Emergence

Author: Paul Humphreys

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019062034X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8210

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Interest in emergence amongst philosophers and scientists has grown in recent years, yet the concept continues to be viewed with skepticism by many. In this book, Paul Humphreys argues that many of the problems arise from a long philosophical tradition that is overly committed to synchronic reduction and has been overly focused on problems in philosophy of mind. He develops a novel account of diachronic ontological emergence called transformational emergence, shows that it is free of the problems raised against synchronic accounts, shows that there are plausible examples of transformational emergence within physics and chemistry, and argues that the central ideas fit into a well established historical tradition of emergence that includes John Stuart Mill, G.E. Moore, and C.D. Broad. The book also provides a comprehensive assessment of current theories of emergence and so can be used as a way into what is by now a very large literature on the topic. It places theories of emergence within a plausible classification, provides criteria for emergence, and argues that there is no single unifying account of emergence. Reevaluations of related topics in metaphysics are provided, including fundamentality, physicalism, holism, methodological individualism, and multiple realizability, among others. The relations between scientific and philosophical conceptions of emergence are assessed, with examples such as self-organization, ferromagnetism, cellular automata, and nonlinear systems being discussed. Although the book is written for professional philosophers, simple and intuitively accessible examples are used to illustrate the new concepts.

Emergence in Science and Philosophy

Author: Antonella Corradini,Timothy O'Connor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136955127

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 6923

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The concept of emergence has seen a significant resurgence in philosophy and the sciences, yet debates regarding emergentist and reductionist visions of the natural world continue to be hampered by imprecision or ambiguity. Emergent phenomena are said to arise out of and be sustained by more basic phenomena, while at the same time exerting a "top-down" control upon those very sustaining processes. To some critics, this has the air of magic, as it seems to suggest a kind of circular causality. Other critics deem the concept of emergence to be objectionably anti-naturalistic. Objections such as these have led many thinkers to construe emergent phenomena instead as coarse-grained patterns in the world that, while calling for distinctive concepts, do not "disrupt" the ordinary dynamics of the finer-grained (more fundamental) levels. Yet, reconciling emergence with a (presumed) pervasive causal continuity at the fundamental level can seem to deflate emergence of its initially profound significance. This basic problematic is mirrored by similar controversy over how best to characterize the opposite systematizing impulse, most commonly given an equally evocative but vague term, "reductionism." The original essays in this volume help to clarify the alternatives: inadequacies in some older formulations and arguments are exposed and new lines of argument on behalf the two visions are advanced.

Handbuch Netzwerkforschung

Author: Christian Stegbauer,Roger Häußling

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 353192575X

Category: Social Science

Page: 966

View: 3153

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Das Buch bietet einen weitreichenden Überblick über Forschungs- und Theoriebereiche in der Netzwerkforschung. Neben einem einführenden Teil zur Geschichte der Netzwerkforschung, zum Selbstverständnis und zu den wichtigsten theoretischen Grundlagen werden Methoden der Netzwerkforschung behandelt. Das wachsende Paradigma wird in immer mehr wissenschaftlichen und anwendungsorientierten Disziplinen als erkenntnisleitendes Prinzip und als Methode eingesetzt. Ein Überblick über viele dieser Felder bildet einen weiteren Schwerpunkt. Das Buch wird ergänzt durch einen Serviceteil, in dem Lehrbücher vorgestellt werden. Das Handbuch wendet sich damit sowohl an Neueinsteiger in die Thematik als auch an Experten. Am Buch sind die wesentlichen Autorinnen und Autoren der deutschsprachigen Netzwerkforschung beteiligt.

