Environmental Contaminants

Assessment and Control

Author: Daniel Vallero

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080470351

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 832

View: 2612

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Environmental Contaminants serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems. Real life solutions for practicing environmental professionals. Example problems, sidebars, and case studies to illustrate ethical issues, environmental economic problems, and environmental management. Explanation of scientific principles and concepts needed for risk assessment, waste management, contaminant transport, environmental hydrogeology, and environmental engineering & chemistry. A fully supportive glossary, appendices and tables throughout the text contain physical, chemical and biological resources necessary for all environmental practitioners.

Handbook of Environmental Contaminants

A Guide for Site Assessment

Author: Chris Shineldecker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873717328

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 9723

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Handbook of Environmental Contaminants: A Guide for Site Assessment is an indispensable working reference for environmental assessment professionals faced with determining potential environmental contaminants that might be found in the soil, groundwater, or air of a property or facility. The book provides a comprehensive listing of potential contaminants associated with hundreds of industries, activities, and processes. The types of properties covered range from agricultural to heavy industrial. The products and processes covered range from the processing of yeast to the constituents of rocket fuel. The book also discusses products associated with the degradation of common chemical solvents in the environment. Handbook of Environmental Contaminants: A Guide for Site Assessment is an important reference for environmental consultants, workers on Superfund sites, public health and safety professionals, attorneys, educators and students, and lenders.

Environmental Contaminants

Measurement, Modelling and Control

Author: Tarun Gupta,Avinash Kumar Agarwal,Rashmi Avinash Agarwal,Nitin K. Labhsetwar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811073325

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 7694

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This book addresses the measurement of environmental contaminants in water, air, and soil. It also presents modifications of and improvements to existing control technologies for remediation of environmental contaminants. It covers improved designs of wastewater systems and innovations in designing newer membranes for water treatment. In addition, it includes two separate sections on the modelling and control of different existing and emerging pollutants. It covers major topics such as: pharmaceutical wastes, paper and pulp waste, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, mining dust, bioaerosols, endosulphan, biomass combustion, and landfill design aspects. It also features chapters on environmental exposure and modelling of aerosol deposition within human lungs. The content of this book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policymakers whose work involves environmental contaminants and related solutions.

Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants

Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Philip S. Rainbow,Michele Romeo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439817711

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 3558

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Tolerance, the ability of populations to cope with the chemical stress resulting from toxic contaminants, has been described in many organisms from bacteria to fungi, from phytoplankton to terrestrial flowering plants, and from invertebrates such as worms to vertebrates like fish and amphibians. The building of tolerance, be it by physiological acclimation or genetic adaptation, can have great consequences for the local biodiversity, and hence the ecology and ecosystem functioning of many of the world’s habitats. Understanding the frequency of the occurrence of tolerance has tremendous implications for the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants takes a multidisciplinary approach across contaminant types, habitats, organisms, biological levels of organization and scientific disciplines. The book examines the general principles governing the acquisition and biological consequences of tolerance, genetically or physiologically based, at different levels of biological organization, taxonomically from bacteria and archaea to flowering plants and vertebrates, and within organisms from molecular biology and biochemistry through physiology to whole organism, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. Presenting a state-of-the-art synthesis of the many aspects of the phenomenon of tolerance to environmental contaminants, this volume covers mechanisms of defense involved in the acquisition of tolerance, different classes of environmental contaminants, positive and negative ecological consequences of tolerance and the impact of tolerance in bacteria, plants, and insects on society. The reviews presented in this book supply the tools for carrying out more informed and therefore more reliable risk-benefit analyses when assessing the ecotoxicological risks to life in any of the contaminated habitats that now surround us in our industrialized society.

Environmental Contaminants

Using natural archives to track sources and long-term trends of pollution

Author: Jules M. Blais,Michael R. Rosen,John P. Smol

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 940179541X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 509

View: 3295

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The human footprint on the global environment now touches every corner of the world. This book explores the myriad ways that environmental archives can be used to study the distribution and long-term trajectories of chemical contaminants. The volume first focuses on reviews that examine the integrity of the historic record, including factors related to hydrology, post-depositional diffusion, and mixing processes. This is followed by a series of chapters dealing with the diverse archives and methodologies available for long-term studies of environmental pollution, such as the use of sediments, ice cores, sclerochronology, and museum specimens.

