Environmental Physiology of Animals

Author: Pat Willmer,Graham Stone,Ian Johnston

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444309226

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 3110

The new and updated edition of this accessible text provides a comprehensive overview of the comparative physiology of animals within an environmental context. Includes two brand new chapters on Nerves and Muscles and the Endocrine System. Discusses both comparative systems physiology and environmental physiology. Analyses and integrates problems and adaptations for each kind of environment: marine, seashore and estuary, freshwater, terrestrial and parasitic. Examines mechanisms and responses beyond physiology. Applies an evolutionary perspective to the analysis of environmental adaptation. Provides modern molecular biology insights into the mechanistic basis of adaptation, and takes the level of analysis beyond the cell to the membrane, enzyme and gene. Incorporates more varied material from a wide range of animal types, with less of a focus purely on terrestrial reptiles, birds and mammals and rather more about the spectacularly successful strategies of invertebrates. A companion site for this book with artwork for downloading is available at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/willmer/

Environmental Physiology of Animals

Author: Pat Willmer,Graham Stone

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780632035175

Category: Science

Page: 644

View: 3490

This new text provides a fresh approach to the subject of animal physiology, truly integrating comparative and environmental aspects for the first time. The book is divided into three sections: the first covers the basic principles of adaptation and problems of size and scale; the second tackles the key mechanisms in comparative physiology; and the third considers in detail how organisms (both vertebrate and invertebrate) cope with particular environments. Throughout this final section, relevant comparative aspects are given prominence in boxes so that interesting topics can be explored in greater depth. Several textbooks deal with the physiological functioning and comparative adaptations of animals, but this one is different: Includes both comparative systems physiology (basic principles and mechanisms of excretion, thermal biology, respiration, etc) and environmental physiology (problems of life in different habitats), with easy cross-reference between the two. Analyses and integrates problems and adaptations for each kind of environment: marine, seashore and estuary, freshwater, terrestrial and parasitic. For example, it explains how seashore animals survive both tidal submersion in cold salt water and exposure to warm dry air, cope with wide variations in salinity and temperature and achieve both aerial and underwater breathing. Examines mechanisms and responses beyond physiology. It analyses the costs of different types of locomotion, together with the mechanical challenges and varying sensory needs imposed by different environments. Behavioural responses to environmental challenges are considered, including the evolution of mating systems and life-history strategies, as well as responses to stresses imposed by humans. The book therefore integrates the biochemical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that allow animals to survive in particular environments. Applies an evolutionary perspective to the analysis of environmental adaptation. It introduces modern, phylogeny-based comparative methods that have become standard techniques in the analysis of evolutionary patterns. Provides modern molecular biological insights into the mechanistic basis of adaptation, and takes the level of analysis beyond the cell to the membrane, enzyme and gene. Incorporates more varied material from a wide range of animal types, with less of a focus purely on terrestrial reptiles, birds and mammals and more on the spectacularly successful strategies of invertebrates. This is a core text for modern undergraduate courses in animal physiology, comparative physiology, environmental physiology and physiological ecology. It is also suitable for the physiological components of any animal biology course, and a key resource for degree courses in environmental biology.

Environmental Physiology of Livestock

Author: R. J. Collier,J. L. Collier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0813811767

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 7230

"The concept for this text arose from the 18th Discover Conference on Effect of the Thermal Environment on Nutrient and Management Requirements of Cattle, which was held at the Brown County Inn in Nashville, Indiana November 2-5, 2009"--Pref.

Environmental Physiology of Marine Animals

Author: W. B. Vernberg,F. J. Vernberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642653340

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 5916

Within recent years man has become increasingly aware of the disastrous environmental changes that he has introduced, and therefore society is now more concerned about understanding the adaptations organisms have evolved in order to survive and flourish in their environment. Because much of the information pertaining to this subject is scattered in various journals or special symposia proceedings, our purpose in writing this book is to bring together in a college-and graduate-student text the principal concepts of the environmental physiology of the animals that inhabit one of the major realms of the earth, the sea. Our book is not meant to be a definitive treatise on the physiological adap tation of the animals that inhabit the marine environment. Instead, we have tried to highlight some of the physiological mechanisms through which these animals have been able to meet the challenges of their environment. We have not written this book for anyone particular scientific discipline; rather, we hope that it will have an interdisciplinary appeal. It is meant to be both a reference text and a text for teaching senior undergraduate and graduate courses in marine biology, physiological ecology of marine animals, and envi ronmental physiology of marine animals.

