Europe's Postwar Recovery

Author: Barry Eichengreen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521482790

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 357

View: 7282

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This book reassesses Western Europe's miraculous economic recovery from World War II and the crisis of 1947. The contributors expose the role of international institutions and contrast the very different national experiences. Their historical analysis has policy relevance--to the debate over the Maastricht Treaty and the Single Market Programme, to the difficulties of adjustment in formerly centrally planned economies, and to reform of the Bretton Woods institutions. This book will be of interest to students of modern European history and to economists.

American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe

Author: Krige

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262263416

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 7338

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In 1945, the United States was not only the strongest economic and military power in the world; it was also the world's leader in science and technology. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures in the United States to model postwar scientific practices and institutions in Western Europe on those in America. They mobilized political and financial support to promote not just America's scientific and technological agendas in Western Europe but its Cold War political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing on the work of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this attempt at scientific dominance by the United States can be seen as a form of "consensual hegemony," involving the collaboration of influential local elites who shared American values. He uses this notion to analyze a series of case studies that describe how the U.S. administration, senior officers in the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO Science Committee, and influential members of the scientific establishment -- notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia University and Vannevar Bush of MIT -- tried to Americanize scientific practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations research. He details U.S. support for institutions including CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif near Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's study shows how consensual hegemony in science not only served the interests of postwar European reconstruction but became another way of maintaining American leadership and "making the world safe for democracy."

Postwar

A History of Europe Since 1945

Author: Tony Judt

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440624766

Category: History

Page: 960

View: 2082

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Finalist for the Pulitzer Prize Winner of the Council on Foreign Relations Arthur Ross Book Award One of the New York Times' Ten Best Books of the Year Almost a decade in the making, this much-anticipated grand history of postwar Europe from one of the world's most esteemed historians and intellectuals is a singular achievement. Postwar is the first modern history that covers all of Europe, both east and west, drawing on research in six languages to sweep readers through thirty-four nations and sixty years of political and cultural change-all in one integrated, enthralling narrative. Both intellectually ambitious and compelling to read, thrilling in its scope and delightful in its small details, Postwar is a rare joy.

A History of Banking in Antebellum America

Financial Markets and Economic Development in an Era of Nation-Building

Author: Howard Bodenhorn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521669993

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 260

View: 1573

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Professor Bodenhorn reveals how America was served by an efficient system of financial intermediaries by the mid-nineteenth century.

The Nazi Economic Recovery 1932-1938

Author: R. J. Overy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521552868

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 77

View: 593

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A fully revised and updated edition of this short comprehensive survey of the Nazi economy.

Occupied Economies

An Economic History of Nazi-Occupied Europe, 1939-1945

Author: Hein A.M. Klemann,Sergei Kudryashov

Publisher: Berg

ISBN: 1845204824

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 490

View: 1582

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Explores the consequences of the German occupation on the economy of occupied Europe, illustrating the ways in which different decisions impacted on the fate of national economies and subsequent post-war recovery. The authors comprehensively chart the economic history of Nazi-occupied Europe in this illuminating study.

Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today

Author: Rudiger Dornbusch,Ford International Professor of Economics Rudiger Dornbusch,Wilhelm Nölling,Richard Layard,P. Richard G. Layard,Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Economic Performance Richard Layard

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262041362

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 249

View: 4626

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The case studies in this book examine significant parallels between the situation in Eastern Europe today and the issues facing Europe and Japan after World War II, offering insights on what kinds of policy actions will be most effective in this difficult period of reconstruction.The breakup of the Soviet Union and the consequent extraordinary problems faced by Eastern European nations raise pressing economic questions. The case studies in this book examine significant parallels between the situation in Eastern Europe today and the issues facing Europe and Japan after World War II, offering insights on what kinds of policy actions will be most effective in this difficult period of reconstruction. The essays address such topics as the relative roles of government and the market; economic openness; industrial conversion from war to peacetime production; the roles of institutions, enterprises, the business community, and their work staffs; and external control of policy measures, of resources made available by the outside world, and of the general external environment. In their introductory chapter, the editors provide an overview that addresses the question of whether reconstruction can ever be managed smoothly.ContentsOpenness, Wage Restraint, and Macroeconomic Stability: West Germany's Road to Prosperity 1948-1959, H. Giersch, K. H. Paqué, M. Schmieding - The Lucky Miracle: Germany 1945-1951, H. Wolf - Inflation and Stabilization in Italy 1946-1951, M. De Cecco and F. Giavazzi - Economic Reconstruction in France 1945-1958, G. Saint-Paul - Reconstruction and the U.K. Postwar Welfare State: False Start and New Beginning, P. Minford - A Perspective on Postwar Reconstruction in Finland, J. Paunio - The Reconstruction and Stabilization of the Postwar Japanese Economy, K. Hamada and M. Kasuya - The Marshall Plan: History's Most Successful Structural Adjustment Program, J. B. De Long and B. Eichengreen - Lessons for Eastern Europe Today, 0. Blanchard, R. Portes, W. Nolling