Health Care and Environmental Contamination

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444640096

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 9166

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Health Care and Environmental Contamination provides a comprehensive explanation of new and evolving topics in the field, including discussions on emissions from pharmaceutical manufacturing, disposal of medical wastes, inputs from sewerage systems, effects on aquatic organisms and wildlife, indirect effects on human health, antibiotic resistance, stewardship, and treatment. These important issues affect the natural environment, making this first book on the topic a must have for comprehensive, broad, and up-to-date coverage of these issues. Written by leading global researchers, scientists, and practitioners in the field Provides an engaging writing style for specialists and non-specialists Ensures a broad balance and critical overview of topics, with unbiased information from thought leaders

Phytoremediation

Management of Environmental Contaminants

Author: Abid A. Ansari,Sarvajeet Singh Gill,Ritu Gill,Guy R. Lanza,Lee Newman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319523813

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 9996

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This text details the plant-assisted remediation method, “phytoremediation”, which involves the interaction of plant roots and associated rhizospheric microorganisms for the remediation of soil contaminated with high levels of metals, pesticides, solvents, radionuclides, explosives, crude oil, organic compounds and various other contaminants. Many chapters highlight and compare the efficiency and economic advantages of phytoremediation to currently practiced soil and water treatment practices. Volume 5 of Phytoremediation: Management of Environmental Contaminants provides the capstone of the series. Taken together, the five volumes provide a broad–based global synopsis of the current applications of phytoremediation using plants and the microbial communities associated with their roots to decontaminate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Phytotechnologies

Remediation of Environmental Contaminants

Author: Naser A. Anjum,Maria E. Pereira,Iqbal Ahmad,Armando C. Duarte,Shahid Umar,Nafees A. Khan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439875197

Category: Science

Page: 617

View: 2932

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Phytotechnologies: Remediation of Environmental Contaminants highlights the use of natural and inherent traits of plants and associated microbes to exclude, accumulate, or metabolize a variety of contaminants, with the goal of efficiently and sustainably decontaminating the biosphere from unwanted hazardous compounds. Contributed by an international team of authors, the book ensures a balance between theory and practice without compromising the basic conceptual framework of Phytotechnologies. Divided into three major sections, the book: Introduces contaminants and contaminated sites, and also highlights the significance of genus Brassica and vetiver grass species for varied environmental contaminants’ remediation Presents an exhaustive exploration of potential strategies for enhancing plants and associated microbes-mediated environmental contaminants’ remediation Overviews major physiological, biochemical, and genetic-molecular mechanisms responsible for plant tolerance and adaptation to varied environmental contaminants A one-stop source of cutting edge answers and time-saving access, Phytotechnologies: Remediation of Environmental Contaminants is a common platform for engineers, environmental microbiologists, plant physiologists, and molecular biologists with the common aim of sustainable solutions to vital environmental issues. In short, the book provides a conceptual overview of ecosystems approaches and phytotechnologies, and their cumulative significance in relation to various environmental problems and potential solutions.

Environmental Contaminants in Biota

Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition

Author: W. Nelson Beyer,James P. Meador

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420084062

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 1053

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Examining tissue residues of contaminants in biota reveals the movement of contaminants within organisms and through food chains as well as the context for understanding and quantifying injuries to organisms and their communities. Yet tissue concentrations of some contaminants are especially challenging to interpret and the ability of today’s analytical chemists to provide reliable analytical data of most important environmental contaminants often surpasses the ability of ecotoxicologists to interpret those data. Offering guidance on the ecotoxicologically meaningful interpretation of tissue concentrations, Environmental Contaminants in Biota, Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition is updated with current data and new ways of analyzing those data as well as additional contaminants not previously considered. Beginning with a history of wildlife toxicology and data interpretation, chapters cover a wide range of contaminants and their hazardous and lethal concentrations in various animals including DDT, Dioxins, PCBs, and PBDEs in aquatic organisms; methylmurcury, selenium, and trace metals in fishes and aquatic invertebrates; and pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants in marine mammals. The book considers the impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers; cyclodiene; and other organochlorine pesticides in birds and mammals. Later chapters examine the effects and analysis of lead, cadmium, and radionuclides in biota. With thousands of published research papers reporting tissue concentrations each year, Environmental Contaminants in Biota, Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition gives ecotoxicologists the ability to draw actionable value regarding the toxicological consequences of those concentrations and relate tissue concentrations quantitatively to injury: the core of ecotoxicology.

