Fields and Streams

Stream Restoration, Neoliberalism, and the Future of Environmental Science

Author: Rebecca Lave

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820343919

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 1080

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Examining the science of stream restoration, Rebecca Lave argues that the neoliberal emphasis on the privatization and commercialization of knowledge has fundamentally changed the way that science is funded, organized, and viewed in the United States. Stream restoration science and practice is in a startling state. The most widely respected expert in the field, Dave Rosgen, is a private consultant with relatively little formal scientific training. Since the mid-1990s, many academic and federal agency-based scientists have denounced Rosgen as a charlatan and a hack. Despite this, Rosgen's Natural Channel Design approach, classification system, and short-course series are not only accepted but are viewed as more legitimate than academically produced knowledge and training. Rosgen's methods are now promoted by federal agencies including the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, as well as by resource agencies in dozens of states. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Lave demonstrates that the primary cause of Rosgen's success is neither the method nor the man but is instead the assignment of a new legitimacy to scientific claims developed outside the academy, concurrent with academic scientists' decreasing ability to defend their turf. What is at stake in the Rosgen wars, argues Lave, is not just the ecological health of our rivers and streams but the very future of environmental science.

The Data Revolution

Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences

Author: Rob Kitchin

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473908256

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 8920

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"Carefully distinguishing between big data and open data, and exploring various data infrastructures, Kitchin vividly illustrates how the data landscape is rapidly changing and calls for a revolution in how we think about data." - Evelyn Ruppert, Goldsmiths, University of London "Deconstructs the hype around the ‘data revolution’ to carefully guide us through the histories and the futures of ‘big data.’ The book skilfully engages with debates from across the humanities, social sciences, and sciences in order to produce a critical account of how data are enmeshed into enormous social, economic, and political changes that are taking place." - Mark Graham, University of Oxford Traditionally, data has been a scarce commodity which, given its value, has been either jealously guarded or expensively traded. In recent years, technological developments and political lobbying have turned this position on its head. Data now flow as a deep and wide torrent, are low in cost and supported by robust infrastructures, and are increasingly open and accessible. A data revolution is underway, one that is already reshaping how knowledge is produced, business conducted, and governance enacted, as well as raising many questions concerning surveillance, privacy, security, profiling, social sorting, and intellectual property rights. In contrast to the hype and hubris of much media and business coverage, The Data Revolution provides a synoptic and critical analysis of the emerging data landscape. Accessible in style, the book provides: A synoptic overview of big data, open data and data infrastructures An introduction to thinking conceptually about data, data infrastructures, data analytics and data markets Acritical discussion of the technical shortcomings and the social, political and ethical consequences of the data revolution An analysis of the implications of the data revolution to academic, business and government practices

Revolting New York

How 400 Years of Riot, Rebellion, Uprising, and Revolution Shaped a City

Author: Neil Smith,Don Mitchell,Marnie Brady

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820352810

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 6754

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From the earliest European colonization to the present, New Yorkers have been revolting. Hard-hitting, revealing, and insightful, Revolting New York tells the story of New York's evolution through revolution, a story of near-continuous popular (and sometimes not-so-popular) uprising.

Lawn People

How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make Us Who We Are

Author: Paul Robbins

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1592135803

Category: Gardening

Page: 208

View: 6970

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A comprehensive survey of the American lawn and how caring for it impacts people's lives.

Understories

The Political Life of Forests in Northern New Mexico

Author: Jake Kosek

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822338475

Category: Nature

Page: 380

View: 6958

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A lively, engaging ethnography that demonstrates how a volatile politics of race, class, and nation animates the infamously violent struggles over forests in the U.S. Southwest.

Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor

Author: Rob Nixon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674049306

Category: Law

Page: 353

View: 4935

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“Slow violence” from climate change, toxic drift, deforestation, oil spills, and the environmental aftermath of war takes place gradually and often invisibly. Rob Nixon focuses on the inattention we have paid to the lethality of many environmental crises, in contrast with the sensational, spectacle-driven messaging that impels public activism today.