Comparative Physiology of Animals

An Environmental Approach

Author: Richard W. Hill

Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers


Category: Adaptation (Physiology).

Page: 656

View: 3076

Organism and environment; Energy metabolism; Thermal relationship; Exchanges of salts and water: mechanisms; Exchanges of salts and water: integration; Nitrogen excretion and other aspects of nitrogen metabolism; Renal organs and excretion; Exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide: basic principles, respiratory anvironments, and external respiration; Exchanges of exygen and carbon dioxide: transport in body fluids; Circulation; Metabolic responses to oxygen deficiency and lowered availability of oxygen; The active animal.

Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians

Author: Martin E. Feder

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226239446

Category: Nature

Page: 646

View: 8494

Through its emphasis on recent research, its many summary tables, and its bibliography of more than 4,000 entries, this first modern, synthetic treatment of comparative amphibian environmental physiology emerges as the definitive reference for the field. Forty internationally respected experts review the primary data, examine current research trends, and identify productive avenues for future research.

Animal Physiology

Adaptation and Environment

Author: Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268508

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4051

How do dolphins catch fish in murky water? Why do moths drink from puddles? How do birds' eggs breathe? How do animals work? In this revised and updated edition of the acclaimed text Animal Physiology, the answers are revealed. In clear and stimulating style, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen introduces and develops the fundamental principles of animal physiology according to major environmental features - oxygen, food and energy, temperature, and water. The structure of the book is unchanged from the previous edition, but every chapter has been updated to take into account recent developments, with numerous new references and figures. Animal Physiology is suitable as a text for undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in physiology. As with previous editions, students, teachers as well as researchers will find this book a valuable and enjoyable companion to course work and research.

Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production

Author: J. A. Clark

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483164330

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 528

View: 8360

Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production is concerned with environmental aspects of housing farm animals. The discussions are organized around physical and physiological principles; environmental influences on reproduction; environmental influences on the productivity of farm animals; optimal housing environments for temperate and cool climates; housing environments for hot climates; engineering and control of the house environment; and the constraints of welfare and disease. This text consists of 32 chapters divided into nine sections. The first chapter explores the physiological mechanisms whereby the food- or fiber-producing animals maintain a constant body temperature under climatic extremes and the possible impact that these physiological processes may have on productive systems. This discussion is followed by chapters on the influence of climate on the decision to house livestock; the effect of the environment on animal reproduction; thermal influences on poultry; and the importance of ventilation and temperature control. This text also considers the poultry housing problems in tropical and subtropical climates; insulation of animal houses; and the interaction between feathering and egg production in laying hens. This book will appeal to those working in the field of housing for animal production, both in research and development and at a practical level.

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals

Author: Philip C. Withers,Christine E. Cooper,Ariovaldo P. Cruz Neto,Francisco Bozinovic

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199642710


Page: 560

View: 3513

Mammals are the so-called "pinnacle" group of vertebrates, successfully colonising virtually all terrestrial environments as well as the air (bats) and sea (especially pinnipeds and cetaceans). How mammals function and survive in these diverse environments has long fascinated mammologists, comparative physiologists and ecologists. Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals explores the physiological mechanisms and evolutionary necessities that have made the spectacular adaptation of mammals possible. It summarises our current knowledge of the complex and sophisticated physiological approaches that mammals have for survival in a wide variety of ecological and environmental contexts: terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic. The authors have a strong comparative and quantitative focus in their broad approach to exploring mammal ecophysiology. As with other books in the Ecological and Environmental Physiology Series, the emphasis is on the unique physiological characteristics of mammals, their adaptations to extreme environments, and current experimental techniques and future research directions are also considered. This accessible text is suitable for graduate level students and researchers in the fields of mammalian comparative physiology and physiological ecology, including specialist courses in mammal ecology. It will also be of value and use to the many professional mammologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.

Adaptation to Environment

Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals

Author: R. C. Newell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483162974

Category: Science

Page: 554

View: 304

Adaptation to Environment: Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals contains a series of essays that is intended as a review of the special adaptations of marine organisms to the particular environmental conditions they are likely to encounter in the natural habitat. This book emphasizes developments in physiology of marine animals and on approaches to the study of the adaptations of marine organisms. This compilation also interprets the term “Physiology in its widest sense to include all aspects of the functioning of the organism from the behavior of animals to the mode of function of enzymes. For this reason, structural adaptations have been reviewed in detail only where their functional role is understood and where they constitute a specific adaptation to defined environmental conditions. This publication benefits students and individuals conducting research on the physiology of marine animals.