Freshwater Microplastics

Emerging Environmental Contaminants?

Author: Martin Wagner,Scott Lambert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319616153

Category: Science

Page: 303

View: 1448

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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This volume focuses on microscopic plastic debris, also referred to as microplastics, which have been detected in aquatic environments around the globe and have accordingly raised serious concerns. The book explores whether microplastics represent emerging contaminants in freshwater systems, an area that remains underrepresented to date. Given the complexity of the issue, the book covers the current state-of-research on microplastics in rivers and lakes, including analytical aspects, environmental concentrations and sources, modelling approaches, interactions with biota, and ecological implications. To provide a broader perspective, the book also discusses lessons learned from nanomaterials and the implications of plastic debris for regulation, politics, economy, and society. In a research field that is rapidly evolving, it offers a solid overview for environmental chemists, engineers, and toxicologists, as well as water managers and policy-makers.

Handbook of Mass Spectra of Environmental Contaminants

Author: Ronald A. Hites

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873715348

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 1787

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Handbook of Mass Spectra of Environmental Contaminants, Second Edition is a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 533 commonly encountered environmental pollutants. The compounds were selected from an analysis of several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization databases. All data have been reviewed by a panel of experienced mass spectrometrists. To help identify unknown compounds, all spectra have been indexed by common chemical name, CAS registry number, exact molecular weight, and intense peaks. Completely revised and expanded, the Handbook of Mass Spectra of Environmental Contaminants, Second Edition, provides information essential to environmental laboratory specialists world-wide. This handbook is a collection of the electron impact mass spectra of 533 commonly encountered environmental pollutants, selected from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization databases.

Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants

Author: John R. Dean

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470025778

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 7041

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This book covers all aspects of bioavailability, as related to environmental contaminants. After a discussion of the definition of bioavailability and its context, focus is placed on the role of risk assessment and bioavailability. Methods of analysis are then discussed including a range of atomic spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques for metal analysis and chromatographic approaches for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The occurrence, properties and eco-toxicity of POPs and metals in the soil/sediment environment are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the uptake of POPs and metals by plants (phytoextraction). Examples of POPs and metals in the environment are reviewed. Methods to assess the bioavailability of POPs and metals in the environment are discussed. The particular approaches considered are: non-exhaustive extraction techniques single extraction techniques sequential extraction techniques use of cyclodextrin and surfactants in-vitro gastrointestinal methods including physiological-based extraction test the use of bioasssays including earthworms. Finally, selected case studies highlight the importance of determining the bioavailability of POPs and metals.

Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants

Author: H.E. Sutton

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323160107

Category: Medical

Page: 212

View: 2318

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Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants investigates the mutagenic consequences of environmental contaminants, such as pesticides, industrials, food additives, drugs, and biologicals, as well as the possible relationships between mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. It describes the monitoring of chemical mutagens in the environment and the ways that genetic mutations cause disease in humans. Organized into 14 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the current burden of human genetic disease and the biochemical mechanisms of mutation. It then discusses practical and feasible methods that use a variety of organisms to screen potential mutagenic agents, increased mutation rates in human populations, mutagens that are currently used commercially, and the interrelationships between mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The reader is also introduced to genetic toxicology, detection of chemically induced mutations in experimental animals, and chromosome and somatic mutations in humans. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, policymakers, and administrators of environmental programs.

