Ethical and Political Approaches to Nonhuman Animal Issues

Author: Andrew Woodhall,Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319545493

Category: Philosophy

Page: 462

View: 2047

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This book offers ethical and political approaches to issues that nonhuman animals face. The recent ‘political turn’ in interspecies ethics, from ethical to political approaches, has arisen due to the apparent lack of success of the nonhuman animal movement and dissatisfaction with traditional approaches. Current works largely present general positions rather than address specific issues and principally rely on mainstream approaches. This book offers alternative positions such as cosmopolitan, libertarian, and left humanist thought, as well as applying ethical and political thought to specific issues, such as experimentation, factory farming, nonhuman political agency, and intervention. Presenting work by theorists and activists, insights are offered from both ethics and politics that impact theory and practice and offer essential considerations for those engaging in interspecies ethics within the political turn era.

Sentientist Politics

A Theory of Global Inter-Species Justice

Author: Alasdair Cochrane

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192507028

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 8580

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There is now widespread agreement that many non-human animals are sentient, and that this fact has important moral and political implications. Indeed, most are in agreement that animal sentience ought to constrain the actions of political institutions, limiting the harms that can be perpetrated against animals. The primary aim of this book is to show that the political implications of animal sentience go even further than this. For this book argues that sentience establishes a moral equality and a shared set of rights amongst those creatures who possess it. Crucially, this worth and these rights create a duty on moral agents to establish and maintain a political order dedicated to their interests. This book is devoted to sketching what this 'sentientist politics' might look like. It argues in favour of a ' sentientist cosmopolitan democracy': a global political system made up of overlapping local, national, regional and global communities comprised of human and non-human members who exist within shared 'communities of fate'. Furthermore, the institutions of those communities should be democratic - that is to say, participative, deliberative and representative. Finally, those institutions should include dedicated representatives of non-human animals whose job should be to translate the interests of animals into deliberations over what is in the public good for their communities.

Zoopolis

Eine politische Theorie der Tierrechte

Author: Sue Donaldson,Will Kymlicka

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518734326

Category: Nature

Page: 608

View: 4897

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Massentierhaltung, Fleischskandale, Tierversuche – unser Umgang mit Tieren ist längst kein Nischenthema mehr, für das sich lediglich Aktivisten oder Ethiker interessieren, sondern steht im Fokus breiter öffentlicher Debatten. Allerdings konzentrieren sich die Diskussionen zumeist auf Fragen der Moral, darauf, welche moralischen Rechte und Interessen wir Tieren aufgrund ihrer Eigenschaften und Fähigkeiten – zum Beispiel Schmerzen zu empfinden – zuschreiben müssen und welche moralischen Pflichten sich daraus für uns ergeben. Sue Donaldson und Will Kymlicka gehen weit darüber hinaus und behaupten, dass Tiere auch politische Rechte haben. Im Rückgriff auf avancierte Theorien der Staatsbürgerschaft argumentieren sie dafür, ihnen neben unverletzlichen Grundrechten einen je gruppenspezifischen politischen Status zuzusprechen. Das heißt konkret: Bürgerrechte für domestizierte Tiere, Souveränität für Gemeinschaften von Wildtieren sowie ein »Stammgastrecht« für jene, die zwar nicht domestiziert sind, aber in unmittelbarer Nachbarschaft zu uns leben. »Zoopolis« macht auf so kluge wie eindringliche Weise ernst mit der Tatsache, dass wir mit den Tieren untrennbar verbunden sind. Elegant und keineswegs nur für Spezialisten geschrieben, entwirft es eine neue, folgenreiche Agenda für das künftige Zusammenleben mit diesen Geschöpfen, denen wir mehr schulden als unser Mitleid. Das Tier, so sagt dieses Buch, ist ein genuin politisches Wesen. Wir schulden ihm auch Gerechtigkeit.