Neoliberal Environments

False Promises and Unnatural Consequences

Author: Nik Heynen,James McCarthy,Scott Prudham,Paul Robbins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135983305

Category: Political Science

Page: 310

View: 2097

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This volume explores the nexus between nature, markets, deregulation and valuation, using theoretically sharp and empirically rich real-world case studies and analyses of actually existing policy from around the world and across a range of resources. In short, it answers the questions: does neoliberalizing nature work and what work does it do? More specifically, this volume provides answers to a series of urgent questions about the effects of neoliberal policies on environmental governance and quality. What are the implications of privatizing public water utilities in terms of equity in service provision, resource conservation and water quality? Do free trade agreements erode the sovereignty of nations and citizens to regulate environmental pollution, and is this power being transferred to corporations? What does the evidence show about the relationship between that marketization and privatization of nature and conservation objectives? Neoliberal Environments productively engages with all of these questions and more. At the same time, the diverse case studies collectively and decisively challenge the orthodoxies of neoliberal reforms, documenting that the results of such reforms have fallen far short of their ambitions.

Reimagining Political Ecology

Author: Aletta Biersack,James B. Greenberg

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822388146

Category: Social Science

Page: 440

View: 2067

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Reimagining Political Ecology is a state-of-the-art collection of ethnographies grounded in political ecology. When political ecology first emerged as a distinct field in the early 1970s, it was rooted in the neo-Marxism of world system theory. This collection showcases second-generation political ecology, which retains the Marxist interest in capitalism as a global structure but which is also heavily influenced by poststructuralism, feminism, practice theory, and cultural studies. As these essays illustrate, contemporary political ecology moves beyond binary thinking, focusing instead on the interchanges between nature and culture, the symbolic and the material, and the local and the global. Aletta Biersack’s introduction takes stock of where political ecology has been, assesses the field’s strengths, and sets forth a bold research agenda for the future. Two essays offer wide-ranging critiques of modernist ecology, with its artificial dichotomy between nature and culture, faith in the scientific management of nature, and related tendency to dismiss local knowledge. The remaining eight essays are case studies of particular constructions and appropriations of nature and the complex politics that come into play regionally, nationally, and internationally when nature is brought within the human sphere. Written by some of the leading thinkers in environmental anthropology, these rich ethnographies are based in locales around the world: in Belize, Papua New Guinea, the Gulf of California, Iceland, Finland, the Peruvian Amazon, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Collectively, they demonstrate that political ecology speaks to concerns shared by geographers, sociologists, political scientists, historians, and anthropologists alike. And they model the kind of work that this volume identifies as the future of political ecology: place-based “ethnographies of nature” keenly attuned to the conjunctural effects of globalization. Contributors. Eeva Berglund, Aletta Biersack, J. Peter Brosius, Michael R. Dove, James B. Greenberg, Søren Hvalkof, J. Stephen Lansing, Gísli Pálsson, Joel Robbins, Vernon L. Scarborough, John W. Schoenfelder, Richard Wilk

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Author: Christopher B. Field,Vicente Barros,Thomas F. Stocker,Qin Dahe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107380103

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5828

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This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report (IPCC-SREX) explores the challenge of understanding and managing the risks of climate extremes to advance climate change adaptation. Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. Changes in the frequency and severity of the physical events affect disaster risk, but so do the spatially diverse and temporally dynamic patterns of exposure and vulnerability. Some types of extreme weather and climate events have increased in frequency or magnitude, but populations and assets at risk have also increased, with consequences for disaster risk. Opportunities for managing risks of weather- and climate-related disasters exist or can be developed at any scale, local to international. Prepared following strict IPCC procedures, SREX is an invaluable assessment for anyone interested in climate extremes, environmental disasters and adaptation to climate change, including policymakers, the private sector and academic researchers.