Reduktiver Individualismus

Zum Programm und zur Rechtfertigung einer sozialtheoretischen Grundposition

Author: Jens Greve

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658065575

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 1501

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Ziel dieses Buches ist die Formulierung und Rechtfertigung einer sozialtheoretischen Grundposition, die hier im Anschluss an eine Formulierung von Max Weber als reduktiver Individualismus bezeichnet wird. Diese Position besteht darin, „Arten des menschlichen Zusammenhandelns [...] auf »verständliches« Handeln und das heißt ausnahmslos: auf Handeln der beteiligten Einzelmenschen, zu reduzieren.“ Ein solches Programm steht im Widerspruch nicht nur zur holistischen Perspektive in der Tradition Emile Durkheims, sondern auch zur Systemtheorie, zu Ansätzen, welche kollektive Praktiken als sinn- und handlungsgenerierend verstehen, sowie zu einer wirkmächtigen Spielart des Individualismus selbst, dem Strukturindividualismus. All diesen Positionen gegenüber lässt sich der reduktive Individualismus als überzeugende Alternative ausweisen.

Mit allem rechnen - zur Philosophie der Computersimulation

Author: Johannes Lenhard

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110401363

Category: Philosophy

Page: 222

View: 8865

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How have computers and simulation models changed scientific practice? Johannes Lenhard examines the methodology and epistemic nature of computer simulations. The conception of mathematical modeling that has so dominated modern science is undergoing redefinition: theory and technology are becoming inseparably connected, thereby resulting in a convergence of the natural and engineering sciences.

The Biological Mind

A Philosophical Introduction

Author: Justin Garson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317676696

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 8917

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For some, biology explains all there is to know about the mind. Yet many big questions remain: is the mind shaped by genes or the environment? If mental traits are the result of adaptations built up over thousands of years, as evolutionary psychologists claim, how can such claims be tested? If the mind is a machine, as biologists argue, how does it allow for something as complex as human consciousness? The Biological Mind: A Philosophical Introduction explores these questions and more, using the philosophy of biology to introduce and assess the nature of the mind. Drawing on the four key themes of evolutionary biology; molecular biology and genetics; neuroscience; and biomedicine and psychiatry Justin Garson addresses the following key topics: moral psychology, altruism and levels of selection evolutionary psychology and modularity genes, environment and the nature-nurture debate neuroscience, reductionism and the relation between biology and free will function, selection and mental representation psychiatric classification and the maladapted mind. Extensive use of examples and case studies is made throughout the book, and additional features such as chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary make this an indispensable introduction to those teaching philosophy of mind and philosophy of psychology. It will also be an excellent resource for those in related fields such as biology.

Religion and Ecology

Developing a Planetary Ethic

Author: Whitney A. Bauman

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231537107

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 1113

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Moving beyond identity politics while continuing to respect diverse entities and concerns, Whitney A. Bauman builds a planetary politics that better responds to the realities of a pluralistic world. Calling attention to the historical, political, and ecological influences shaping our understanding of nature, religion, humanity, and identity, Bauman collapses the boundaries separating male from female, biology from machine, human from more than human, and religion from science, encouraging readers to embrace hybridity and the inherent fluctuations of an open, evolving global community. As he outlines his planetary ethic, Bauman concurrently develops an environmental ethic of movement that relies not on place but on the daily connections we make across the planet. He shows how both identity politics and environmental ethics fail to realize planetary politics and action, limited as they are by foundational modes of thought that create entire worlds out of their own logic. Introducing a postfoundational vision not rooted in the formal principles of "nature" or "God" and not based in the idea of human exceptionalism, Bauman draws on cutting-edge insights from queer, poststructural, and deconstructive theory and makes a major contribution to the study of religion, science, politics, and ecology.