The Extended Organism

The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures

Author: J Scott Turner

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674044494

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 8034

Can the structures that animals build--from the humble burrows of earthworms to towering termite mounds to the Great Barrier Reef--be said to live? However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own advantage. Building on Richard Dawkins's classic, "The Extended Phenotype," Turner shows why drawing the boundary of an organism's physiology at the skin of the animal is arbitrary. Since the structures animals build undoubtedly do physiological work, capturing and channeling chemical and physical energy, Turner argues that such structures are more properly regarded not as frozen behaviors but as external organs of physiology and even extensions of the animal's phenotype. By challenging dearly held assumptions, a fascinating new view of the living world is opened to us, with implications for our understanding of physiology, the environment, and the remarkable structures animals build.

Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology

Animal Adaptation to Cold

Author: Lawrence C.H. Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642740782

Category: Science

Page: 441

View: 3754

When survival is challenged by the cold, animals react by employing both behavioral and physiological solutions. Depending on the magni tude of the cold stress and the nature of the adjustment, simple avoidance or sophisticated capacity or resistance compensations may be used. Thus, migration, shelter seeking, metabolic and insulative compen sation, torpor, and freezing avoidance and tolerance are successful tac tics used by diverse groups of animals. To understand and appreciate the benefits of these tactics, it is necessary to examine not only the well being of the whole animal but also their basic underlying mechanisms. In ad dition, it is also of fundamental importance to grasp how seasonal cold affects the survivorship and reproductive success of populations when confronted by a general reduction in primary productivity and an elevated energy cost for maintenance (e. g. in endotherms). In this regard, a synthetic overview which integrates aspects of cell biology, biochem istry, physiology, neurobiology, behavior, and population biology should be a fruitful approach in providing a holistic understanding on how animals adapt to cold. The present volume is an attempt to achieve such an overview; its objective is to provide a depth and breadth of coverage that is essential to a full appreciation of animal adaptation to cold. It is the hope of the contributing authors that this book will serve as an effective reference text for all senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as research scientists with an interest in cold physiology.

Mechanics of Animal Locomotion

Author: N.A

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642766954

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3325

GeoffGoldspink and I edited a book, Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion, which was published by Chapman and Hall in 1977. It dealt at an advanced level with all aspects of animal locomotion, emphasizing particularly the topics of then current research. Since then there have been more elementary books on the subject, including my own Locomotion of Animals (Blackie 1982), and specialized books on such topics as swimming and flight, but (despite very substantial progress in research) there has been no advanced book covering the whole range of animal locomotion. It seemed to me and to Professor Gilles (editor ofthis series) that a new book was needed. Plainly, a book of this length cannot contain everything that is known about animal locomotion. We have not attempted to make it encyclopedic, but have tried to show where the study of animal locomotion stands now, and where it is going. Older books remain useful as sources of long-established information.

Physiological Ecology

How Animals Process Energy, Nutrients, and Toxins

Author: William H. Karasov,Carlos Martínez del Rio

Publisher: N.A


Category: Medical

Page: 741

View: 513

Unlocking the puzzle of how animals behave and how they interact with their environments is impossible without understanding the physiological processes that determine their use of food resources. But long overdue is a user-friendly introduction to the subject that systematically bridges the gap between physiology and ecology. Ecologists--for whom such knowledge can help clarify the consequences of global climate change, the biodiversity crisis, and pollution--often find themselves wading through an unwieldy, technically top-heavy literature. Here, William Karasov and Carlos Martínez del Rio present the first accessible and authoritative one-volume overview of the physiological and biochemical principles that shape how animals procure energy and nutrients and free themselves of toxins--and how this relates to broader ecological phenomena. After introducing primary concepts, the authors review the chemical ecology of food, and then discuss how animals digest and process food. Their broad view includes symbioses and extends even to ecosystem phenomena such as ecological stochiometry and toxicant biomagnification. They introduce key methods and illustrate principles with wide-ranging vertebrate and invertebrate examples. Uniquely, they also link the physiological mechanisms of resource use with ecological phenomena such as how and why animals choose what they eat and how they participate in the exchange of energy and materials in their biological communities. Thoroughly up-to-date and pointing the way to future research, Physiological Ecology is an essential new source for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students-and an ideal synthesis for professionals. The most accessible introduction to the physiological and biochemical principles that shape how animals use resources Unique in linking the physiological mechanisms of resource use with ecological phenomena An essential resource for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students An ideal overview for researchers

Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry of Insects

Author: K. H. Hoffmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642700209

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 1545

Of all the zoological classes the insects are the most numerous in species and the most varied in structure. Estimates of the number 18 of species vary from 1 to 10 million, and 10 individuals are es timated to be alive at any given moment. In their evolution, in sects are relatively ancient and, therefore, they have proved to be a phenomenally successful biological design which has survived unchanged in its basic winged form during the last 300 m. y. In sects were the first small animals to colonize the land with full suc cess. Their small size opened many more ecological niches to them and permitted a greater diversification than the vertebrates. What is it about this design that has made insects so successful in habitats stretching from arid deserts to the Arctic and Antarctic and from freshwater brooks to hot springs and salines? Is it due to the adapta bility of their behavior, physiology, and biochemistry to changing environmental conditions? Three features of insects are of particular importance in determin ing their physiological relationship with the environment: their small size, as mentioned above, the impermeability and rigidity of their exoskeleton, and their poikilothermy. Of course, as with any other animals, the insects' success in its environment depends on its ability to maintain its internal state within certain tolerable limits of temperature, osmotic pressure, pH or oxygen concentra tion (homoeostasis).

Comparative Animal Physiology

Author: Philip Carew Withers

Publisher: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company


Category: Science

Page: 949

View: 8687

This truly comparative text takes a fundamental, biophysical approach toward animal physiology. Students majoring in zoology, biology, or premedicine will study animals ranging from simple invertebrates and protozoans to complex multicellular invertebrates and vertebrates. Emphasis on evolution shows the progressive changes, modifications, and developments of physiological systems from simple to complex animals. Comparisons show the similarities and differences in how animals function, but stress fundamentally similar adaptations in very different animals.

Physiology of the Cladocera

Author: Nikolai N. Smirnov

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128052813

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 9367

Physiology of the Cladocera, Second Edition, is a much-needed summary of foundational information on these increasingly important model organisms. This unique and valuable review is based on the world’s literature, including Russian research not previously widely available, and offers systematically arranged data on the physiology of Cladocera, assisting with explanation of their life and distribution. It features the addition of new sections and a vast amount of new information, such as the latest data on feeding, nutrition, pathological physiology, chemical composition, neurosecretion, and behavior, as well as hormonal regulation, antioxidants, and the biochemical background of effects of natural and anthropogenic factors. Additional expertly updated contributions in genetics and cytology, and a new chapter in embryology, round out the physiological chapters, and provide comprehensive insight into the state of knowledge of Cladocera and their underlying mechanisms. Cladocera crustaceans have become globally studied for many purposes, including genetic, molecular, ecological, environmental, water quality, systematics, and evolutionary biology research. Since the genome of Daphnia was sequenced and published, that system has gained much wider exposure, also leading to a rapidly growing awareness of the importance of understanding physiological processes as they relate to evolutionary and ecological genomics as well as ecogenomic toxicology. However, the physiological background on Cladocera has been fragmentary (including on the other 700 known species besides Daphnia), despite the extensive literature on species identification and morphology. This work addresses this issue by collecting and synthesizing from the literature the state of knowledge of cladoceran physiology, including discussion on both adequately and inadequately investigated fields, and thus directions of future research. Summarizes fundamental information obtained in recent years, including on steroids, antioxidants, hormones, nanoparticles, and impact of wastewater of pharmaceutical industries Provides the foundational information needed for scientists and practitioners from a variety of fields, including conservation and evolutionary biology, genomics, ecology, ecotoxicology, comparative physiology, limnology, zoology–carcinology, and water quality assessment Features coverage of both Daphniids and representatives of other families, with attention drawn to little-studied aspects of their physiology, especially of those living in the litt oral zone Includes guidance to the literature on cladoceran physiology in four languages Discusses advantages and shortcomings of Cladocera as experimental animals and indicators of water quality

Heat Loss from Animals and Man

Assessment and Control

Author: J. L. Monteith,L. E. Mount

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483163016

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 476

View: 8939

Heat Loss from Animals and Man: Assessment and Control represents the Proceedings of the Twentieth Easter School in Agricultural Science, held at the University Of Nottingham in 1973. The book explores the theme of heat loss, beginning with statements about physical principles and progressing through a review of physiological and behavioral knowledge to a final session on a few of the economic implications of attempting to control human and animal environments. A final chapter focusing on the topic of thermal neutrality, where all participants were asked to comment on is added to the Proceedings in an attempt to reach a common view on this controversial matter. Physicists, physiologists, and agriculturists will find the text interesting.