Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology

Author: Peter G. Cook,Andrew L. Herczeg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461545579

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 8155

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Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 1499

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566702492

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 8398

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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Tracers in Hydrology

Author: Christian Leibundgut,Piotr Maloszewski,Christoph K?lls

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119965012

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 5233

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Tracers in Hydrology and Water Research is a comprehensive overview of the application of natural and artificial tracers in hydrology and environmental research. Taking a unique approach by providing the reader with a systematic and state of the art description of natural and artificial tracers, the book also covers key analytical techniques and applications, and modern tracer methods in the context of systematic hydrology. Tracers have become a primary tool for process investigation, qualitative and quantitative system analysis and integrated resource management. This book will outline the fundamentals of the subject, and examine the latest research findings, clearly showing the entire process of tracer application through the inclusion of numerous integrated case studies. As many techniques derive from different scientific disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics), the effort of compilation and integration into modern hydrology and environmental science research and application requires substantial continuity and experience, which certifies this group of authors. This book will be an invaluable reference not only for students and researchers within the field of Hydrology and Hydrogeology but also for engineers and other tracer techniques applying users.

The Handbook of Groundwater Engineering, Third Edition

Author: John H. Cushman,Daniel M. Tartakovsky

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498703054

Category: Science

Page: 1074

View: 936

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This new edition adds several new chapters and is thoroughly updated to include data on new topics such as hydraulic fracturing, CO2 sequestration, sustainable groundwater management, and more. Providing a complete treatment of the theory and practice of groundwater engineering, this new handbook also presents a current and detailed review of how to model the flow of water and the transport of contaminants both in the unsaturated and saturated zones, covers the protection of groundwater, and the remediation of contaminated groundwater.

Isotopes in the Water Cycle

Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science

Author: Pradeep K. Aggarwal,Joel R. Gat,Klaus F. Froehlich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402066719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 382

View: 8294

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Environmental isotope and nuclear techniques provide unmatched insights into the processes governing the water cycle and its variability. This monograph presents state of the art applications and new developments of isotopes in hydrology, environmental disciplines and climate change studies. Coverage ranges from the assessment of groundwater resources in terms of recharge and flow regime to studies of the past and present global environmental and climate changes.

Water Resources Perspectives: Evaluation, Management and Policy

Author: W.W. Wood,A.S. Alsharhan

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080543680

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 2891

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Many countries in the world have made great efforts, to remedy the water shortage, by providing financial and technical backing, for water desalination, treatment of wastewater and improved management and conservation techniques. Water ministries, universities and research centres have supported scientific research, and applied the most recent technologies, in search of new and alternative water supplies. Laws have been promulgated, economic and public relation campaigns developed, to promote and encourage the practice of efficient water use and the conservation of this scarce commodity. This book covers water resources and management and provides a new vision of water resources management, water conservation and legislations, water law, and modern techniques of water resources investigation.

Groundwater Hydrology of Springs

Engineering, Theory, Management and Sustainability

Author: Neven Kresic,Zoran Stevanovic

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780080949451

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 1152

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Groundwater Hydrology of Water Resource Series - Water is an essential environmental resource and one that needs to be properly managed. As the world places more emphasis on sustainable water supplies, the demand for expertise in hydrology and water resources continues to increase. This series is intended for professional engineers, who seek a firm foundation in hydrology and an ability to apply this knowledge to solve problems in water resource management. Future books in the series are: Groudwater Hydrology of Springs (2009), Groudwater Hydrology of River Basins (2009), Groudwater Hydrology of Aquifers (2010), and Groudwater Hydrology of Wetlands (2010). First utilized as a primary source of drinking water in the ancient world, springs continue to supply many of the world's cities with water. In recent years their long-term sustainability is under pressure due to an increased demand from groundwater users. Edited by two world-renowned hydrologists, Groundwater Hydrology of Springs: Theory, Management, and Sustainability will provide civil and environmental engineers with a comprehensive reference for managing and sustaining the water quality of Springs. With contributions from experts from around the world, this book cover many of the world's largest springs, providing a unique global perspective on how engineers around the world are utilizing engineering principles for coping with problems such as: mismanagement, overexploitation and their impacts both water quantity and quality. The book will be divided into two parts: part one will explain the theory and principles of hydrology as they apply to Springs while part two will provide a rare look into the engineering practices used to manage some of the most important Springs from around the world. Description of the spring and the aquifer feeding it Latest groundwater and contaminant transport models Description of sources of aquifer use Understanding of contamination and/or possible contamination A plan for management and sustainability

