Explanation in Causal Inference

Methods for Mediation and Interaction

Author: Tyler VanderWeele

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019932588X

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 5993

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The book provides an accessible but comprehensive overview of methods for mediation and interaction. There has been considerable and rapid methodological development on mediation and moderation/interaction analysis within the causal-inference literature over the last ten years. Much of this material appears in a variety of specialized journals, and some of the papers are quite technical. There has also been considerable interest in these developments from empirical researchers in the social and biomedical sciences. However, much of the material is not currently in a format that is accessible to them. The book closes these gaps by providing an accessible, comprehensive, book-length coverage of mediation. The book begins with a comprehensive introduction to mediation analysis, including chapters on concepts for mediation, regression-based methods, sensitivity analysis, time-to-event outcomes, methods for multiple mediators, methods for time-varying mediation and longitudinal data, and relations between mediation and other concepts involving intermediates such as surrogates, principal stratification, instrumental variables, and Mendelian randomization. The second part of the book concerns interaction or "moderation," including concepts for interaction, statistical interaction, confounding and interaction, mechanistic interaction, bias analysis for interaction, interaction in genetic studies, and power and sample-size calculation for interaction. The final part of the book provides comprehensive discussion about the relationships between mediation and interaction and unites these concepts within a single framework. This final part also provides an introduction to spillover effects or social interaction, concluding with a discussion of social-network analyses. The book is written to be accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics. Comprehensive appendices provide more technical details for the interested reader. Applied empirical examples from a variety of fields are given throughout. Software implementation in SAS, Stata, SPSS, and R is provided. The book should be accessible to students and researchers who have completed a first-year graduate sequence in quantitative methods in one of the social- or biomedical-sciences disciplines. The book will only presuppose familiarity with linear and logistic regression, and could potentially be used as an advanced undergraduate book as well.

Explanation in Causal Inference

Methods for Mediation and Interaction

Author: Tyler VanderWeele,Tyler J.. VanderWeele

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199325871

Category: Psychology

Page: 706

View: 8617

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"A comprehensive book on methods for mediation and interaction. The only book to approach this topic from the perspective of causal inference. Numerous software tools provided. Easy-to-read and accessible. Examples drawn from diverse fields. An essential reference for anyone conducting empirical research in the biomedical or social sciences"--

Causality in a Social World

Moderation, Mediation and Spill-over

Author: Guanglei Hong

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119030609

Category: Mathematics

Page: 448

View: 6748

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Causality in a Social World introduces innovative new statistical research and strategies for investigating moderated intervention effects, mediated intervention effects, and spill-over effects using experimental or quasi-experimental data. The book uses potential outcomes to define causal effects, explains and evaluates identification assumptions using application examples, and compares innovative statistical strategies with conventional analysis methods. Whilst highlighting the crucial role of good research design and the evaluation of assumptions required for identifying causal effects in the context of each application, the author demonstrates that improved statistical procedures will greatly enhance the empirical study of causal relationship theory. Applications focus on interventions designed to improve outcomes for participants who are embedded in social settings, including families, classrooms, schools, neighbourhoods, and workplaces.

Targeted Learning

Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data

Author: Mark J. van der Laan,Sherri Rose

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441997821

Category: Mathematics

Page: 628

View: 6697

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the target parameter representing the scientific question of interest. This book is aimed at both statisticians and applied researchers interested in causal inference and general effect estimation for observational and experimental data. Part I is an accessible introduction to super learning and the targeted maximum likelihood estimator, including related concepts necessary to understand and apply these methods. Parts II-IX handle complex data structures and topics applied researchers will immediately recognize from their own research, including time-to-event outcomes, direct and indirect effects, positivity violations, case-control studies, censored data, longitudinal data, and genomic studies.

Mediation Analysis

Author: Dawn Iacobucci

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 141292569X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 85

View: 6160

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Social science data analysts have long considered the mediation of intermediate variables of primary importance in understanding individuals' social, behavioural and other kinds of outcomes. In this book Dawn Iacobucci uses the method known as structural equation modeling (SEM) in modeling mediation in causal analysis. This approach offers the most flexibility and allows the researcher to deal with mediation in the presence of multiple measures, mediated moderation, and moderated mediation, among other variations on the mediation theme. The wide availability of software implementing SEM gives the reader necessary tools for modeling mediation so that a proper understanding of causal relationship is achieved.

Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis

Author: David MacKinnon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136676139

Category: Medical

Page: 488

View: 4238

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This volume introduces the statistical, methodological, and conceptual aspects of mediation analysis. Applications from health, social, and developmental psychology, sociology, communication, exercise science, and epidemiology are emphasized throughout. Single-mediator, multilevel, and longitudinal models are reviewed. The author's goal is to help the reader apply mediation analysis to their own data and understand its limitations. Each chapter features an overview, numerous worked examples, a summary, and exercises (with answers to the odd numbered questions). The accompanying CD contains outputs described in the book from SAS, SPSS, LISREL, EQS, MPLUS, and CALIS, and a program to simulate the model. The notation used is consistent with existing literature on mediation in psychology. The book opens with a review of the types of research questions the mediation model addresses. Part II describes the estimation of mediation effects including assumptions, statistical tests, and the construction of confidence limits. Advanced models including mediation in path analysis, longitudinal models, multilevel data, categorical variables, and mediation in the context of moderation are then described. The book closes with a discussion of the limits of mediation analysis, additional approaches to identifying mediating variables, and future directions. Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis is intended for researchers and advanced students in health, social, clinical, and developmental psychology as well as communication, public health, nursing, epidemiology, and sociology. Some exposure to a graduate level research methods or statistics course is assumed. The overview of mediation analysis and the guidelines for conducting a mediation analysis will be appreciated by all readers.

Epidemiology

Author: Leon Gordis

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437700519

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 3696

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This popular book is written by the award-winning teacher, Dr. Leon Gordis of the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. He introduces the basic principles and concepts of epidemiology in clear, concise writing and his inimitable style. This book provides an understanding of the key concepts in the following 3 fully updated sections: Section I: The Epidemiologic Approach to Disease and Intervention; Section II: Using Epidemiology to Identify the Causes of Disease; Section III: Applying Epidemiology to Evaluation and Policy. Clear, practical graphs and charts, cartoons, and review questions with answers reinforce the text and aid in comprehension. Utilizes new full-color format to enhance readability and clarity. Provides new and updated figures, references and concept examples to keep you absolutely current - new information has been added on Registration of Clinical Trials, Case-Cohort Design, Case-Crossover Design, and Sources and Impact of Uncertainty (disease topics include: Obesity, Asthma, Thyroid Cancer, Helicobacter Pylori and gastric/duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, Mammography for women in their forties) - expanded topics include Person-time. Please note: electronic rights were not granted for several images in this product. Introduces both the underlying concepts as well as the practical uses of epidemiology in public health and in clinical practice. Systemizes learning and review with study questions in each section and an answer key and index. Illustrates textual information with clear and informative full-color illustrations, many created by the author and tested in the classroom.

The SAGE Handbook of Regression Analysis and Causal Inference

Author: Henning Best,Christof Wolf

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473908353

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 9419

DOWNLOAD NOW »
'The editors of the new SAGE Handbook of Regression Analysis and Causal Inference have assembled a wide-ranging, high-quality, and timely collection of articles on topics of central importance to quantitative social research, many written by leaders in the field. Everyone engaged in statistical analysis of social-science data will find something of interest in this book.' - John Fox, Professor, Department of Sociology, McMaster University 'The authors do a great job in explaining the various statistical methods in a clear and simple way - focussing on fundamental understanding, interpretation of results, and practical application - yet being precise in their exposition.' - Ben Jann, Executive Director, Institute of Sociology, University of Bern 'Best and Wolf have put together a powerful collection, especially valuable in its separate discussions of uses for both cross-sectional and panel data analysis.' -Tom Smith, Senior Fellow, NORC, University of Chicago Edited and written by a team of leading international social scientists, this Handbook provides a comprehensive introduction to multivariate methods. The Handbook focuses on regression analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data with an emphasis on causal analysis, thereby covering a large number of different techniques including selection models, complex samples, and regression discontinuities. Each Part starts with a non-mathematical introduction to the method covered in that section, giving readers a basic knowledge of the method’s logic, scope and unique features. Next, the mathematical and statistical basis of each method is presented along with advanced aspects. Using real-world data from the European Social Survey (ESS) and the Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), the book provides a comprehensive discussion of each method’s application, making this an ideal text for PhD students and researchers embarking on their own data analysis.