American Firms in Europe

Strategy, Identity, Perception and Performance (1880-1980)

Author: Hubert Bonin,Ferry de Goey

Publisher: Librairie Droz

ISBN: 9782600012591

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 699

View: 6004

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The processes of the Americanisation of Europe and the moves of American firms abroad have been already well studied. But the very expansion of American firms in Europe still lacked a comprehensive survey. This book gathered two dozens of academics on an actual European level, which paves the way to comparisons, synthetised by leading business historian M. Wilkins. The breakthroughs achieved here concern the topics of timetable and rhythms of American FDIs in Europe, the patterns followed in each country, along with the specificities of each industry or service sector, and the strategy adopted by big firms. Beyond the facts, the immaterial aspects of this business history are scrutinised, especially about the perception of American firms by Europeans: firms' corporate image and identity were at stake. The Europeanisation of American firms is a key issue, about industrial relations, management. commercial policies. brand image, connections and embeddedness. The positions of public authorities and of (industrialists and trade unions') lobbies in front of such an American offensive are also gauged. Graphs and tables of figures provide numerous data. And a few chapters are accompanied by an overview of ads published by American affiliates in newsmagazines. to fuel analysis of their perception by consumers.

Savage Continent

Europe in the Aftermath of World War II

Author: Keith Lowe

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1250015049

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 5920

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The Second World War might have officially ended in May 1945, but in reality it rumbled on for another ten years... The end of the Second World War in Europe is one of the twentieth century's most iconic moments. It is fondly remembered as a time when cheering crowds filled the streets, danced, drank and made love until the small hours. These images of victory and celebration are so strong in our minds that the period of anarchy and civil war that followed has been forgotten. Across Europe, landscapes had been ravaged, entire cities razed and more than thirty million people had been killed in the war. The institutions that we now take for granted - such as the police, the media, transport, local and national government - were either entirely absent or hopelessly compromised. Crime rates were soaring, economies collapsing, and the European population was hovering on the brink of starvation. In Savage Continent, Keith Lowe describes a continent still racked by violence, where large sections of the population had yet to accept that the war was over. Individuals, communities and sometimes whole nations sought vengeance for the wrongs that had been done to them during the war. Germans and collaborators everywhere were rounded up, tormented and summarily executed. Concentration camps were reopened and filled with new victims who were tortured and starved. Violent anti-Semitism was reborn, sparking murders and new pogroms across Europe. Massacres were an integral part of the chaos and in some places – particularly Greece, Yugoslavia and Poland, as well as parts of Italy and France – they led to brutal civil wars. In some of the greatest acts of ethnic cleansing the world has ever seen, tens of millions were expelled from their ancestral homelands, often with the implicit blessing of the Allied authorities. Savage Continent is the story of post WWII Europe, in all its ugly detail, from the end of the war right up until the establishment of an uneasy stability across Europe towards the end of the 1940s. Based principally on primary sources from a dozen countries, Savage Continent is a frightening and thrilling chronicle of a world gone mad, the standard history of post WWII Europe for years to come.

Transition Economies

Transformation, Development, and Society in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Author: Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317567943

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 2347

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This interdisciplinary study offers a comprehensive analysis of the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Providing full historical context and drawing on a wide range of literature, this book explores the continuous economic and social transformation of the post-socialist world. While the future is yet to be determined, understanding the present phase of transformation is critical. The book’s core exploration evolves along three pivots of competitive economic structure, institutional change, and social welfare. The main elements include analysis of the emergence of the socialist economic model; its adaptations through the twentieth century; discussion of the 1990s market transition reforms; post-2008 crisis development; and the social and economic diversity in the region today. With an appreciation for country specifics, the book also considers the urgent problems of social policy, poverty, income inequality, and labor migration. Transition Economies will aid students, researchers and policy makers working on the problems of comparative economics, economic development, economic history, economic systems transition, international political economy, as well as specialists in post-Soviet and Central and Eastern European regional studies.

