Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482242915

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 6711

Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

A The Terrestrial Environment

Author: P. Fritz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483289613

Category: Science

Page: 558

View: 1071

Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 1: The Terrestrial Environment, A focuses on isotope hydrology and aqueous geochemistry, as well as an overview of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial systems. The selection first elaborates on the isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, carbon-14 in hydrogeological studies, and environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology. Concerns cover groundwater dating, mechanism of salinization, groundwater recharge, models of the isotope fractionation during evaporation and condensation of water in the atmosphere, and stable isotope distribution in atmospheric waters. The book then examines environmental isotopes in ice and snow, isotopic evidence on environments of geothermal systems, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes in aqueous sulfur compounds. Discussions focus on geochemistry and isotope distribution of aqueous sulfur compounds, isotopic dating of geothermal waters, origin of chemical constituents, geothermometry, isotope distribution during the reduction of a temperate snow cover, and snow and ice isotope hydrology. The manuscript explores environmental isotopes as environmental and climatological indicators, sulfur isotopes in the environment, nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, and the isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon. The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.

Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Author: C. Marjorie Aelion,Patrick Höhener,Daniel Hunkeler,Ramon Aravena

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420012613

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 9938

Enhanced analytical capabilities and separation techniques, improved detection limits, and accessibility of instrumentation have led to massive strides in the use of isotopes to assess microbial processes in surface and subsurface sediments. Considering the rapid growth of research and commercial interest in stable isotope and radioisotope applications for contaminant hydrology and microbial ecology, an up-to-date overview of the field is long overdue. Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation comprehensively covers established and emerging isotope methods for environmental applications, focusing on biodegradation and bioremediation. This book is an invaluable tool for researchers, practitioners, and regulators who require an extensive understanding of the application of isotope methods to natural compounds and environmental contaminants. It addresses questions including: What amount of a compound comes from anthropogenic release? Do the chemicals involved undergo degradation in the environment? Do they persist and accumulate? This book is divided into four sections: Isotope Fundamentals covers important background and theoretical information needed to understand later chapters Isotopes and Microbial Processes discusses the application of isotopes to different environmental redox conditions that dictate the predominant microbial processes that will occur Isotopes in Field Applications describes the transformation of anthropogenic pollutants and the application of isotope tools to field sites Isotope Emerging Areas addresses the use of compounds labeled with stable isotopes, including stable isotope probing and the use of radiocarbon at natural abundance and novel stable isotopes This reference details how isotope tools can be used to gain insight into the origin and fate of natural compounds and contaminants in the environment. Integrating theoretical and practical knowledge, the authors examine the principles of isotope tools and then present an extensive overview of key environmental processes that can be investigated with isotope methods. They also discuss analytical and data evaluation procedures, addressing established and emerging applications. To illustrate concepts and methodology, the authors use a wide range of case studies and recent field and laboratory research from various disciplines currently employing these methods. This book is a valuable tool for expanding the application of both stable isotopes and radioisotopes into untapped areas.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 3466

This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Isotopes in the Water Cycle

Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science

Author: Pradeep K. Aggarwal,Joel R. Gat,Klaus F. Froehlich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402066719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 382

View: 8807

Environmental isotope and nuclear techniques provide unmatched insights into the processes governing the water cycle and its variability. This monograph presents state of the art applications and new developments of isotopes in hydrology, environmental disciplines and climate change studies. Coverage ranges from the assessment of groundwater resources in terms of recharge and flow regime to studies of the past and present global environmental and climate changes.


Principles and Practice

Author: Kevin M. Hiscock,Victor F. Bense

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118738705

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 1016

Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004. The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change. Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors’ teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader’s knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology. This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater. Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/hiscock/hydrogeology

Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591749

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 1228

Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Introduction to Isotope Hydrology

Stable and Radioactive Isotopes of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon

Author: Willem Gerrit Mook

Publisher: CRC PressI Llc


Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 6848

This publication presents, in a simple, but scientifically rigorous manner, the consequences of natural processes to stable isotope concentrations and radioactivities, and discusses the implications of these processes.

