Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482242915

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 9280

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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Author: C. Marjorie Aelion,Patrick Höhener,Daniel Hunkeler,Ramon Aravena

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420012613

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 9283

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Enhanced analytical capabilities and separation techniques, improved detection limits, and accessibility of instrumentation have led to massive strides in the use of isotopes to assess microbial processes in surface and subsurface sediments. Considering the rapid growth of research and commercial interest in stable isotope and radioisotope applications for contaminant hydrology and microbial ecology, an up-to-date overview of the field is long overdue. Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation comprehensively covers established and emerging isotope methods for environmental applications, focusing on biodegradation and bioremediation. This book is an invaluable tool for researchers, practitioners, and regulators who require an extensive understanding of the application of isotope methods to natural compounds and environmental contaminants. It addresses questions including: What amount of a compound comes from anthropogenic release? Do the chemicals involved undergo degradation in the environment? Do they persist and accumulate? This book is divided into four sections: Isotope Fundamentals covers important background and theoretical information needed to understand later chapters Isotopes and Microbial Processes discusses the application of isotopes to different environmental redox conditions that dictate the predominant microbial processes that will occur Isotopes in Field Applications describes the transformation of anthropogenic pollutants and the application of isotope tools to field sites Isotope Emerging Areas addresses the use of compounds labeled with stable isotopes, including stable isotope probing and the use of radiocarbon at natural abundance and novel stable isotopes This reference details how isotope tools can be used to gain insight into the origin and fate of natural compounds and contaminants in the environment. Integrating theoretical and practical knowledge, the authors examine the principles of isotope tools and then present an extensive overview of key environmental processes that can be investigated with isotope methods. They also discuss analytical and data evaluation procedures, addressing established and emerging applications. To illustrate concepts and methodology, the authors use a wide range of case studies and recent field and laboratory research from various disciplines currently employing these methods. This book is a valuable tool for expanding the application of both stable isotopes and radioisotopes into untapped areas.

Isotopes in the Water Cycle

Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science

Author: Pradeep K. Aggarwal,Joel R. Gat,Klaus F. Froehlich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402066719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 382

View: 4037

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Environmental isotope and nuclear techniques provide unmatched insights into the processes governing the water cycle and its variability. This monograph presents state of the art applications and new developments of isotopes in hydrology, environmental disciplines and climate change studies. Coverage ranges from the assessment of groundwater resources in terms of recharge and flow regime to studies of the past and present global environmental and climate changes.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

A The Terrestrial Environment

Author: P. Fritz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483289613

Category: Science

Page: 558

View: 660

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Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 1: The Terrestrial Environment, A focuses on isotope hydrology and aqueous geochemistry, as well as an overview of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial systems. The selection first elaborates on the isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, carbon-14 in hydrogeological studies, and environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology. Concerns cover groundwater dating, mechanism of salinization, groundwater recharge, models of the isotope fractionation during evaporation and condensation of water in the atmosphere, and stable isotope distribution in atmospheric waters. The book then examines environmental isotopes in ice and snow, isotopic evidence on environments of geothermal systems, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes in aqueous sulfur compounds. Discussions focus on geochemistry and isotope distribution of aqueous sulfur compounds, isotopic dating of geothermal waters, origin of chemical constituents, geothermometry, isotope distribution during the reduction of a temperate snow cover, and snow and ice isotope hydrology. The manuscript explores environmental isotopes as environmental and climatological indicators, sulfur isotopes in the environment, nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, and the isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon. The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.

Hydrogeology

Principles and Practice

Author: Kevin M. Hiscock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405144505

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 7464

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Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensiveintroduction to the study of hydrogeology and the significance ofgroundwater in the terrestrial aquatic environment. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemicalprinciples of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwaterinvestigation techniques and contaminant hydrogeology. A uniquefeature of the book is a chapter on the application ofenvironmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation ofaquifer evolution. The last chapter discusses groundwater resourcesand environmental management, and examines the role of groundwaterin integrated river basin management, including the possibleimpacts of climate change. Throughout the text, boxes are used to explain special topics andto illustrate international case studies. The appendices provideuseful reference material and include review questions andexercises to develop the reader's knowledge and problem-solvingskills in hydrogeology. This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate andgraduate students in earth and environmental sciences taking acourse in hydrogeology or groundwater science. An Instructor manual CD-ROM for this title is available. Pleasecontact our Higher Education team at ahref="mailto:[email protected]"[email protected]/afor more information.

Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591749

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 3950

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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Isotope Hydrology

A Study of the Water Cycle

Author: Joel R. Gat

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848164742

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 2479

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Within the discipline of environmental sciences, the stable-isotope methodology is being increasingly used, especially in the study of the water cycle and of paleo-climatology. This book reviews the natural variability of stable isotopes in the hydrosphere, describing the physico-chemical basis of isotope fractionalism, and applying this knowledge to natural waters as they move through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean to the atmosphere, the biosphere and the lithosphere. It focuses on the processes at the surface-atmosphere and land-biosphere-atmosphere interfaces, since these are the sites of major changes in isotope composition. In response to the increasing awareness of our changing climate, a discussion on the global view of the changing water cycle, in the past and future, concludes up the presentation.