Savages

Author: Joe Kane

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307809919

Category: Travel

Page: 304

View: 8408

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Savages is a firsthand account, by turn hilarious, heartbreaking, and thrilling, of a small band of Amazonian warriors and their battle to preserve their way of life. Includes eight pages of photos. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Tropic of Chaos

Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence

Author: Christian Parenti

Publisher: Nation Books

ISBN: 1568586620

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 2030

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From Africa to Asia and Latin America, the era of climate wars has begun. Extreme weather is breeding banditry, humanitarian crisis, and state failure. In Tropic of Chaos, investigative journalist Christian Parenti travels along the front lines of this gathering catastrophe--the belt of economically and politically battered postcolonial nations and war zones girding the planet's midlatitudes. Here he finds failed states amid climatic disasters. But he also reveals the unsettling presence of Western military forces and explains how they see an opportunity in the crisis to prepare for open-ended global counterinsurgency. Parenti argues that this incipient "climate fascism"--a political hardening of wealthy states-- is bound to fail. The struggling states of the developing world cannot be allowed to collapse, as they will take other nations down as well. Instead, we must work to meet the challenge of climate-driven violence with a very different set of sustainable economic and development policies.

Capitalism in the Web of Life

Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital

Author: Jason W. Moore

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1781689040

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 8567

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Finance. Climate. Food. Work. How are the crises of the twenty-first century connected? In Capitalism in the Web of Life, Jason W. Moore argues that the sources of today’s global turbulence have a common cause: capitalism as a way of organizing nature, including human nature. Drawing on environmentalist, feminist, and Marxist thought, Moore offers a groundbreaking new synthesis: capitalism as a “world-ecology” of wealth, power, and nature. Capitalism’s greatest strength—and the source of its problems—is its capacity to create Cheap Natures: labor, food, energy, and raw materials. That capacity is now in question. Rethinking capitalism through the pulsing and renewing dialectic of humanity-in-nature, Moore takes readers on a journey from the rise of capitalism to the modern mosaic of crisis. Capitalism in the Web of Life shows how the critique of capitalism-in-nature—rather than capitalism and nature—is key to understanding our predicament, and to pursuing the politics of liberation in the century ahead. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Capital in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Thomas Piketty

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674979850

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 816

View: 2980

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The main driver of inequality—returns on capital that exceed the rate of economic growth—is again threatening to generate extreme discontent and undermine democratic values. Thomas Piketty’s findings in this ambitious, original, rigorous work will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about wealth and inequality.

Dynamic Sustainabilities

Technology, Environment, Social Justice

Author: Melissa Leach,Ian Scoones,Andy Stirling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1849710937

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 212

View: 5488

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Introducing a new pathways approach for understanding and responding to sustainability challenges, this title explores practical ways forward for building pathways to sustainability.

Adaptation to Climate Change

From Resilience to Transformation

Author: Mark Pelling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134022018

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 5313

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The impacts of climate change are already being felt. Learning how to live with these impacts is a priority for human development. In this context, it is too easy to see adaptation as a narrowly defensive task – protecting core assets or functions from the risks of climate change. A more profound engagement, which sees climate change risks as a product and driver of social as well as natural systems, and their interaction, is called for. Adaptation to Climate Change argues that, without care, adaptive actions can deny the deeper political and cultural roots that call for significant change in social and political relations if human vulnerability to climate change associated risk is to be reduced. This book presents a framework for making sense of the range of choices facing humanity, structured around resilience (stability), transition (incremental social change and the exercising of existing rights) and transformation (new rights claims and changes in political regimes). The resilience-transition-transformation framework is supported by three detailed case study chapters. These also illustrate the diversity of contexts where adaption is unfolding, from organizations to urban governance and the national polity. This text is the first comprehensive analysis of the social dimensions to climate change adaptation. Clearly written in an engaging style, it provides detailed theoretical and empirical chapters and serves as an invaluable reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students interested in climate change, geography and development studies.