Understanding Water in a Dry Environment

IAH International Contributions to Hydrogeology 23

Author: Ian Simmers

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789058096180

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 2091

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In order to provide water security in the twenty-first century, there is universal agreement that a continuation of current policies and extrapolation of trends is not an option. Also clear is that from both water supply and development perspectives, the world's arid and semi-arid regions are those currently and potentially experiencing the highest water stresses. One third of the world's land surface is classified as arid or semi-arid, and about half of all countries are directly affected in some way by problems of aridity. The hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas is also known to be substantially different from that in more humid regions. It is therefore essential that investigation methods appropriate to the former are developed and applied, and that strategies for arid and semi-arid region water resources development recognise the principal characteristics of in-situ hydrological processes.

The Soils of Iran

Author: Mohammad Hassan Roozitalab,Hamid Siadat,Abbas Farshad

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319690485

Category: Nature

Page: 255

View: 4036

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This unique book addresses Iran’s extremely rich soil diversity and resources, which have developed under various climatic conditions ranging from dry to humid conditions. Featuring contributions by a group of respected experts on Iranian soils and agriculture, it provides comprehensive information on the management approaches needed for sustainable soil utilization and conservation under such conditions, and the attendant challenges. As such, it offers a valuable resource for anyone interested in soils and agriculture in Iran, but also in other Middle East and North African countries with similar climatic conditions. The book contains 14 chapters which illustrate the long history of indigenous knowledge and soil research, climate, geology and geomorphology, vegetation cover, soil forming factors and processes, major soils, properties and their classification. Furthermore, it presents past climate change and paleosols, agroecological zones, soil fertility, soil biology and biotechnology, human induced land degradation and “soil management in space and time”. In the end, major challenges facing the soil resources of the country are defined and recommendations are made to face the future challenges.

Wicking in Porous Materials

Traditional and Modern Modeling Approaches

Author: Reza Masoodi,Krishna M. Pillai

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439874328

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 380

View: 5145

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A comprehensive presentation of wicking models developed in academia and industry, Wicking in Porous Materials: Traditional and Modern Modeling Approaches contains some of the most important approaches and methods available, from the traditional Washburn-type models to the latest Lattice-Boltzmann approaches developed during the last few years. It provides a sound conceptual framework for learning the science behind different mathematical models while at the same time being aware of the practical issues of model validation as well as measurement of important properties and parameters associated with various models. Top experts in the field reveal the secrets of their wicking models. The chapters cover the following topics: Wetting and wettability Darcy’s law for single- and multi-phase flows Traditional capillary models, such as the Washburn-equation based approaches Unsaturated-flow based methodologies (Richard’s Equation) Sharp-front (plug-flow) type approaches using Darcy’s law Pore network models for wicking after including various micro-scale fluid-flow phenomena Studying the effect of evaporation on wicking using pore network models Fractal-based methods Modeling methods based on mixture theory Lattice-Boltzmann method for modeling wicking in small scales Modeling wicking in swelling and non-rigid porous media This extensive look at the modeling of porous media compares various methods and treats traditional topics as well as modern technologies. It emphasizes experimental validation of modeling approaches as well as experimental determination of model parameters. Matching models to particular media, the book provides guidance on what models to use and how to use them.

Groundwater Modelling in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Author: Howard S. Wheater,Simon A. Mathias,Xin Li

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139489720

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1696

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Arid and semi-arid regions face major challenges in the management of scarce freshwater resources under pressures of population, economic development, climate change, pollution and over-abstraction. Groundwater is commonly the most important water resource in these areas. Groundwater models are widely used globally to understand groundwater systems and to guide decisions on management. However, the hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas is very different from that of humid regions, and there is little guidance on the special challenges of groundwater modelling for these areas. This book brings together the experience of internationally leading experts to fill a gap in the scientific and technical literature. It introduces state-of-the-art methods for modelling groundwater resources, illustrated with a wide-ranging set of illustrative examples from around the world. The book is valuable for researchers, practitioners in developed and developing countries, and graduate students in hydrology, hydrogeology, water resources management, environmental engineering and geography.