In Search of Stability

Explorations in Historical Political Economy

Author: Charles S. Maier

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521346986

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 2997

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In Search of Stability: Explorations in Historical Political Economy ponders the issue of how Western industrial societies overcame major challenges to political and economic stability in the twentieth century. Successive essays ask: what ideological messages did American influence transmit to Europe after World War I, then again after World War II? Did Nazis and Italian fascists share an economic ideology or impose a unique economic system in the interwar period and during World War II? How do their accomplishments stack up comparatively against those of the liberal democracies? After 1945, what was the relationship between concepts of productivity and class division? How have the major experiences of twentieth-century inflation arisen out of class and interest-group rivalry? Most generally, what has been the representation of interests in capitalist political economies?

People, Aid and Institutions in Socio-economic Recovery

Facing Fragilities

Author: Dorothea Hilhorst,Bart Weijs,Gemma van der Haar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317428056

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 258

View: 4398

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An estimated 2 billion people live in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence. Extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in these areas, and governments and international agencies seek avenues to enable socio-economic recovery and to support people as they try to rebuild their lives and livelihoods. People, Aid and Institutions in Socio-economic Recovery: Facing Fragilities provides an in-depth understanding of people’s strategies in the face of conflict and disaster-related fragility and examines how policies and aid interventions enable their socio-economic recovery – or fail to do so. Through field-based research, the book captures the complex and unfolding realities on the ground, exploring the interfaces between economic, social and institutional change. This provides a rich and unique vantage point from which to reflect on the impact of recovery policies. The book provides a set of cross-cutting findings that aim to inform policy and practice. The detailed case studies of the book lay bare key dynamics of recovery. Set against the findings from two chapters that review the literature, the cases provide evidence-based lessons for socio-economic recovery. The chapters combine qualitative and quantitative methodologies and form a valuable resource to researchers and postgraduate students of disaster management, conflict, humanitarian aid and social reconstruction, and development management.

West German Industrialists and the Making of the Economic Miracle

A History of Mentality and Recovery

Author: Armin Grünbacher

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 147251128X

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 7875

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West German Industrialists and the Making of the Economic Miracle investigates the mentality of post-war German (heavy) industrialists through an analysis of their attitudes, thinking and views on social, political and, of course, economic matters at the time, including the 'social market economy' and how they saw their own role in society, with this investigation taking place against the backdrop of the 'economic miracle' and the Cold War of the 1950s and 60s. The book also includes an assessment of whether the self-declared, new 'aristocracy of merit' justified its place in society and carried out its actions in a new spirit of political responsibility. This is an important text for all students interested in the history of Germany and the modern economic history of Europe.

Selling the Economic Miracle

Economic Reconstruction and Politics in West Germany, 1949-1957

Author: Mark E. Spicka

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781845452230

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 861

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Through an examination of election campaign propaganda and various public relations campaigns, reflecting new electioneering techniques borrowed from the United States, this work explores how conservative political and economic groups sought to construct and sell a political meaning of the Social Market Economy and the Economic Miracle in West Germany during the 1950s.The political meaning of economics contributed to conservative electoral success, constructed a new belief in the free market economy within West German society, and provided legitimacy and political stability for the new Federal Republic of Germany. Mark E. Spicka is Associate Professor of History at Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania. He received his Ph.D. from Ohio State University and was a Fulbright Scholar in Germany in 1996/1997.

Alan S. Milward and a Century of European Change

Author: Fernando Guirao,Frances Lynch,Sigfrido M. Ramirez Perez

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113646607X

Category: History

Page: 664

View: 9930

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The main purpose of the book is to introduce the work of Alan S. Milward and to acknowledge the full magnitude of his scientific contribution to contemporary British and European history. The book is a collection of essays which provide a better understanding of Alan Milward’s extensive intellectual work for future scholars and facilitate the knowledge and transmission of his published work to present and future generations of students, scholars in the various disciplines concerned, and the general public. The series of original contributions which this book contains are related to or reflect critically upon Milward’s own contributions to the fields of political, diplomatic, and socio-economic history, political science, economics, international relations, and European Studies in general. This book honors Alan Milward through a better understanding of his many pioneering contributions in the fields of contemporary European history in general, and the history of European integration in particular. Although the volume does not aim to be a substitute for Milward’s work itself, it illuminates and assesses his creative process along fifty years of continued and intense work, as well as the impact of his main work, and the continuing relevance of his main theses today.

