from a research investment by increasing the understanding of and responding to domestic violence and rape: What interventions are designed to do, whom they are reaching, and how to reach the many victims who do not seek help. Factors that put people at risk of violence and that precipitate violence, including characteristics of offenders. The scope of domestic violence and sexual assault in America and its conequences to individuals, families, and society, including costs. How to structure the study of violence against women to yield more useful knowledge. Despite the news coverage and talk shows, the real fundamental nature of violence against women remains unexplored and often misunderstood. Understanding Violence Against Women provides direction for increasing knowledge that can help ameliorate this national problem.

Encyclopedia of Adolescence

Author: Roger J.R. Levesque

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441916954

Category: Psychology

Page: 3112

View: 2405

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Encyclopedia of Adolescence breaks new ground as an important central resource for the study of adolescence. Comprehensive in breath and textbook in depth, the Encyclopedia of Adolescence – with entries presented in easy-to-access A to Z format – serves as a reference repository of knowledge in the field as well as a frequently updated conduit of new knowledge long before such information trickles down from research to standard textbooks. By making full use of Springer’s print and online flexibility, the Encyclopedia is at the forefront of efforts to advance the field by pushing and creating new boundaries and areas of study that further our understanding of adolescents and their place in society. Substantively, the Encyclopedia draws from four major areas of research relating to adolescence. The first broad area includes research relating to "Self, Identity and Development in Adolescence". This area covers research relating to identity, from early adolescence through emerging adulthood; basic aspects of development (e.g., biological, cognitive, social); and foundational developmental theories. In addition, this area focuses on various types of identity: gender, sexual, civic, moral, political, racial, spiritual, religious, and so forth. The second broad area centers on "Adolescents’ Social and Personal Relationships". This area of research examines the nature and influence of a variety of important relationships, including family, peer, friends, sexual and romantic as well as significant nonparental adults. The third area examines "Adolescents in Social Institutions". This area of research centers on the influence and nature of important institutions that serve as the socializing contexts for adolescents. These major institutions include schools, religious groups, justice systems, medical fields, cultural contexts, media, legal systems, economic structures, and youth organizations. "Adolescent Mental Health" constitutes the last major area of research. This broad area of research focuses on the wide variety of human thoughts, actions, and behaviors relating to mental health, from psychopathology to thriving. Major topic examples include deviance, violence, crime, pathology (DSM), normalcy, risk, victimization, disabilities, flow, and positive youth development.

Handbook of Response to Intervention

The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

Author: Shane R. Jimerson,Matthew K. Burns,Amanda M. VanDerHeyden

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489975683

Category: Psychology

Page: 740

View: 398

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Second Edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students. The volume includes insights from leading scholars and scientist-practitioners to provide a highly usable guide to the essentials of RTI assessment and identification as well as research-based interventions for improving students’ reading, writing, oral, and math skills. New and revised chapters explore crucial issues, define key concepts, identify topics warranting further study, and address real-world questions regarding implementation. Key topics include: Scientific foundations of RTI Psychometric measurement within RTI RTI and social behavior skills The role of consultation in RTI Monitoring response to supplemental services Using technology to facilitate RTI RTI and transition planning Lessons learned from RTI programs around the country The Second Edition of the Handbook of Response to Intervention is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and professionals/scientist-practitioners in child and school psychology, special and general education, social work and counseling, and educational policy and politics.