The Water-Energy-Food Nexus

Human-Environmental Security in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

Author: Aiko Endo,Tomohiro Oh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 981107383X

Category: Science

Page: 337

View: 476

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This book highlights the water-energy-food nexus as one of the most important and fundamental global environmental issues facing the world. Climate and social changes are putting increased pressure on water, energy and food resources. As water is the central aspect within this cluster, the book focuses on the inherent tradeoffs in water resources between producing/consuming energy and food. In addition, it discusses an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of the water-energy-food nexus system, and creating policy options to reduce the tradeoffs among resources. The content integrates a variety of academic disciplines, including not only the natural sciences (e.g. hydrology, coastal oceanography, costal aquatic bioscience, fisheries, environmental earth science etc.) but also the humanities and social sciences (e.g. marine policy, environmental energy policy, resource governance, policy process theory etc.). The book can be used as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level sustainability science courses. Further, its practical content and trans-disciplinary approach to addressing nexus issues with stakeholders offers vital information for practitioners and administrators alike.

Biodiversity Offsets

European Perspectives on No Net Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Author: Wolfgang Wende,Graham - M. Tucker,Fabien Quétier,Matt Rayment,Marianne Darbi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319725815

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 1372

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This book deals with the new concept of biodiversity offsets. The aim of offsetting schemes is to achieve no let loss or even net gain of biodiversity. Offsets obey a mitigation hierarchy and reflect the precautionary and polluter-pays principle in regard to project impacts. Readers gain insights into current debates on biodiversity policies, with top experts outlining theoretical principles and the latest research findings. At the same time the focus is on practical application and case studies. Today there is a lively international discussion among practitioners and scientists on the optimal legal framework, metrics and design of habitat banks to ensure the success of biodiversity offsets and to minimise the risks of failure or misuse. Contributing to the debate, this volume presents the activities and practices of biodiversity offsetting already implemented in Europe in selected EU member states, and the lessons that can be learnt from them. Readers may be surprised at how much experience already exists in these countries. A further aim of the book is to offer grounded insights on the road ahead, and foster a more intensive and fruitful discussion on how offsetting can be extended and improved upon, so that it becomes a key and effective component of Europe’s biodiversity conservation policy framework.

Fluids in Porous Media

Author: Henk Huinink

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681742985

Category: Science

Page: 115

View: 7053

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This book introduces the reader into the field of the physics of processes occurring in porous media. It targets Master and PhD students who need to gain fundamental understanding the impact of confinement on transport and phase change processes. The book gives brief overviews of topics like thermodynamics, capillarity and fluid mechanics in order to launch the reader smoothly into the realm of porous media. In-depth discussions are given of phase change phenomena in porous media, single phase flow, unsaturated flow and multiphase flow. In order to make the topics concrete the book contains numerous example calculations. Further, as much experimental data as possible is plugged in to give the reader the ability to quantify phenomena.

Environmental Forest Science

Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 8 Conference Environmental Forest Science, held 19–23 October 1998, Kyoto University, Japan

Author: Kyoji Sassa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401153248

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 658

View: 2938

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This proceedings volume has been edited from sixty-nine full text papers of the 132 papers presented to the IUFRO (International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) Conference on Environmental Forest Science, which was jointly organized by IUFRO Division 8, "Forest Environment", and Kyoto University in Kyoto, Japan, on 19-23 October 1998. The International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) is one of the oldest scientific societies. It was founded in 1892 to foster cooperation of research units on forestry. IUFRO consists of 650 research organizations from 100 countries. IUFRO th Division 8 is the latest division, founded at the 20 World Congress in 1995 by subdividing the previous Division 1, "Forest Environment and Silviculture". The objective of this first general Conference of Division 8 is to consider research needs in the 21 sl century for forest environment, and the integration of related fields of sciences to a new concept of environmental forest science.

Come On!

Capitalism, Short-termism, Population and the Destruction of the Planet

Author: Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker,Anders Wijkman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 149397419X

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 2688

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Current worldwide trends are not sustainable. The Club of Rome’s warnings published in the book Limits to Growth are still valid. Remedies that are acceptable for the great majority tend to make things worse. We seem to be in a philosophical crisis. Pope Francis says it clearly: our common home is in deadly danger. Analyzing the philosophical crisis, the book comes to the conclusion that the world may need a “new enlightenment”; one that is not based solely on doctrine, but instead addresses a balance between humans and nature, as well as a balance between markets and the state, and the short versus long term. To do this we need to leave behind working in ”silos” in favor of a more systemic approach that will require us to rethink the organization of science and education. However, we have to act now; the world cannot wait until 7.6 billion people have struggled to reach a new enlightenment. This book is full of optimistic case studies and policy proposals that will lead us back to a trajectory of sustainability. But it is also necessary to address the taboo topic of population increase. Countries with a stable population fare immensely better than those with continued increase. Finally, we are presenting an optimistic book from the Club of Rome.