Earth History and Palaeogeography

Author: Trond H. Torsvik,L. Robin M. Cocks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316720721

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Using full-colour palaeogeographical maps from the Cambrian to the present, this interdisciplinary volume explains how plate motions and surface volcanism are linked to processes in the Earth's mantle, and to climate change and the evolution of the Earth's biota. These new and very detailed maps provide a complete and integrated Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography. They illustrate the development of all the major mountain-building orogenies. Old lands, seas, ice caps, volcanic regions, reefs, and coal beds are highlighted on the maps, as well as faunal and floral provinces. Many other original diagrams show sections from the Earth's core, through the mantle, and up to the lithosphere, and how Large Igneous Provinces are generated, helping to understand how plates have appeared, moved, and vanished through time. Supplementary resources are available online, making this an invaluable reference for researchers, graduate students, professional geoscientists and anyone interested in the geological history of the Earth.

Earth History and Palaeogeography

Author: Trond H. Torsvik,L. Robin M. Cocks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107105323

Category: Science

Page: 328

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This book provides a complete Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography, using new and detailed full-colour maps, to link surface and deep-Earth processes.

Palaeogeography and Palaeobiogeography: Biodiversity in Space and Time

Author: Paul Upchurch,Alistair J. McGowan,Claire S.C. Slater

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420045512

Category: Science

Page: 239

View: 7083

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Biogeography represents one of the most complex and challenging aspects of macroevolutionary research, requiring input from both the earth and life sciences. Palaeogeographic reconstruction is frequently carried out by researchers with backgrounds in geology and palaeontology, who are less likely to be familiar with the latest biogeographic techniques: conversely, biogeographic methods are often devised by neontologists who may be less familiar with the fossil record, stratigraphy, and palaeogeography. Palaeogeography and Palaeobiogeography: Biodiversity in Space and Time bridges the gap between these two communities of researchers, who work on the same issues but typically use different types of data. The book covers a range of topics, and reflects some of the major overall questions in the field such as: Which approaches are best suited to reconstructing biogeographic histories under a range of circumstances? How do we maximize the use of organismal and earth sciences data to improve our understanding of events in earth history? How well do analytical techniques devised for researching the biogeography of extant organisms perform in the fossil record? Can alternative biodiversity metrics, particularly those based on morphological measurements, enhance our understanding of biogeographic patterns and processes? This book approaches palaeobiogeography with coverage of technological applications and detailed case studies. It spans a wide selection of overlapping and integrative disciplines, including evolutionary theory, vicariance biogeography, extinctions, and the philosophical aspects of palaeogeography. It also highlights new technological innovations and applications for research. Presenting a unique discussion of both palaeogeography and palaeobiogeography in one volume, this book focuses both historically and philosophically on the interface between geology, climate, and organismal distribution.

Orogenesis

The Making of Mountains

Author: Michael R. W. Johnson,Simon L. Harley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107376742

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Orogenesis, the process of mountain building, occurs when two tectonic plates collide – either forcing material upwards to form mountain belts such as the Alps or Himalayas or causing one plate to be subducted below the other, resulting in volcanic mountain chains such as the Andes. Integrating the approaches of structural geology and metamorphism, this book provides an up-to-date overview of orogenic research and an introduction to the physico-chemical properties of mountain belts. Global examples are explored, the interactioning roles of temperature and deformation in the orogenic process are reviewed, and important new concepts such as channel flow are explained. This book provides a valuable introduction to this fast-moving field for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of structural geology, plate tectonics and geodynamics, and will also provide a vital overview of research for academics and researchers working in related fields including petrology geochemistry and sedimentology.

Biotic Evolution and Environmental Change in Southeast Asia

Author: David Gower,Kenneth Johnson,James Richardson,Brian Rosen,Lukas Rüber,Suzanne Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139536222

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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The flora and fauna of Southeast Asia are exceptionally diverse. The region includes several terrestrial biodiversity hotspots and is the principal global hotspot for marine diversity, but it also faces the most intense challenges of the current global biodiversity crisis. Providing reviews, syntheses and results of the latest research into Southeast Asian earth and organismal history, this book investigates the history, present and future of the fauna and flora of this bio- and geodiverse region. Leading authorities in the field explore key topics including palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, biogeography, population genetics and conservation biology, illustrating research approaches and themes with spatially, taxonomically and methodologically focused case studies. The volume also presents methodological advances in population genetics and historical biogeography. Exploring the fascinating environmental and biotic histories of Southeast Asia, this is an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers as well as environmental NGOs.

Sediment Routing Systems

The Fate of Sediment from Source to Sink

Author: Philip A. Allen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107091993

Category: Science

Page: 428

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This cutting-edge summary combines ideas from several sub-disciplines to provide an understanding of sediment routing systems and Earth surface dynamics.