Isotope Hydrology

A Study of the Water Cycle

Author: Joel R. Gat

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848164742

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 5101

Within the discipline of environmental sciences, the stable-isotope methodology is being increasingly used, especially in the study of the water cycle and of paleo-climatology. This book reviews the natural variability of stable isotopes in the hydrosphere, describing the physico-chemical basis of isotope fractionalism, and applying this knowledge to natural waters as they move through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean to the atmosphere, the biosphere and the lithosphere. It focuses on the processes at the surface-atmosphere and land-biosphere-atmosphere interfaces, since these are the sites of major changes in isotope composition. In response to the increasing awareness of our changing climate, a discussion on the global view of the changing water cycle, in the past and future, concludes up the presentation.

Regional Approaches to Water Pollution in the Environment

Author: P.E. Rijtema,V. Eliás

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400903456

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 9803

Regional Approaches to Water Pollution in the Environment integrates knowledge and experience on pollution problems related to industrial, agricultural and municipal activities and former military sites, with special emphasis on the Black Triangle: the region situated at the borders between North Bohemia, Polish Lower Silesia and South Saxony. Here, some five million inhabitants live in an area of brown coal basins having the highest emissions of sulphuric and nitrogen emission in the whole of Europe. The large-scale damage in this region is due to obsolete technology and insufficient equipment for monitoring emissions. Health effects are severe, and controlling the pollution can only be done at high cost. There is thus a need to exchange knowledge and experience on methods for evaluating the expected effects of measures and purification techniques to remedy ground and surface water pollution.

Application of environmental isotope methods for groundwater studies in the ESCWA region (Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia)

Author: Wolfgang Wagner,Mebus A. Geyh

Publisher: Bundesanstalt Fur Geowissenschaften Und Rohstoffe


Category: Groundwater

Page: 129

View: 7433

Numerous hydrological projects have been carried out using isotopic methods over the last two decades in the ESCWA region, which includes the Arabian Peninsula, the Arabian countries to the north, and Egypt. The large amount of data obtained from groundwater samples has been evaluated together with the hydrogeological, hydrochemical and water management data available for the area. Analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon in the groundwater samples, as well as the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and carbon are used for the localization of groundwater recharge areas; determination and quantification of mixtures of groundwater from different sources; reconstruction of groundwater flow systems on regional and local scales; determination of the paleoclimatic effects on the geohydraulic conditions; determination of groundwater ages, i.e., residence times; and distinguishing between renewable and fossil groundwater resources. Extensive hydrological studies using isotopic methods have been conducted in the ESCWA region on the following aquifer systems and topics: isotopic composition of precipitation in Jordan and Syria; groundwater turnover in karst aquifers in the highlands of western Jordan, the mountains in western Syria and the West Bank; groundwater recharge from precipitation and surface water on the Damascus plain; origin and age of groundwater in the basalt aquifer system in Jordan and Syria; recently recharged freshwater lenses and fossil groundwater in Badiye and Hamad (steppe and desert regions in Syria and eastern Jordan and the adjacent areas in Iraq and Saudi Arabia); low of fossil groundwater and local, recently recharged groundwater in Paleogene carbonate aquifers in eastern Saudi Arabia, the Golf region, and southern Oman; groundwater recharge from flash floods in the aquifers in unconsolidated rock in wadis and coastal plains of the Arabian Peninsula; age and origin of groundwater in aquifers in consolidated rock in the mountains of Oman. The discussion of the hydrogeological significance of isotope data is supplemented by comments on the most important current hydrogeological problems in the ESCWA region that could be investigated using isotopic methods. These include problems of groundwater recharge, the provenance of groundwater, groundwater flow systems on regional and local scales, paleohydrological conditions, and groundwater quality, particularly contamination by human activities. All available publications on the isotope hydrology of the ESCWA region are listed in the bibliography, as well as basic publications on isotope hydrology in arid regions. (Isotope geochemistry, isotope ratios, stable isotopes, O16, O18, O18/O16, C14, radioactive isotopes, iritium, absolute age, atmospheric precipitation, groundwater, currents, groundwater provinces, groundwater quality, sampling, groundwater recharge, climate, paleoclimate, aquifer, sandstone, limestone, dolomite, volcanic rocks, quaternary aquifer, unconsolidated sediments Bahrain, Jemen, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Oman, United Arabic Emirates)

Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology

Author: Peter G. Cook,Andrew L. Herczeg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461545579

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 4512

Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Isotopes in Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources

Author: Brat Pal Singh,Bhishm Kumar

Publisher: Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.