Dreamed Up Reality

Diving into the Mind to Uncover the Astonishing Hidden Tale of Nature

Author: Bernardo Kastrup

Publisher: John Hunt Publishing

ISBN: 9781846949333

Category: Philosophy

Page: 201

View: 7750

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A strong and growing intuition in society today is the idea that our thoughts create our own reality. Yet it seems obvious that, try as we might, our lives are not quite what we fantasize. Is the intuition thus wrong? Through a rational, methodic interpretation of meditative insights, the validity of which is substantiated with a compelling scientific literature review, the author constructs hypotheses that reconcile facts with intuition. Mesmerizing narratives of his expeditions into the unconscious suggest an amazing possibility: just as dreams are seemingly autonomous manifestations of our psyche, reality may be an externalized combination of the subconscious dreams of us all, mixed as they are projected onto the fabric of space-time. Perhaps the laws of physics are an emergent by-product of such synchronization of thoughts. Through computer simulations, the author explores the implications of these hypotheses, with conclusions uncannily reminiscent of observed phenomena.

Space, Time, and Deity

Author: A. Samuel

Publisher: Рипол Классик

ISBN: 5874435255

Category: History

Page: 22

View: 5746

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Space, Time, and Deity. The gifford lectures at glasgow 1916-1918. In two volumes: Volume I

Envisioning Nature, Science, and Religion

Author: James D. Proctor

Publisher: Templeton Foundation Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 376

View: 7685

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Contemporary scholarship has given rise to several different modes of understanding biophysical and human nature, each of which is entangled with related notions of science and religion. Envisioning Nature, Science, and Religionrepresents the culmination of three years of collaboration by an international group of fourteen natural scientists, social scientists, humanists, and theologians. The result is an intellectually stimulating volume that explores how the ideas of nature pertain to science and religion. Editor James D. Proctor has gathered sixteen in-depth essays, each of which examines and compares different aspects of five central metaphors or "visions" of biophysical and human nature. These visions are evolutionary nature, emergent nature, malleable nature, nature as sacred, and nature as culture. The book's diverse contributors offer a wide variety of unique perspectives on these five visions, spanning the intellectual spectrum and proposing important and often startling implications for religion and science alike. Throughout the essays, the authors do a great deal of cross-referencing and engaging each other's ideas, creating a cohesive dialogue on the visions of nature. Envisioning Nature, Science, and Religionoffers a blend of scholarly rigor and readable prose that will be appreciated by anyone engaged in the fields of religion, philosophy, and the natural sciences.

Philosophies of social science

the classic and contemporary readings

Author: Gerard Delanty,Piet Strydom

Publisher: Open University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 481

View: 3755

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“This book will certainly prove to be a useful resource and reference point … a good addition to anyone’s bookshelf.” Network "This is a superb collection, expertly presented. The overall conception seems splendid, giving an excellent sense of the issues... The selection and length of the readings is admirably judged, with both the classic texts and the few unpublished pieces making just the right points." William Outhwaite, Professor of Sociology, University of Sussex "... an indispensable book for all of us in philosophy and the social sciences who teach and care about the shape of social knowledge in the future." Steven Seidman, Professor of Sociology, State University of New York Albany "For a comprehensive account of the ways in which world transformations affect claims to social scientific knowledge, one need look no further than Gerard Delanty and Piet Strydom's Philosophies of Social Science. ...this collection captures nicely the increasingly engaged political nature of the philosophy of social science. Debates about pragmatism, feminism and postmodernism are particularly well represented" The Australian What is social science? How does it differ from the other sciences? What is the meaning of method in social science? What is the nature and limits of scientific knowledge? This collection of over sixty extracts from classic works on the philosophy of social science provides an essential textbook and a landmark reference in the field. It highlights the work of some of the most influential authors who have shaped social science. The texts explore the question of truth, the meaning of scientific knowledge, the nature of methodology and the relation of science to society, including edited extracts from both classic and contemporary works by authors such as Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel, Max Weber, Alfred Schutz, Max Horkheimer, Jurgen Habermas, Alvin Gouldner, Karl-Otto Apel, Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu, Anthony Giddens, Dorothy Smith, Donna Haraway, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Derrida and Claude Levi-Strauss. The readings are representative of the major schools of thought, including European and American trends in particular as well as approaches that are often excluded from mainstream traditions. From a teaching and learning perspective the volume is strengthened by extensive introductions to each of the six sections, as well as a general introduction to the reader as a whole. These introductions contextualise the readings and offer succinct summaries of them. This volume is the definitive companion to the study of the philosophy of social science, taught within undergraduate or postgraduate courses in sociology and the social sciences.