Austria in the European Union

Author: Günter Bischof,Anton Pelinka,Michael Gehler

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412817646

Category: Political Science

Page: 354

View: 7253

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Austria joined the European Union in 1995, with the overwhelming support of its citizenry. In June 1994, a record 66.6 percent of the Austrian population voted in favor of joining the Union, and Austria acceded on January 1, 1995. Only three years later, in the second half of 1998, Austria assumed its first presidency of the European Union. Its competent conduct of the Union's business enhanced its reputation. The sense that Austria was a role model collapsed overnight, after a new conservative People's Party (VP/FP) coalition government was formed in Austria in early February 2000. Austria became Europe's nightmare. This volume has two purposes. The first is to assess Austria's first five years in the European Union. The second is Austria's ongoing struggle with its past. Heinrich Neisser evaluates and assesses Austria's commitment to the European Union. Thomas Angerer offers a long-term perspective of regionalization and globalization trends in Austrian foreign affairs. Waldemar Hummer analyzes contradictions between Austrian neutrality and Europe's emerging common security policy. Johannes Pollak and Sonja Puntscher Rieckmann look at current debates over weighing future voting rights in the European Commission. Michael Huelshoff evaluates Austria's EU presidency in 1998 and compares it to the subsequent 1999 German presidency. Gerda Falkner examines the withering away of the previously much admired Austrian welfare state. Walter Manoschek scrutinizes the Nazi roots of Jorg Haider's Freedom Party. Michael Gehler critiques the EU sanctions and bemoans the absence of mediation through transnational Christian conservative parties. In reviewing how Austria deals with World War II, Richard Mitten investigates discourses on victimhood in postwar Austria and the place of Jews in this process. A "Roundtable" presents overwhelming evidence of Austrians' deep involvement in Nazi war crimes, and includes articles by Sabine Loitfellner and Winfried Garscha. This addition to the Contemporary Austrian Studies series will be welcomed by political scientists, historians and legal scholars, particularly those with a strong interest in European affairs. Gnter Bischof is professor of history and executive director of the International Studies Center at the University of New Orleans. Anton Pelinka is professor of political science at the University of Innsbruck and director of the Institute of Conflict Research in Vienna. Michael Gehler is professor of contemporary history at the University of Innsbruck. "Austria in the European Union is a highly detailed, expertly researched blend of history, economics, and a calculating appraisal of a nation's future within the context of the evolving European international collaboration. Austrian in the European Union is strongly recommended for European Studies, Political Studies, and International Relations supplemental reading lists and academic reference collections."- The Midwest Book Review

Britain and the Economic Problem of the Cold War

The Political Economy and the Economic Impact of the British Defence Effort, 1945-1955

Author: Till Geiger

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351954776

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3100

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Many accounts of British development since 1945 have attempted to discover why Britain experienced slower rates of economic growth than other Western European countries. In many cases, the explanation for this phenomenon has been attributed to the high level of defence spending that successive British post-war governments adhered to. Yet is it fair to assume that Britain's relative economic decline could have been prevented if policy makers had not spent so much on defence? Examining aspects of the political economy and economic impact of British defence expenditure in the period of the first cold war (1945-1955), this book challenges these widespread assumptions, looking in detail at the link between defence spending and economic decline. In contrast to earlier studies, Till Geiger not only analyses the British effort within the framework of Anglo-American relations, but also places it within the wider context of European integration. By reconsidering the previously accepted explanation of the economic impact of the British defence effort during the immediate post-war period, this book convincingly suggests that British foreign policy-makers retained a large defence budget to offset a sense of increased national vulnerability, brought about by a reduction in Britain's economic strength due to her war effort. Furthermore, it is shown that although this level of military spending may have slightly hampered post-war recovery, it was not in itself responsible for the decline of the British economy.