Intervention or Protest

Acting for Nonhuman Animals

Author: Andrew Woodhall,Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade

Publisher: Vernon Press

ISBN: 1622730623

Category: Political Science

Page: 410

View: 1389

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Within current political, social, and ethical debates – both in academia and society – activism and how individuals should approach issues facing nonhuman animals, have become increasingly important, ‘hot’ issues. Individuals, groups, advocacy agencies, and governments have all espoused competing ideas for how we should approach nonhuman use and exploitation. Ought we proceed through liberation? Abolition? Segregation? Integration? As nonhuman liberation, welfare, and rights’ groups increasingly interconnect and identify with other ‘social justice movements’, resolutions to these questions have become increasingly entangled with questions of what justice and our ethical commitments demand on this issue, and the topic has become increasingly significant and divisive. The book considers how this question, and contemporary issues facing nonhumans (such as experimentation, hunting, and factory farming) should be answered by drawing on both theory and practice in order to provide grounded, yet actionable, ways forward. Indicatively, the book covers topics such as: • The intersection between interspecies ethics and the ethics of war and self-defence • Nonhuman animals as political subjects and acting agents • Whether we should intervene for nonhuman animals in cases of natural disaster • Various explorations of why the nonhuman movement may not be succeeding as well as it could be • Comparisons between the nonhuman movement and other social movement • Arguments for and against intervening to help or save nonhumans, and how far we may go • What intervention could ultimately mean for nonhumans The book is therefore intended not only to provide new and interesting insight into the area and important contemporary discussions, but also to constructively aid the nonhuman movement and unite theory and practice on the crucial issues. With the nonhuman movement and its past approaches currently being questioned as a success, more nonhumans than ever being harmed and exploited, and a growing gulf between activists and scholars, this book will not only be a timely addition to the literature, but an attempt to bridge these gaps and move both theory and practice – and thus the movement and field – forward.

Animal Rights Without Liberation

Applied Ethics and Human Obligations

Author: Alasdair Cochrane

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231504438

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 5077

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Alasdair Cochrane introduces an entirely new theory of animal rights grounded in their interests as sentient beings. He then applies this theory to different and underexplored policy areas, such as genetic engineering, pet-keeping, indigenous hunting, and religious slaughter. In contrast to other proponents of animal rights, Cochrane claims that because most sentient animals are not autonomous agents, they have no intrinsic interest in liberty. As such, he argues that our obligations to animals lie in ending practices that cause their suffering and death and do not require the liberation of animals. Cochrane's "interest-based rights approach" weighs the interests of animals to determine which is sufficient to impose strict duties on humans. In so doing, Cochrane acknowledges that sentient animals have a clear and discernable right not to be made to suffer and not to be killed, but he argues that they do not have a prima facie right to liberty. Because most animals possess no interest in leading freely chosen lives, humans have no moral obligation to liberate them. Moving beyond theory to the practical aspects of applied ethics, this pragmatic volume provides much-needed perspective on the realities and responsibilities of the human-animal relationship.

Contemporary Buddhist Ethics

Author: Damien Keown

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136118101

Category: Social Science

Page: 217

View: 8394

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This innovative volume brings together the views of leading scholars on a range of controversial subjects including human rights, animal rights, ecology, abortion, euthanasia, and contemporary business practice.