Scientific Realism and International Relations

Author: Jonathan Joseph,Colin Wight

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 4230

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Critical and scientific realism have emerged as important perspectives on international relations in recent years. The attraction of these approaches lies in the claim that they can transcend the positivism vs. postpositivism divide. This book demonstrates the vitality of this approach and the difference that "realism" makes.

The Philosophy of Science

Author: Richard Boyd,Philip Gasper,J. D. Trout

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262521567

Category: Philosophy

Page: 800

View: 5670

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Using formal logic, Reconstructing the Past seeks to clarify and resolve themethodological issues that arise when biologists try to answer such questions as whether humanbeings are more closely related to chimps than they are to gorillas. It explores the case forconsidering the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony as a useful principle for evaluatingtaxonomic theories of evolutionary relationships. Bringing together philosophy, biology, andstatistics, Sober builds a general framework for understanding the circumstances in which parsimonymakes sense as a tool of phylogenetic inference.Elliott Sober is Professor of Philosophy at theUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison, and the author of The Nature of Selection.

The Ethics of Protocells

Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Author: Gaymon Bennett

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262012626

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 365

View: 6363

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Introduction to the prospects of protocells / Mark Bedau and Emily Parke -- New technologies, public perceptions, and ethics / Brian Johnson -- Social and ethical implications of artificial cells / Mark Bedau and Mark Triant -- The acceptability of the risks of protocells / Carl Cranor -- The precautionary principle and its critics / Emily Parke and Mark Bedau -- A new virtue-based understanding of the precautionary principle / Per Sandin -- Ethical dialogue about science in the context of a culture of precaution / Bill Durodia -- The creation of life in cultural context : from spontaneous generation to synthetic biology / Joachim Schummer -- Second life : some ethical issues in synthetic biology and the recapitulation of evolution / Laurie Zoloth -- Protocell patents : property between modularity and emergence / Alain Pottage -- Protocells, precaution, and open-source biology / Andrew Hessel -- The ambivalence of protocells : challenges for self-reflexive ethics / Brigitte Hantsche -- Open evolution and human agency : the pragmatics of upstream ethics in the design of artificial life / George Khushf -- Human practices : interfacing three modes of collaboration / Paul Rabinow and Gaymon Bennett -- This is not a hammer : on ethics and technology / Mickey Gjerris -- Toward a critical evaluation of protocell research / Christine Hauskeller -- Methodological considerations about the ethical and social implications of protocells / Giovanni Boniolo

Protocells

Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Author: Steen Rasmussen,Mark A. Bedau,Liaohai Chen,David C. Krakauer,David Deamer

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262182683

Category: Science

Page: 684

View: 6209

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"The book covers all major scientific approaches to creating minimal life, both in the laboratory and in simulation. It emphasizes the bottom-up view of physicists, chemists, and material scientists but also includes the molecular biologists' top-down approach and the origin-of-life perspective. The capacity to engineer living technology could have an enormous socioeconomic impact and could bring both good and ill."--BOOK JACKET.