ISBN: 9788173196904

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 8232

Table of Contents Ch. 1 Introduction 1 Ch. 2 Basic concepts of nuclear physics 8 Ch. 3 Nuclear instrumentation techniques 25 Ch. 4 Environmental isotopes of water molecule and the applications 37 Ch. 5 Tritium, radio carbon and chlorine-36 dating 69 Ch. 6 Chlorofluorocarbons (C Cl[subscript 3]F, CFC - 11, and C Cl[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) CFC-12 as dating tools and hydrologic tracers 93 Ch. 7 Artificial radioactive isotopes as tracers in surface, subsurface and ground water resources 99 Ch. 8 Application of sealed sources 122 Ch. 9 Sediment studies 149.

Stable isotope hydrology

deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water cycle

Author: J. R. Gat,R. Gonfiantini,International Hydrological Programme. Working Group on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology

Publisher: Intl Atomic Energy Agency


Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 8312


Handbook of Engineering Hydrology

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Saeid Eslamian

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466552441

Category: Science

Page: 636

View: 8532

While most books only examine the classical aspects of hydrology, the three-volume set covers multiple aspects of hydrology, and includes contributions from experts from more than 30 countries. It examines new approaches, addresses growing concerns about hydrological and ecological connectivity, and considers the worldwide impact of climate change. It also provides updated material on hydrological science and engineering, discussing recent developments as well as classic approaches. Published in three books, Fundamentals and Applications; Modeling, Climate Change, and Variability; and Environmental Hydrology and Water Management, the entire set consists of 87 chapters, and contains 29 chapters in each book. The chapters in this book contain information on: Long-term generation of scheduling of hydro plants, check dam selection procedures in rainwater harvesting, and stochastic reservoir analysis Ecohydrology for engineering harmony in the changing world, concepts, and plant water use Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water Hydrologic and hydraulic design in green infrastructure Data processing in hydrology, optimum hydrometric site selection and quality control, and homogenization of climatological series Cold region hydrology, evapotranspiration, and water consumption Modern flood prediction and warning systems, and satellite-based systems for flood monitoring and warning Catchment water yield estimation, hydrograph analysis and base flow separation, and low flow hydrology Sustainability in urban water systems and urban hydrology Students, practitioners, policy makers, consultants and researchers can benefit from the use of this text.

Transferable Groundwater Rights

Integrating Hydrogeology, Law and Economics

Author: Andreas N. Charalambous

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113645599X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 3858

The principle of transferable groundwater rights is that by making water rights capable of being traded in the market, water resources can be used more sustainably and efficiently. Groundwater would achieve its economic value, by switching from the high volume-low value irrigation, which is prevalent with many farmers, particularly in South Asia, to low volume-high value urban supply or the growing of intensive horticultural or cash crops. This book discusses transferable groundwater rights in their broader context. It starts with a detailed description of the physical aspects of groundwater, which non-technical readers should find useful, followed by a discussion of legal and economic aspects. Water transfers and the international experiences in transferable groundwater rights are dealt with in detail in two subsequent chapters. A model is presented to guide those involved in water resources management and planning in their decision process to introduce transferable groundwater rights and water rights trading. The author concludes that transferable groundwater rights potentially offer a better alternative to land-based water rights systems. However, he casts serious doubt on whether groundwater rights trading on its own can achieve water resources sustainability, environmental protection and social equity. Government intervention seems to be almost always needed to assist the water rights market and take responsibility for any of its adverse consequences.