Animal Oppression and Human Violence

Domesecration, Capitalism, and Global Conflict

Author: David A. Nibert

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231525516

Category: Nature

Page: 352

View: 5737

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Jared Diamond and other leading scholars have argued that the domestication of animals for food, labor, and tools of war has advanced the development of human society. But by comparing practices of animal exploitation for food and resources in different societies over time, David A. Nibert reaches a strikingly different conclusion. He finds in the domestication of animals, which he renames "domesecration," a perversion of human ethics, the development of large-scale acts of violence, disastrous patterns of destruction, and growth-curbing epidemics of infectious disease. Nibert centers his study on nomadic pastoralism and the development of commercial ranching, a practice that has been largely controlled by elite groups and expanded with the rise of capitalism. Beginning with the pastoral societies of the Eurasian steppe and continuing through to the exportation of Western, meat-centered eating habits throughout today's world, Nibert connects the domesecration of animals to violence, invasion, extermination, displacement, enslavement, repression, pandemic chronic disease, and hunger. In his view, conquest and subjugation were the results of the need to appropriate land and water to maintain large groups of animals, and the gross amassing of military power has its roots in the economic benefits of the exploitation, exchange, and sale of animals. Deadly zoonotic diseases, Nibert shows, have accompanied violent developments throughout history, laying waste to whole cities, societies, and civilizations. His most powerful insight situates the domesecration of animals as a precondition for the oppression of human populations, particularly indigenous peoples, an injustice impossible to rectify while the material interests of the elite are inextricably linked to the exploitation of animals. Nibert links domesecration to some of the most critical issues facing the world today, including the depletion of fresh water, topsoil, and oil reserves; global warming; and world hunger, and he reviews the U.S. government's military response to the inevitable crises of an overheated, hungry, resource-depleted world. Most animal-advocacy campaigns reinforce current oppressive practices, Nibert argues. Instead, he suggests reforms that challenge the legitimacy of both domesecration and capitalism.

Being Animal

Beasts and Boundaries in Nature Ethics

Author: Anna Peterson

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231534264

Category: Nature

Page: 240

View: 2323

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For most people, animals are the most significant aspects of the nonhuman world. They symbolize nature in our imaginations, in popular media and culture, and in campaigns to preserve wilderness, yet scholars habitually treat animals and the environment as mutually exclusive objects of concern. Conducting the first examination of animals' place in popular and scholarly thinking about nature, Anna L. Peterson builds a nature ethic that conceives of nonhuman animals as active subjects who are simultaneously parts of both nature and human society. Peterson explores the tensions between humans and animals, nature and culture, animals and nature, and domesticity and wildness. She uses our intimate connections with companion animals to examine nature more broadly. Companion animals are liminal creatures straddling the boundary between human society and wilderness, revealing much about the mutually constitutive relationships binding humans and nature together. Through her paradigm-shifting reflections, Peterson disrupts the artificial boundaries between two seemingly distinct categories, underscoring their fluid and continuous character.

The Animal Rights Debate

Abolition or Regulation?

Author: Gary L. Francione,Robert Garner

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526695

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 3584

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Gary L. Francione is a law professor and leading philosopher of animal rights theory. Robert Garner is a political theorist specializing in the philosophy and politics of animal protection. Francione maintains that we have no moral justification for using nonhumans and argues that because animals are property or economic commodities laws or industry practices requiring "humane" treatment will, as a general matter, fail to provide any meaningful level of protection. Garner favors a version of animal rights that focuses on eliminating animal suffering and adopts a protectionist approach, maintaining that although the traditional animal-welfare ethic is philosophically flawed, it can contribute strategically to the achievement of animal-rights ends. As they spar, Francione and Garner deconstruct the animal protection movement in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, and elsewhere, discussing the practices of such organizations as PETA, which joins with McDonald's and other animal users to "improve" the slaughter of animals. They also examine American and European laws and campaigns from both the rights and welfare perspectives, identifying weaknesses and strengths that give shape to future legislation and action.

Experiencing Animal Minds

An Anthology of Animal-Human Encounters

Author: Julie A. Smith,Robert W. Mitchell

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231530765

Category: Nature

Page: 416

View: 7450

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In these multidisciplinary essays, academic scholars and animal experts explore the nature of animal minds and the methods humans conventionally and unconventionally use to understand them. The collection features chapters by scholars working in psychology, sociology, history, philosophy, literary studies, and art, as well as chapters by and about people who live and work with animals, including the founder of a sanctuary for chickens, a fur trapper, a popular canine psychologist, a horse trainer, and an art photographer who captures everyday contact between humans and their animal companions. Divided into five sections, the collection first considers the ways that humans live with animals and the influence of cohabitation on their perceptions of animals' minds. It follows with an examination of anthropomorphism as both a guide and hindrance to mapping animal consciousness. Chapters next examine the effects of embodiment on animals' minds and the role of animal-human interembodiment on humans' understandings of animals' minds. Final sections identify historical representations of difference between human and animal consciousness and their relevance to pre-established cultural attitudes, as well as the ways that representations of animals' minds target particular audiences and sometimes produce problematic outcomes. The editors conclude with a discussion of the relationship between the book's chapters and two pressing themes: the connection between human beliefs about animals' minds and human ethical behavior, and the challenges and conditions for knowing the minds of animals. By inviting readers to compare and contrast multiple, uncommon points of view, this collection offers a unique encounter with the diverse perspectives and theories now shaping animal studies.