Gewalt

Eine neue Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 310401616X

Category: History

Page: 1216

View: 5061

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Die Geschichte der Menschheit – eine ewige Abfolge von Krieg, Genozid, Mord, Folter und Vergewaltigung. Und es wird immer schlimmer. Aber ist das richtig? In einem wahren Opus Magnum, einer groß angelegten Gesamtgeschichte unserer Zivilisation, untersucht der weltbekannte Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker die Entwicklung der Gewalt von der Urzeit bis heute und in allen ihren individuellen und kollektiven Formen, vom Verprügeln der Ehefrau bis zum geplanten Völkermord. Unter Rückgriff auf eine Fülle von wissenschaftlichen Belegen aus den unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen beweist er zunächst, dass die Gewalt im Laufe der Geschichte stetig abgenommen hat und wir heute in der friedlichsten Epoche der Menschheit leben. Diese verblüffende Tatsache verlangt nach einer Erklärung: Pinker schält in seiner Analyse sechs Entwicklungen heraus, die diesen Trend begünstigt haben, untersucht die Psychologie der Gewalt auf fünf innere Dämonen, die Gewaltausübung begünstigen, benennt vier Eigenschaften des Menschen, die den inneren Dämonen entgegenarbeiten und isoliert schließlich fünf historische Kräfte, die uns heute in der friedlichsten Zeit seit jeher leben lassen. Pinkers Darstellung revolutioniert den Blick auf die Welt und uns Menschen. Und sie macht Hoffnung und Mut. »Pinkers Studie ist eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum verbreiteten Kulturpessimismus und dem Gefühl des moralischen Untergangs der Moderne.« Der Spiegel »Steven Pinker ist ein Top-Autor und verdient all die Superlative, mit denen man ihn überhäuft« New York Times» Die Argumente von Steven Pinker haben Gewicht [...]. Die Chance, heute Opfer von Gewalt zu werden, ist viel geringer als zu jeder anderen Zeit. Das ist eine spannende Nachricht, die konträr zur öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist." Deutschlandfunk »Steven Pinker ist ein intellektueller Rockstar« The Guardian »Der Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker gilt als wichtigster Intellektueller« Süddeutsche Zeitung »Verflucht überzeugend« Hamburger Abendblatt

Der Briefwechsel mit Des Bosses

Author: Gottfried W Leibniz

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 3787320768

Category: Philosophy

Page: 721

View: 8657

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In seinem Briefwechsel mit Des Bosses - geführt in den letzten zehn Jahren bis zu seinem Tod - erörtert Leibniz alle Aspekte seines komplexen philosophischen Systems von der Metaphysik über die Ontologie bis hin zur Religionsphilosophie. Ein ›Muߋ für jeden Leibniz-Interpreten. Diese Ausgabe erfüllt ein Desideratum: Sie bietet erstmalig eine durchgängige Übersetzung und Aufarbeitung des Briefwechsels zwischen Leibniz und Des Bosses aus den Jahren 1706 bis 1716, eine der wichtigsten Grundlagen für das Verständnis der Philosophie Leibnizens im Stadium ihrer Vollendung! Die Ausgabe von Cornelius Zehetner reiht sich würdig an frühere kommentierte Übersetzungen: den durchlaufenden Gedanken, i.e. die Herauslösung des dynamisch gestuften verbindlichen 'vinculum substantiale' - ein zweifaches, oft esoterisch entrücktes Komplement zu Erkenntnislehre, Ontologie und Metaphysik sowie zu Religionsphilosophie, Unionstheologie der pax fidei und Theodizee - zu Tage zu bringen, ist jetzt durch die umfassende Wiedergabe der Korrespondenz in ihrer ursprünglichen Folge gelungen. Erst durch diese Präsentation und die beigegebenen Analysen, befruchtet durch das weit verzweigte Schrifttum, sind nun Leibniz' späte Einsichten auch für deutschsprachige Leser eröffnet: Themen und Wendungen, welche aus logisch-mathematischen, naturwissenschaftlichen, gesellschaftstheoretischen wie geisteswissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen in steter Auseinandersetzung mit offen liegenden als auch verborgenen Strömungen philosophischer und theologischer Denkmuster resultieren. Lösungsstrategien wie die im vernetzten Dialog mit dem Pater Bartholomé SJ aufbrechenden Kontroversen manifestieren sich in diesem einzigartig nachdenklichen, sowohl freundschaftlichen wie unnachgiebigen Austausch aus peripatetischen und suarezianischen gegenüber postcartesianischen Ansätzen.