Ecotoxicology Essentials

Environmental Contaminants and Their Biological Effects on Animals and Plants

Author: Donald W. Sparling

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128019611

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 482

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Ecotoxicology Essentials: Environmental Contaminants and Their Biological Effects on Animals and Plants provides a fundamental understanding of this area for students and professionals in ecotoxicology, ecology, conservation, chemistry, public health, wildlife management, fisheries, and many other disciplines. Although new chemicals and potential problems are developed every year, a basic education is essential to address these new challenges, and this work gives such training. Written with the regulatory framework in mind, the material guides readers on modelling, how to conduct assessments, and human and wildlife risk, focusing on effects on animals rather than transport of chemicals. Simple discussions of chemistry are complemented by coverage on the behavior of the animal, dynamics of the ecosystem, real-life situations like drought, and predators in the system – i.e., the natural system versus the lab setting. The book’s first section contains chapters on the principles of contaminant toxicology including a brief history of the science of ecotoxicology, basic principles of the science, testing methods, and ways of determining if animals have been exposed to either acute or chronic concentrations of contaminants. The second section deals with the primary classes of contaminants including their chemical characteristics, sources, uses, and effects on organisms. The third section focuses on more complex issues such as the regulation of pollution, population and community effects, risk assessment and modelling. Uses examples from both aquatic and terrestrial environments and species Includes a Terms to Know section and a list of study questions in each chapter, fostering a greater understanding of the issues Focuses on the effects of contaminants on wildlife while providing enough chemistry to allow a detailed understanding of the various contaminant groups Emphasizes natural examples and 'real' species, rather than laboratory studies on only a handful of organisms Features case histories, detailing actual events that include aspects of how the contamination occurred and its effects on wildlife Provides material from a wide variety of international sources

Environmental Contaminants in Food

Author: Colin F. Moffat

Publisher: CRC PressI Llc

ISBN: 9780849397356

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 584

View: 5239

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The global ecosystem that forms our environment impacts on our lives in many different ways. These impacts are not necessarily negative but, on occasion, chemicals, toxins, bacteria, viruses and other contaminants enter our food from the environment, representing an unwelcome contamination of food and drink. In this volume, authors consider activities devoted to ensuring that the input of contaminants from the environment is minimised. Chapters deal with methods of modern instrumental analysis, with a wide range of contaminants, with risk assessment, and, uniquely, with sensory assessment and tainting. This is a book for food scientists and technologists, ingredients suppliers, packaging technologists, quality assurance personnel, analytical chemists, public analysts, microbiologists and environmental health scientists.

Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife

Interpreting Tissue Concentrations

Author: James P. Meador

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566700719

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 2479

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Many books have been written about the effects of toxic chemicals on wildlife, but none has focused on the practical question, "How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?" This book deals exclusively with that question. This comprehensive reference will certainly become the standard resource on the topic, offering authoritative and sound advice on many environmental contaminants. With chapters written by outstanding experts in their respective fields, this is not only a scholarly collection of discussions on different chemicals, but, for those who have the day-to-day task of evaluating the harm of environment contaminants to wildlife, this book will provide answers on, for example, how to interpret 1 ppm lead in the liver of a duck or fish. The authors explain the snags of interpreting data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient, providing the reader with helpful advice on how to cope with such data. Each chapter reviews literature on a specific chemical, followed by a easy-to-understand summary providing technical guidance. For many years this book will remain the preeminent reference on how to interpret contaminant levels of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, selenium, and fluorides in wildlife.

Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles, a review

Author: Russell James Hall,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 12

View: 2558

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The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants, but the significance of the residues to reptile populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

Environmental Contamination in Antarctica

A Challenge to Analytical Chemistry

Author: S. Caroli,P. Cescon,D.W.H. Walton

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780080531076

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 3280

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This thought-provoking and ambitious volume surveys the causes and extent of environmental contamination in Antarctica, and looks critically at future prospects. It highlights the key role that modern techniques of analytical chemistry play in achieving reliable empirical data in this field and their impact on shaping legal provisions. Written by prominent scientists and experts in Antarctic sciences, this work gives an overview of the studies undertaken by countries to assess the impact of pollution phenomena on the uniquely clean environment of Antarctica. Empirical studies and regulatory issues are evaluated in context with the goal of providing a model approach to more polluted areas of the world.