The Point Is To Change It

Geographies of Hope and Survival in an Age of Crisis

Author: Noel Castree,Paul A. Chatterton,Nik Heynen,Wendy Larner,Melissa W. Wright

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444397346

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 2301

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Commissioned to celebrate the 40th year of Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography, this book evaluates the role of the critical social scientist and how the point of their work is not simply to interpret the world but to change it Brings together leading critical social scientists to consider the major challenges of our time and what is to be done about them Applies diagnostic and normative reasoning to momentous issues including the global economic crisis, transnational environmental problems, record levels of malnourishment, never ending wars, and proliferating natural disasters Theoretically diverse - a range of perspectives are put to work ranging from Marxism and feminism to anarchism The chapters comprise advanced but accessible analyses of the present and future world order

Ours to Hack and to Own

The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet

Author: Trebor Scholz,Nathan Schneider

Publisher: Or Books

ISBN: 9781944869335

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 1200

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With the rollback of net neutrality, platform cooperativism becomes even more pressing: In one volume, some of the most cogent thinkers and doers on the subject of the cooptation of the Internet, and how we can resist and reverse the process.

Agropolis

The Social, Political, and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture

Author: Luc J. A. Mougeot

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 1552501868

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 305

View: 4259

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?A rare achievement, one of the first books to link technological and behavioural change to the sustainability agenda?Charles Landry, author of The Creative City?Any course interested in sustainable development in practice would benefit from the case studies here?Dr Adrian Smith, SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UKTwo disjointed voices can be identified in the prevailing sustainability discourse: one technology-focused, the other favouring behavioural solutions. This new, practical text bridges the gap in a 'co-evolutionary' framework, enabling more sustainable policies and projects to be developed.Arguing that technical and social realms are much more connected than most people concerned with sustainability tend to admit, the author has developed an innovative and integrated strategy that encourages planners, architects and politicians to work with end-users in 'co-designing' technologies and infrastructures that make socially desired behaviours more attractive. Having explained the nature of the problem, the author outlines key concepts and shared characteristics of co-evolutionary projects and anticipates possible criticisms. Through detailed analysis and diverse case studies, the reader is presented with a clear picture of a more holistic approach to planning sustainable cities and regions, which will be invaluable for students and professionals alike.This will be an invaluable textbook and planning tool suitable for students of science and technology studies (STS), regional policy and planning, and practitioners including city and regional planners, policy makers and consultants.

Reclaiming the Land

The Resurgence of Rural Movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America

Author: Sam Moyo,Paris Yeros

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1848137656

Category: Political Science

Page: 432

View: 2418

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Rural movements have recently emerged to become some of the most important social forces in opposition to neoliberalism. From Brazil and Mexico to Zimbabwe and the Philippines, rural movements of diverse political character, but all sharing the same social basis of dispossessed peasants and unemployed workers, have used land occupations and other tactics to confront the neoliberal state. This volume brings together for the first time across three continents - Africa, Latin America and Asia - an intellectually consistent set of original investigations into this new generation of rural social movements. These country studies seek to identify their social composition, strategies, tactics, and ideologies; to assess their relations with other social actors, including political parties, urban social movements, and international aid agencies and other institutions; and to examine their most common tactic, the land occupation, its origins, pace and patterns, as well as the responses of governments and landowners. At a more fundamental level, this volume explores the ways in which two decades of neoliberal policy - including new land tenure arrangements intended to hasten the commodification of land, and new land uses linked to global markets -- have undermined the social reproduction of the rural labour force and created the conditions for popular resistance. The volume demonstrates the longer-term potential impact of these movements. In economic terms, they raise the possibility of tackling immiseration by means of the redistribution of land and the reorganisation of production on a more efficient and socially responsible basis. And in political terms, breaking the power of landowners and transnational capital with interests in land could ultimately open the way to an alternative pattern of capital accumulation and development.

Globalisation and the Roman World

Archaeological and Theoretical Perspectives

Author: Martin Pitts

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107043743

Category: History

Page: 308

View: 406

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This book applies modern theories of globalisation to the ancient Roman world, creating new understandings of Roman archaeology and history. This is the first book to intensely scrutinize the subject through a team of international specialists studying a wide range of topics, including imperialism, economics, migration, urbanism and art.