Earth's Climate Evolution

Author: C. P. Summerhayes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118897374

Category: Science

Page: 416

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To understand climate change today, we first need to know how Earth’s climate changed over the past 450 million years. Finding answers depends upon contributions from a wide range of sciences, not just the rock record uncovered by geologists. In Earth’s Climate Evolution, Colin Summerhayes analyzes reports and records of past climate change dating back to the late 18th century to uncover key patterns in the climate system. The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. The book takes a unique approach to the subject providing a description of the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 450 million years since land plants emerged, ignoring major earlier glaciations like that of Snowball Earth, which occurred around 600 million years ago in a world free of land plants. It describes the evolution of thinking in palaeoclimatology and introduces the main players in the field and how their ideas were received and, in many cases, subsequently modified. It records the arguments and discussions about the merits of different ideas along the way. It also includes several notes made from the author’s own personal involvement in palaeoclimatological and palaeoceanographic studies, and from his experience of working alongside several of the major players in these fields in recent years. This book will be an invaluable reference for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in related fields and will also be of interest to historians of science and/or geology, climatology and oceanography. It should also be of interest to the wider scientific and engineering community, high school science students, policy makers, and environmental NGOs. Reviews: "Outstanding in its presentation of the facts and a good read in the way that it intersperses the climate story with the author's own experiences. [This book] puts the climate story into a compelling geological history." -Dr. James Baker "The book is written in very clear and concise prose, [and takes] original, enlightening, and engaging approach to talking about 'ideas' from the perspective of the scientists who promoted them." -Professor Christopher R. Scotese "A thrilling ride through continental drift and its consequences." - Professor Gerald R. North "Written in a style and language which can be easily understood by laymen as well as scientists." - Professor Dr Jörn Thiede "What makes this book particularly distinctive is how well it builds in the narrative of change in ideas over time." - Holocene book reviews, May 2016 "This is a fascinating book and the author’s biographical approach gives it great human appeal." - E Adlard

Geological History of Britain and Ireland

Author: Nigel H. Woodcock,R. A. Strachan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118274059

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 6086

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Britain and Ireland have a remarkably varied geology for so small a fragment of continental crust, with a fine rock record back through three billion years of geological time. This history would have been interesting enough if it had been played out on relatively stable continental crust. However, Britain and Ireland have developed at a tectonic crossroads, on crust once traversed by subduction zones and volcanic arcs, continental rifts and mountain belts. The resulting complexity is instructive, fascinating and perplexing. Geological History of Britain and Ireland tells the region's story at a level accessible to undergraduate geologists, as well as to postgraduates, professionals or informed amateurs. This second edition is fully revised and updated, reflecting our continually developing knowledge of the region's geology. Full coverage is again given to the rich Precambrian and Early Palaeozoic history, as well as to later events more relevant to hydrocarbon exploration. The book is an essential starting point for more detailed studies of the regional geology. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/woodcock/geologicalhistory

Crustal Evolution and Metallogeny in India

Author: Sanjib Chandra Sarkar,Anupendu Gupta

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107079977

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Crustal evolution means the resultant changes that the Earth's crust has gone through in its geologic past affected by changes in the mantle-crust system, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere. Metallogeny is the genesis of metallic mineral deposits. Both the terms are used in the book in their conventional sense, but keeping in mind an Indian context. This book is the first of its kind to document in detail the nature, origin and evolution of mineral deposits in India and is contextualized in local, regional and global geology. The book is unique in that it combines both metallogeny and crustal evolution that were hitherto treated as stand-alone topics. The exhaustive chapters in the book carry detailed case studies of the distribution and occurrence of ores. The book would be useful to students of advanced geology, researchers, teachers, planners and global metallogeneticists around the world.

A Concise Geologic Time Scale

2016

Author: J G Ogg,Gabi Ogg,F M Gradstein

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 044459468X

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 1602

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A Concise Geologic Time Scale: 2016 presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years, as well as a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable laminated card of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory, or field. Presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years Includes a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars, and Venus Includes full-color figures including charts, stratigraphic profiles, and photographs to enhance understanding of each geologic period Correlates regional geologic stages to the standard definitions approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy Offers an explanation of the methods used to create the time scale

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Author: Vivien Gornitz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402045514

Category: Science

Page: 1049

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One of Springer’s Major Reference Works, this book gives the reader a truly global perspective. It is the first major reference work in its field. Paleoclimate topics covered in the encyclopedia give the reader the capability to place the observations of recent global warming in the context of longer-term natural climate fluctuations. Significant elements of the encyclopedia include recent developments in paleoclimate modeling, paleo-ocean circulation, as well as the influence of geological processes and biological feedbacks on global climate change. The encyclopedia gives the reader an entry point into the literature on these and many other groundbreaking topics.

Evolutionary Paleoecology

The Ecological Context of Macroevolutionary Change

Author: Warren D. Allmon,David J. Bottjer

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528523

Category: Science

Page: 320

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One of the most important questions we can ask about life is "Does ecology matter?" Most biologists and paleontologists are trained to answer "yes," but the exact mechanisms by which ecology matters in the context of patterns that play out over millions of years have never been entirely clear. This book examines these mechanisms and looks at how ancient environments affected evolution, focusing on long-term macroevolutionary changes as seen in the fossil record. Evolutionary paleoecology is not a new discipline. Beginning with Darwin, researchers have attempted to understand how the environment has affected evolutionary history. But as we learn more about these patterns, the search for a new synthetic view of the evolutionary process that integrates species evolution, ecology, and mass extinctions becomes ever more pressing. The present volume is a benchmark sampler of active research in this ever more active field.

Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum Geology of the Middle East

Author: A.E.M. Nairn,A.S. Alsharhan

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080540832

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 878

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The wealth of petroleum has made the Middle East one of the most actively explored regions of the world. The volume of geological, geophysical and geochemical data collected by the petroleum industry in recent decades is enormous. The Middle East may be a unique region in the world where the volume of subsurface data and information exceeds that based on surface outcrop. This book reviews the tectonic and geological history of the Middle East and the regional hydrocarbon potential on a country by country basis in the context of current ideas developed through seismic and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating the ideas of global sea level change. Subsurface data have been used as much as possible to amplify the descriptions. The paleogeographic approach provides a means to view the area as a whole. While the country by country approach inevitably leads to some repetition, it enhances the value of the volume as a teaching tool and underlines some of the changing lithologies within formations carrying the same name.

Salt Tectonics

Principles and Practice

Author: Martin P. A. Jackson,Michael R. Hudec

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316785114

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Salt tectonics is the study of how and why salt structures evolve and the three-dimensional forms that result. A fascinating branch of geology in itself, salt tectonics is also vitally important to the petroleum industry. Covering the entire scale from the microscopic to the continental, this textbook is an unrivalled consolidation of all topics related to salt tectonics: evaporite deposition and flow, salt structures, salt systems, and practical applications. Coverage of the principles of salt tectonics is supported by more than 600 color illustrations, including 200 seismic images captured by state-of-the-art geophysical techniques and tectonic models from the Applied Geodynamics Laboratory at the University of Texas, Austin. These combine to provide a cohesive and wide-ranging insight into this extremely visual subject. This is the definitive practical handbook for professional geologists and geophysicists in the petroleum industry, an invaluable textbook for graduate students, and a reference textbook for researchers in various geoscience fields.

The Story of Earth

The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet

Author: Robert M. Hazen

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0143123645

Category: Science

Page: 320

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The author of the best-selling Science Matters outlines a radical new approach to geologic history that advances controversial theories that the Earth evolved and that life evolved from minerals, assessing supportive findings while explaining the impact of human actions.

Geology of the Alps

Author: O. Adrian Pfiffner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118708113

Category: Science

Page: 392

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The Alps, with their outstanding outcrop conditions, represent a superb natural laboratory for many geological processes, and have played a crucial role in the history of geology. This book gives an up-to-date and holistic overview of the key aspects of Alpine geology. After a brief presentation of the plate tectonic framework, the rock suites are discussed, starting with the pre-Triassic crystalline basement, followed by Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary sequences. The lithological description of the rock types is supplemented by a discussion of their paleogeographic and plate tectonic contexts. The book goes on to describe the structure of the Alps (including the Jura Mountains and the Alpine foreland to the north and south) illustrated by numerous cross-sections. The evolution of the Alps as a mountain chain incorporates a discussion of the Alpine metamorphic history and a compilation of orogenic timetables. The final sections cover the evolution of Alpine drainage patterns and the region’s glacial history. Readership: The book is essential reading for students and lecturers on Alpine courses and excursions, and all earth-scientists interested in the geology of the region.

Evolution of Island Mammals

Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands

Author: Alexandra van der Geer,George Lyras,John de Vos,Michael Dermitzakis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444391282

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 3317

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Evolution on islands differs in a number of important ways from evolution on mainland areas. Over millions of years of isolation, exceptional and sometimes bizarre mammals evolved on islands, such as pig-sized elephants and hippos, giant rats and gorilla-sized lemurs that would have been formidable to their mainland ancestors. This timely and innovative book is the first to offer a much-needed synthesis of recent advances in the exciting field of the evolution and extinction of fossil insular placental mammals. It provides a comprehensive overview of current knowledge on fossil island mammals worldwide, ranging from the Oligocene to the onset of the Holocene. The book addresses evolutionary processes and key aspects of insular mammal biology, exemplified by a variety of fossil species. The authors discuss the human factor in past extinction events and loss of insular biodiversity. This accessible and richly illustrated textbook is written for graduate level students and professional researchers in evolutionary biology, palaeontology, biogeography, zoology, and ecology.

The Making of India

Geodynamic Evolution

Author: K.S. Valdiya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319250299

Category: Science

Page: 924

View: 9909

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This book presents in a concise format a simplified and coherent geological-dynamical history of the Indian subcontinent (including Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southern Tibet and Pakistan). Encompassing a broad array of information related to structure and tectonics, stratigraphy and palaeontology, sedimentation and palaeogeography, petrology and geochemistry, geomorphology and geophysics, it explores the geodynamic developments that took place from the beginning around 3.4 billion years ago to the last about 5,000 years before present. Presented in a distilled form, the observations and deductions of practitioners, this book is meant for teachers, researchers and students of geology, geophysics and geomorphology and practitioners of earth sciences. A comprehensive list of references to original works provides guidance for those seeking further details and who wish to examine selected problems in depth. The book is illustrated with a wealth of maps, cross sections and block diagrams — all simplified and redesigned.