An Introduction to Causal Inference

Author: Judea Pearl

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781507894293

Category:

Page: 94

View: 1190

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book summarizes recent advances in causal inference and underscores the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underlie all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, the conditional nature of all causal and counterfactual claims, and the methods that have been developed for the assessment of such claims. These advances are illustrated using a general theory of causation based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM), which subsumes and unifies other approaches to causation, and provides a coherent mathematical foundation for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper surveys the development of mathematical tools for inferring (from a combination of data and assumptions) answers to three types of causal queries: those about (1) the effects of potential interventions, (2) probabilities of counterfactuals, and (3) direct and indirect effects (also known as "mediation"). Finally, the paper defines the formal and conceptual relationships between the structural and potential-outcome frameworks and presents tools for a symbiotic analysis that uses the strong features of both. The tools are demonstrated in the analyses of mediation, causes of effects, and probabilities of causation.

Mendelian Randomization

Methods for Using Genetic Variants in Causal Estimation

Author: Stephen Burgess,Simon G. Thompson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 146657318X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 224

View: 6108

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Presents the Terminology and Methods of Mendelian Randomization for Epidemiological Studies Mendelian randomization uses genetic instrumental variables to make inferences about causal effects based on observational data. It, therefore, can be a reliable way of assessing the causal nature of risk factors, such as biomarkers, for a wide range of disease outcomes. Mendelian Randomization: Methods for Using Genetic Variants in Causal Estimation provides thorough coverage of the methods and practical elements of Mendelian randomization analysis. It brings together diverse aspects of Mendelian randomization spanning epidemiology, statistics, genetics, and econometrics. Although the book mainly focuses on epidemiology, much of the material can be applied to other areas of research. Through several examples, the first part of the book shows how to perform simple applied Mendelian randomization analyses and interpret their results. The second part addresses specific methodological issues, such as weak instruments, multiple instruments, power calculations, and meta-analysis, relevant to practical applications of Mendelian randomization. In this part, the authors draw on data from the C-reactive protein Coronary heart disease Genetics Collaboration (CCGC) to illustrate the analyses. They present the mathematics in an easy-to-understand way by using nontechnical language and reinforcing key points at the end of each chapter. The last part of the book examines the potential of Mendelian randomization in the future, exploring both methodological and applied developments. This book gives statisticians, epidemiologists, and geneticists the foundation to understand issues concerning the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables. It will get them up to speed in undertaking and interpreting Mendelian randomization analyses. Chapter summaries, paper summaries, web-based applications, and software code for implementing the statistical techniques are available on a supplementary website.

Statistical Methods in Genetic Epidemiology

Author: Duncan C. Thomas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199748051

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 967

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This well-organized and clearly written text has a unique focus on methods of identifying the joint effects of genes and environment on disease patterns. It follows the natural sequence of research, taking readers through the study designs and statistical analysis techniques for determining whether a trait runs in families, testing hypotheses about whether a familial tendency is due to genetic or environmental factors or both, estimating the parameters of a genetic model, localizing and ultimately isolating the responsible genes, and finally characterizing their effects in the population. Examples from the literature on the genetic epidemiology of breast and colorectal cancer, among other diseases, illustrate this process. Although the book is oriented primarily towards graduate students in epidemiology, biostatistics and human genetics, it will also serve as a comprehensive reference work for researchers. Introductory chapters on molecular biology, Mendelian genetics, epidemiology, statistics, and population genetics will help make the book accessible to those coming from one of these fields without a background in the others. It strikes a good balance between epidemiologic study designs and statistical methods of data analysis.

Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

With Applications in the Medical and Behavioral Sciences

Author: Sik-Yum Lee,Xin-Yuan Song

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118358872

Category: Mathematics

Page: 400

View: 3012

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book provides clear instructions to researchers on how to apply Structural Equation Models (SEMs) for analyzing the inter relationships between observed and latent variables. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling introduces basic and advanced SEMs for analyzing various kinds of complex data, such as ordered and unordered categorical data, multilevel data, mixture data, longitudinal data, highly non-normal data, as well as some of their combinations. In addition, Bayesian semiparametric SEMs to capture the true distribution of explanatory latent variables are introduced, whilst SEM with a nonparametric structural equation to assess unspecified functional relationships among latent variables are also explored. Statistical methodologies are developed using the Bayesian approach giving reliable results for small samples and allowing the use of prior information leading to better statistical results. Estimates of the parameters and model comparison statistics are obtained via powerful Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in statistical computing. Introduces the Bayesian approach to SEMs, including discussion on the selection of prior distributions, and data augmentation. Demonstrates how to utilize the recent powerful tools in statistical computing including, but not limited to, the Gibbs sampler, the Metropolis-Hasting algorithm, and path sampling for producing various statistical results such as Bayesian estimates and Bayesian model comparison statistics in the analysis of basic and advanced SEMs. Discusses the Bayes factor, Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), and $L_\nu$-measure for Bayesian model comparison. Introduces a number of important generalizations of SEMs, including multilevel and mixture SEMs, latent curve models and longitudinal SEMs, semiparametric SEMs and those with various types of discrete data, and nonparametric structural equations. Illustrates how to use the freely available software WinBUGS to produce the results. Provides numerous real examples for illustrating the theoretical concepts and computational procedures that are presented throughout the book. Researchers and advanced level students in statistics, biostatistics, public health, business, education, psychology and social science will benefit from this book.

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications

Author: Yang Yang,Kenneth C. Land

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466507535

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 8557

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors’ collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Within a single, consistent HAPC-GLMM statistical modeling framework, the authors synthesize APC models and methods for three research designs: age-by-time period tables of population rates or proportions, repeated cross-section sample surveys, and accelerated longitudinal panel studies. The authors show how the empirical application of the models to various problems leads to many fascinating findings on how outcome variables develop along the age, period, and cohort dimensions. The book makes two essential contributions to quantitative studies of time-related change. Through the introduction of the GLMM framework, it shows how innovative estimation methods and new model specifications can be used to tackle the "model identification problem" that has hampered the development and empirical application of APC analysis. The book also addresses the major criticism against APC analysis by explaining the use of new models within the GLMM framework to uncover mechanisms underlying age patterns and temporal trends. Encompassing both methodological expositions and empirical studies, this book explores the ways in which statistical models, methods, and research designs can be used to open new possibilities for APC analysis. It compares new and existing models and methods and provides useful guidelines on how to conduct APC analysis. For empirical illustrations, the text incorporates examples from a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, demography, and epidemiology. Along with details on empirical analyses, software and programs to estimate the models are available on the book’s web page.

Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials

Author: Steven A. Julious

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781584887409

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 1661

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Drawing on various real-world applications, Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials takes readers through the process of calculating sample sizes for many types of clinical trials. It provides descriptions of the calculations with a practical emphasis. Focusing on normal, binary, ordinal, and survival data, the book explores a range of trials, including superiority, equivalence, non-inferiority, bioequivalence, and precision for both parallel group and crossover designs. The author discusses how trial objectives impact the study design with respect to the derivation of formulae for sample size calculations. He uses real-life studies throughout to show how the concepts and calculations can be employed. This work underscores the importance of sample size calculation in the design of a clinical trial. With useful calculation tables throughout, it enables readers to quickly find an appropriate formula, formula application, and associated worked example. Watch the author speak about this book at JSM 2012 in San Diego.

Methods in Social Epidemiology

Author: J. Michael Oakes,Jay S. Kaufman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118603737

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 1070

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A thorough, practical reference on the social patterns behind health outcomes Methods in Social Epidemiology provides students and professionals with a comprehensive reference for studying the social distribution and social determinants of health. Covering the theory, models, and methods used to measure and analyze these phenomena, this book serves as both an introduction to the field and a practical manual for data collection and analysis. This new second edition has been updated to reflect the field's tremendous growth in recent years, including advancements in statistical modeling and study designs. New chapters delve into genetic methods, structural cofounding, selection bias, network methods, and more, including new discussion on qualitative data collection with disadvantaged populations. Social epidemiology studies the way society's innumerable social interactions, both past and present, yields different exposures and health outcomes between individuals within populations. This book provides a thorough, detailed overview of the field, with expert guidance toward the real-world methods that fuel the latest advances. Identify, measure, and track health patterns in the population Discover how poverty, race, and socioeconomic factors become risk factors for disease Learn qualitative data collection techniques and methods of statistical analysis Examine up-to-date models, theory, and frameworks in the social epidemiology sphere As the field continues to evolve, researchers continue to identify new disease-specific risk factors and learn more about how the social system promotes and maintains well-known exposure disparities. New technology in data science and genomics allows for more rigorous investigation and analysis, while the general thinking in the field has become more targeted and attentive to causal inference and core assumptions behind effect identification. It's an exciting time to be a part of the field, and Methods in Social Epidemiology provides a solid reference for any student, researcher, or faculty in public health.

Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine

Author: Xiao-Hua Zhou,Nancy A. Obuchowski,Donna K. McClish

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118626044

Category: Medical

Page: 592

View: 1982

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Praise for the First Edition " . . . the book is a valuable addition to the literature in the field, serving as a much-needed guide for both clinicians and advanced students."—Zentralblatt MATH A new edition of the cutting-edge guide to diagnostic tests in medical research In recent years, a considerable amount of research has focused on evolving methods for designing and analyzing diagnostic accuracy studies. Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine, Second Edition continues to provide a comprehensive approach to the topic, guiding readers through the necessary practices for understanding these studies and generalizing the results to patient populations. Following a basic introduction to measuring test accuracy and study design, the authors successfully define various measures of diagnostic accuracy, describe strategies for designing diagnostic accuracy studies, and present key statistical methods for estimating and comparing test accuracy. Topics new to the Second Edition include: Methods for tests designed to detect and locate lesions Recommendations for covariate-adjustment Methods for estimating and comparing predictive values and sample size calculations Correcting techniques for verification and imperfect standard biases Sample size calculation for multiple reader studies when pilot data are available Updated meta-analysis methods, now incorporating random effects Three case studies thoroughly showcase some of the questions and statistical issues that arise in diagnostic medicine, with all associated data provided in detailed appendices. A related web site features Fortran, SAS®, and R software packages so that readers can conduct their own analyses. Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine, Second Edition is an excellent supplement for biostatistics courses at the graduate level. It also serves as a valuable reference for clinicians and researchers working in the fields of medicine, epidemiology, and biostatistics.

Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Author: Michael Thun,Martha S. Linet,James R. Cerhan,Christopher A. Haiman,David Schottenfeld

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190238682

Category: Medical

Page: 1104

View: 402

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"The definitive reference for budding and experienced cancer epidemiologists alike." -American Journal of Epidemiology "Practitioners in epidemiology and oncology will find immense value in this." -JAMA Since its initial publication in 1982, CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION has served as the premier reference work for students and professionals working to understand the causes and prevention of cancer in humans. Now revised for the first time in more than a decade, this fourth edition provides a comprehensive summary of the global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality, current understanding of the major causal determinants, and a rationale for preventive interventions. Special attention is paid to molecular epidemiologic approaches that address the wider role of genetic predisposition and gene-environment interactions in cancer etiology and pathogenesis. New and timely chapters on environmental and social-epidemiologic factors include: ? The role of social class disparities ? The role of obesity and physical inactivity ? The potential effects of electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation ? The principles of cancer chemoprevention For both seasoned professionals and newer generations of students and researchers, this fourth edition of CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION remains the authority in the field -- a work of distinction that every lab, library, student, professional, or researcher should have close at hand.

Elements of Causal Inference

Foundations and Learning Algorithms

Author: Jonas Peters,Dominik Janzing,Bernhard Schölkopf

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262037319

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 2642

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.

Analysis of Health Surveys

Author: Edward L. Korn,Barry I. Graubard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118030869

Category: Mathematics

Page: 408

View: 6074

DOWNLOAD NOW »
How to apply statistical methods to survey data--a guide to effective analysis of health surveys. With large health surveys becoming increasingly available for public use, researchers with little experience in survey methods are often faced with analyzing data from surveys to address scientific and programmatic questions. This practical book provides statistical techniques for use in survey analysis, making health surveys accessible to statisticians, biostatisticians, epidemiologists, and health researchers. The authors clearly explain the theory and methods of survey analysis along with real-world applications. They draw on their work at the National Institutes of Health as well as up-to-date information from across the literature to present: * The sampling background necessary to understand health surveys. * The application of such techniques as t-tests, linear regression, logistic regression, and survival analysis to survey data. * The use of sample weights in survey data analysis. * Dealing with complications in variance estimation in large health surveys. * Applications involving cross-sectional, longitudinal, and multiple cross-sectional surveys, and the use of surveys to perform population- based case-control analyses. * Guidance on the correct use of statistical methods found in software packages. * Extensive bibliography.