Regional Approaches to Water Pollution in the Environment

Author: P.E. Rijtema,V. Eliás

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400903456

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 7159

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Regional Approaches to Water Pollution in the Environment integrates knowledge and experience on pollution problems related to industrial, agricultural and municipal activities and former military sites, with special emphasis on the Black Triangle: the region situated at the borders between North Bohemia, Polish Lower Silesia and South Saxony. Here, some five million inhabitants live in an area of brown coal basins having the highest emissions of sulphuric and nitrogen emission in the whole of Europe. The large-scale damage in this region is due to obsolete technology and insufficient equipment for monitoring emissions. Health effects are severe, and controlling the pollution can only be done at high cost. There is thus a need to exchange knowledge and experience on methods for evaluating the expected effects of measures and purification techniques to remedy ground and surface water pollution.

Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology

Author: Peter G. Cook,Andrew L. Herczeg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461545579

Category: Science

Page: 529

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Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Introduction to Isotope Hydrology

Stable and Radioactive Isotopes of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon

Author: Willem Gerrit Mook

Publisher: CRC PressI Llc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 9516

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This publication presents, in a simple, but scientifically rigorous manner, the consequences of natural processes to stable isotope concentrations and radioactivities, and discusses the implications of these processes.

Isotopes in Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources

Author: Brat Pal Singh,Bhishm Kumar

Publisher: Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.

ISBN: 9788173196904

Category: Science

Page: 188

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Table of Contents Ch. 1 Introduction 1 Ch. 2 Basic concepts of nuclear physics 8 Ch. 3 Nuclear instrumentation techniques 25 Ch. 4 Environmental isotopes of water molecule and the applications 37 Ch. 5 Tritium, radio carbon and chlorine-36 dating 69 Ch. 6 Chlorofluorocarbons (C Cl[subscript 3]F, CFC - 11, and C Cl[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) CFC-12 as dating tools and hydrologic tracers 93 Ch. 7 Artificial radioactive isotopes as tracers in surface, subsurface and ground water resources 99 Ch. 8 Application of sealed sources 122 Ch. 9 Sediment studies 149.

Handbook of Engineering Hydrology

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Saeid Eslamian

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466552441

Category: Science

Page: 636

View: 6760

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While most books only examine the classical aspects of hydrology, the three-volume set covers multiple aspects of hydrology, and includes contributions from experts from more than 30 countries. It examines new approaches, addresses growing concerns about hydrological and ecological connectivity, and considers the worldwide impact of climate change. It also provides updated material on hydrological science and engineering, discussing recent developments as well as classic approaches. Published in three books, Fundamentals and Applications; Modeling, Climate Change, and Variability; and Environmental Hydrology and Water Management, the entire set consists of 87 chapters, and contains 29 chapters in each book. The chapters in this book contain information on: Long-term generation of scheduling of hydro plants, check dam selection procedures in rainwater harvesting, and stochastic reservoir analysis Ecohydrology for engineering harmony in the changing world, concepts, and plant water use Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water Hydrologic and hydraulic design in green infrastructure Data processing in hydrology, optimum hydrometric site selection and quality control, and homogenization of climatological series Cold region hydrology, evapotranspiration, and water consumption Modern flood prediction and warning systems, and satellite-based systems for flood monitoring and warning Catchment water yield estimation, hydrograph analysis and base flow separation, and low flow hydrology Sustainability in urban water systems and urban hydrology Students, practitioners, policy makers, consultants and researchers can benefit from the use of this text.

Isotopes of the Earth's Hydrosphere

Author: V.I. Ferronsky,V.A. Polyakov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400728557

Category: Science

Page: 630

View: 8325

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This book covers the distribution, hydrochemistry and geophysics of the naturally occurring stable isotopes namely: hydrogen, oxygen and radioactive tritium, carbon and other cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes of the uranium-thorium series, in the oceans and in atmosphere, the earth's surface and ground water. The use of environmental isotopes in the three main areas of natural waters is discussed: origin, dynamics and residence time in natural reservoirs. The origin of the hydrosphere is examined in the light of isotopic, new cosmochemical and recent theoretical results. The book will be of interest to scientists and researchers who use environmental isotopes in solving scientific and practical problems in hydrology, hydrogeology, oceanography, meteorology, hydrogeochemistry and cosmochemistry. Lecturers, students and postgraduates in these fields will also find it useful.

Transferable Groundwater Rights

Integrating Hydrogeology, Law and Economics

Author: Andreas N. Charalambous

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113645599X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 5053

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The principle of transferable groundwater rights is that by making water rights capable of being traded in the market, water resources can be used more sustainably and efficiently. Groundwater would achieve its economic value, by switching from the high volume-low value irrigation, which is prevalent with many farmers, particularly in South Asia, to low volume-high value urban supply or the growing of intensive horticultural or cash crops. This book discusses transferable groundwater rights in their broader context. It starts with a detailed description of the physical aspects of groundwater, which non-technical readers should find useful, followed by a discussion of legal and economic aspects. Water transfers and the international experiences in transferable groundwater rights are dealt with in detail in two subsequent chapters. A model is presented to guide those involved in water resources management and planning in their decision process to introduce transferable groundwater rights and water rights trading. The author concludes that transferable groundwater rights potentially offer a better alternative to land-based water rights systems. However, he casts serious doubt on whether groundwater rights trading on its own can achieve water resources sustainability, environmental protection and social equity. Government intervention seems to be almost always needed to assist the water rights market and take responsibility for any of its adverse consequences.