A Communion of Subjects

Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics

Author: Paul Waldau,Kimberley Christine Patton

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231509979

Category: Philosophy

Page: 720

View: 4198

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A Communion of Subjects is the first comparative and interdisciplinary study of the conceptualization of animals in world religions. Scholars from a wide range of disciplines, including Thomas Berry (cultural history), Wendy Doniger (study of myth), Elizabeth Lawrence (veterinary medicine, ritual studies), Marc Bekoff (cognitive ethology), Marc Hauser (behavioral science), Steven Wise (animals and law), Peter Singer (animals and ethics), and Jane Goodall (primatology) consider how major religious traditions have incorporated animals into their belief systems, myths, rituals, and art. Their findings offer profound insights into humans' relationships with animals and a deeper understanding of the social and ecological web in which we all live. Contributors examine Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Daoism, Confucianism, African religions, traditions from ancient Egypt and early China, and Native American, indigenous Tibetan, and Australian Aboriginal traditions, among others. They explore issues such as animal consciousness, suffering, sacrifice, and stewardship in innovative methodological ways. They also address contemporary challenges relating to law, biotechnology, social justice, and the environment. By grappling with the nature and ideological features of various religious views, the contributors cast religious teachings and practices in a new light. They reveal how we either intentionally or inadvertently marginalize "others," whether they are human or otherwise, reflecting on the ways in which we assign value to living beings. Though it is an ancient concern, the topic of "Religion and Animals" has yet to be systematically studied by modern scholars. This groundbreaking collection takes the first steps toward a meaningful analysis.

Deleuze and Ethics

Author: Nathan Jun

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748688285

Category: Philosophy

Page: 232

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Deleuze is perhaps best known for his influential works in philosophical interpretation; epistemology; metaphysics; and political economy. The essays in this collection explore, uncover, and trace the ethical dimension of Deleuzian philosophy along divers

Readings in the Philosophy of Technology

Author: David M. Kaplan

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742564015

Category: Philosophy

Page: 583

View: 9887

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This second edition of Readings in the Philosophy of Technology examines the nature of technology as well as the effects of technologies upon human knowledge, activities, societies, and environments. The aim of philosophy of technology is to understand, evaluate, and criticize the ways in which technologies reflect as well as change human life and the natural world. Compiled specifically with students and newcomers in mind, this book explores the various ways in which societies, technologies, and environments shape one another. Readers will learn to appreciate the ways that philosophy informs our understanding of technology, and to see how technology relates to ethics, politics, nature, human nature, computers, science, food, and animals.

Environmental Ethics, Ecological Theology, and Natural Selection

Suffering and Responsibility

Author: Lisa Sideris

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023152949X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 4834

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In the last few decades, religious and secular thinkers have tackled the world's escalating environmental crisis by attempting to develop an ecological ethic that is both scientifically accurate and free of human-centered preconceptions. This groundbreaking study shows that many of these environmental ethicists continue to model their positions on romantic, pre-Darwinian concepts that disregard the predatory and cruelly competitive realities of the natural world. Examining the work of such influential thinkers as James Gustafson, Sallie McFague, Rosemary Radford Ruether, John Cobb, Peter Singer, and Holmes Rolston, Sideris proposes a more realistic ethic that combines evolutionary theory with theological insight, advocates a minimally interventionist stance toward nature, and values the processes over the products of the natural world.

Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy

Author: J. Lemons,Donald A. Brown

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401584923

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 8333

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Of all the books written about the problems of sustainable development and environmental protection, Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy is one of the first to examine the role of science, economics and law, and ethics as generally applied to decision making on sustainable development, particularly in respect to the recommendations contained in Agenda 21. Specifically, the book examines the role, capabilities, and certain strengths and weaknesses of these disciplines and their ethical implications in the context of sustainable development problems. Such an analysis is necessary to determine whether sustainable development problems create important new challenges and problems for government so that, where appropriate, new tools or approaches may be designed to overcome limitations or take advantage of the strengths of current scientific, economic and legal capabilities. Audience: Environmental professionals, whether academic, governmental or industrial, or in the private consultancy sector. Also suitable as an upper level text or reference.

Animals as Biotechnology

"Ethics, Sustainability and Critical Animal Studies"

Author: Richard Twine

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136532706

Category: Nature

Page: 232

View: 7635

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In Animals as Biotechnology sociologist Richard Twine places the question of human/animal relations at the heart of sustainability and climate change debates. The book is shaped by the emergence of two contradictory trends within our approach to nonhuman animals: the biotechnological turn in animal sciences, which aims to increase the efficiency and profitability of meat and dairy production; and the emerging field of critical animal studies - mostly in the humanities and social sciences - which works to question the nature of our relations with other animals. The first part of the book focuses on ethics, examining critically the dominant paradigms of bioethics and power relations between human and non-human. The second part considers animal biotechnology and political economy, examining commercialisation and regulation. The final part of the book centres on discussions of sustainability, limits and an examination of the prospects for animal ethics if biotechnology becomes part of the dominant agricultural paradigm. Twine concludes by considering whether growing calls to reduce our consumption of meat/dairy products in the face of climate change threats are in fact complicit with an anthropocentric understanding of sustainability and that what is needed is a more fundamental ethical and political questioning of relations and distinctions between humans, animals and nature.

Food Biotechnology in Ethical Perspective

Author: Paul B. Thompson,Julie Eckinger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412783807

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 267

View: 927

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Developments in food technology are not just the concern of scientists & manufacturers. Media attention has increased public awareness & demands for more regulations. This text covers the debate on the moral implications of developments in human food.

Zoographies

The Question of the Animal from Heidegger to Derrida

Author: Matthew Calarco

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231511574

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 6396

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Zoographies challenges the anthropocentrism of the Continental philosophical tradition and advances the position that, while some distinctions are valid, humans and animals are best viewed as part of an ontological whole. Matthew Calarco draws on ethological and evolutionary evidence and the work of Heidegger, who called for a radicalized responsibility toward all forms of life. He also turns to Levinas, who raised questions about the nature and scope of ethics; Agamben, who held the "anthropological machine" responsible for the horrors of the twentieth century; and Derrida, who initiated a nonanthropocentric ethics. Calarco concludes with a call for the abolition of classical versions of the human-animal distinction and asks that we devise new ways of thinking about and living with animals.

Environment and Society

A Critical Introduction

Author: Paul Robbins,John Hintz,Sarah A. Moore

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118451554

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 7151

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Substantially updated for the second edition, this engaging and innovative introduction to the environment and society uses key theoretical approaches to explore familiar objects. Features substantial revisions and updates for the second edition, including new chapters on E waste, mosquitoes and uranium, improved maps and graphics, new exercises, shorter theory chapters, and refocused sections on environmental solutions Discusses topics such as population and scarcity, commodities, environmental ethics, risks and hazards, and political economy and applies them to objects like bottled water, tuna, and trees Accessible for students, and accompanied by in-book and online resources including exercises and boxed discussions, an online test bank, notes, suggested reading, and website links for enhanced understanding Offers additional online support for instructors, including suggested teaching models, PowerPoint slides for each chapter with full-color graphics, and supplementary images and teaching material

Key Thinkers on Space and Place

Author: Phil Hubbard,Rob Kitchin,Gill Valentine

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761949633

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 490

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A comprehensive guide to the latest work on space. Each entry is a short interpretative essay, outlining the contributions made by the key theorists.