Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482242915

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 958

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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566702492

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 4699

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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 7842

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Author: C. Marjorie Aelion,Patrick Höhener,Daniel Hunkeler,Ramon Aravena

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420012613

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 3691

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Enhanced analytical capabilities and separation techniques, improved detection limits, and accessibility of instrumentation have led to massive strides in the use of isotopes to assess microbial processes in surface and subsurface sediments. Considering the rapid growth of research and commercial interest in stable isotope and radioisotope applications for contaminant hydrology and microbial ecology, an up-to-date overview of the field is long overdue. Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation comprehensively covers established and emerging isotope methods for environmental applications, focusing on biodegradation and bioremediation. This book is an invaluable tool for researchers, practitioners, and regulators who require an extensive understanding of the application of isotope methods to natural compounds and environmental contaminants. It addresses questions including: What amount of a compound comes from anthropogenic release? Do the chemicals involved undergo degradation in the environment? Do they persist and accumulate? This book is divided into four sections: Isotope Fundamentals covers important background and theoretical information needed to understand later chapters Isotopes and Microbial Processes discusses the application of isotopes to different environmental redox conditions that dictate the predominant microbial processes that will occur Isotopes in Field Applications describes the transformation of anthropogenic pollutants and the application of isotope tools to field sites Isotope Emerging Areas addresses the use of compounds labeled with stable isotopes, including stable isotope probing and the use of radiocarbon at natural abundance and novel stable isotopes This reference details how isotope tools can be used to gain insight into the origin and fate of natural compounds and contaminants in the environment. Integrating theoretical and practical knowledge, the authors examine the principles of isotope tools and then present an extensive overview of key environmental processes that can be investigated with isotope methods. They also discuss analytical and data evaluation procedures, addressing established and emerging applications. To illustrate concepts and methodology, the authors use a wide range of case studies and recent field and laboratory research from various disciplines currently employing these methods. This book is a valuable tool for expanding the application of both stable isotopes and radioisotopes into untapped areas.

Applied Isotope Hydrogeology

A Case Study in Northern Switzerland

Author: F.J. Pearson,W. Balderer,H.H. Loosli,B.E. Lehmann,A. Matter,T. Peters,H. Schmassmann,Roland U Gautschi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080875026

Category: Science

Page: 460

View: 5186

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In 1980, Nagra, the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, began a comprehensive field investigation programme to assess the feasibility and safety of a repository for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in northern Switzerland. An international team of scientists has carried out a comprehensive study on the isotope hydrogeology of deep groundwaters. One of the major implications of this work pertains to the storage of radioactive waste. The study goes far beyond an in-depth regional study as it draws together the results of diverse techniques, many of which have been re-evaluated or further developed. This book presents in great detail the results of one of the most comprehensive isotope hydrology studies ever undertaken.

Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology

Author: Peter G. Cook,Andrew L. Herczeg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461545579

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 5068

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Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Isotopes in the Water Cycle

Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science

Author: Pradeep K. Aggarwal,Joel R. Gat,Klaus F. Froehlich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402066719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 382

View: 7225

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Environmental isotope and nuclear techniques provide unmatched insights into the processes governing the water cycle and its variability. This monograph presents state of the art applications and new developments of isotopes in hydrology, environmental disciplines and climate change studies. Coverage ranges from the assessment of groundwater resources in terms of recharge and flow regime to studies of the past and present global environmental and climate changes.

Isotope Hydrology

A Study of the Water Cycle

Author: Joel R. Gat

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848164742

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 8659

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Within the discipline of environmental sciences, the stable-isotope methodology is being increasingly used, especially in the study of the water cycle and of paleo-climatology. This book reviews the natural variability of stable isotopes in the hydrosphere, describing the physico-chemical basis of isotope fractionalism, and applying this knowledge to natural waters as they move through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean to the atmosphere, the biosphere and the lithosphere. It focuses on the processes at the surface-atmosphere and land-biosphere-atmosphere interfaces, since these are the sites of major changes in isotope composition. In response to the increasing awareness of our changing climate, a discussion on the global view of the changing water cycle, in the past and future, concludes up the presentation.

Chemical and Isotopic Groundwater Hydrology

Author: Emanuel Mazor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203912959

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 2122

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This updated and expanded edition provides a thorough understanding of the measurable properties of groundwater systems and the knowledge to apply hydrochemical, geological, isotopic, and dating approaches to their work. This volume includes question and answer discussions for key concepts presented in the text and the basic hydrological, geological, and physical parameters to be observed and measured. Chemical and Isotopic Groundwater Hydrology, Third Edition covers the chemical tools of groundwater hydrology, the isotopic composition of water and groundwater dating by tritum, carbon-14, Cl-36, and He-4, as well as the application of fossil groundwater as a paleoclimatic indicator.

Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591749

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 8942

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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Hydrogeology

Principles and Practice

Author: Kevin M. Hiscock,Victor F. Bense

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118738705

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 9953

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Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004. The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change. Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors’ teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader’s knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology. This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater. Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/hiscock/hydrogeology

Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science

Author: Robert Michener,Kate Lajtha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691174

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 9239

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This book highlights new and emerging uses of stable isotope analysis in a variety of ecological disciplines. While the use of natural abundance isotopes in ecological research is now relatively standard, new techniques and ways of interpreting patterns are developing rapidly. The second edition of this book provides a thorough, up-to-date examination of these methods of research. As part of the Ecological Methods and Concepts series which provides the latest information on experimental techniques in ecology, this book looks at a wide range of techniques that use natural abundance isotopes to: follow whole ecosystem element cycling understand processes of soil organic matter formation follow the movement of water in whole watersheds understand the effects of pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic environments study extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents follow migrating organisms In each case, the book explains the background to the methodology, looks at the underlying principles and assumptions, and outlines the potential limitations and pitfalls. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science is an ideal resource for both ecologists who are new to isotopic analysis, and more experienced isotope ecologists interested in innovative techniques and pioneering new uses.

Stable Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Jochen Hoefs

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319197169

Category: Science

Page: 389

View: 9564

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Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an introduction to the use of stable isotopes in the geosciences. For students and scientists alike the book will be a primary source of information with regard to how and where stable isotopes can be used to solve geological problems. It is subdivided into three parts: i) theoretical and experimental principles, ii) fractionation processes of light and heavy elements, iii) the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. In the last decade, major advances in multicollector-ICP-mass-spectrometry enable the precise determination of a wide range of transition and heavy elements. Progress in analysing the rare isotopes of certain elements allows the distinction between mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionations. These major advances in analytical techniques make an extended new edition necessary. Special emphasis has been given to the growing field of “non-traditional” isotope systems. Many new references have been added, which will enable quick access to recent literature.

Introduction to Isotope Hydrology

Stable and Radioactive Isotopes of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon

Author: Willem Gerrit Mook

Publisher: CRC PressI Llc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 6724

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This publication presents, in a simple, but scientifically rigorous manner, the consequences of natural processes to stable isotope concentrations and radioactivities, and discusses the implications of these processes.

Tracers in Hydrology

Author: Christian Leibundgut,Piotr Maloszewski,Christoph K?lls

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119965012

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1454

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Tracers in Hydrology and Water Research is a comprehensive overview of the application of natural and artificial tracers in hydrology and environmental research. Taking a unique approach by providing the reader with a systematic and state of the art description of natural and artificial tracers, the book also covers key analytical techniques and applications, and modern tracer methods in the context of systematic hydrology. Tracers have become a primary tool for process investigation, qualitative and quantitative system analysis and integrated resource management. This book will outline the fundamentals of the subject, and examine the latest research findings, clearly showing the entire process of tracer application through the inclusion of numerous integrated case studies. As many techniques derive from different scientific disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics), the effort of compilation and integration into modern hydrology and environmental science research and application requires substantial continuity and experience, which certifies this group of authors. This book will be an invaluable reference not only for students and researchers within the field of Hydrology and Hydrogeology but also for engineers and other tracer techniques applying users.

A The Terrestrial Environment

Author: P. Fritz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483289613

Category: Science

Page: 558

View: 6926

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Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 1: The Terrestrial Environment, A focuses on isotope hydrology and aqueous geochemistry, as well as an overview of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial systems. The selection first elaborates on the isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, carbon-14 in hydrogeological studies, and environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology. Concerns cover groundwater dating, mechanism of salinization, groundwater recharge, models of the isotope fractionation during evaporation and condensation of water in the atmosphere, and stable isotope distribution in atmospheric waters. The book then examines environmental isotopes in ice and snow, isotopic evidence on environments of geothermal systems, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes in aqueous sulfur compounds. Discussions focus on geochemistry and isotope distribution of aqueous sulfur compounds, isotopic dating of geothermal waters, origin of chemical constituents, geothermometry, isotope distribution during the reduction of a temperate snow cover, and snow and ice isotope hydrology. The manuscript explores environmental isotopes as environmental and climatological indicators, sulfur isotopes in the environment, nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, and the isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon. The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 4391

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Stable isotope hydrology

deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water cycle

Author: J. R. Gat,R. Gonfiantini,International Hydrological Programme. Working Group on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology

Publisher: Intl Atomic Energy Agency

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 6786

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Environmental Radionuclides

Tracers and Timers of Terrestrial Processes

Author: Klaus Froehlich

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080913292

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 995

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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers