Fighting Over Peace

Spoilers, Peace Agreements, and the Strategic Use of Violence

Author: Andrew G. Reiter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319401025

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 4123

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This book presents post-peace agreement violence as a serious, yet predictable and manageable, political phenomenon. Negotiating an end to a civil war is extremely difficult, and many signed peace agreements subsequently unravel, ushering in renewed conflict. In response, important international actors have become increasingly involved in conflict mediation, peacekeeping, and post-conflict reconstruction around the globe. Policymakers and scholars alike have identified spoilers—violent actors who often rise up and attempt to challenge or derail the peace process—as one of the greatest threats to peace. Using a mixed-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative analyses of a newly created, global dataset of spoiling, Reiter demonstrates that this type of violence occurs in predictable circumstances and only represents a threat to peace under specific conditions. The book also shows that spoiling often serves to bring agreement flaws and implementation failures to light and in turn forces actors to recommit to an accord, thereby strengthening peace in the long term.

Rethinking Violence

States and Non-state Actors in Conflict

Author: Erica Chenoweth,Adria Lawrence

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262014203

Category: Political Science

Page: 285

View: 4578

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An original argument about the causes and consequences of political violence and the range of strategies employed.

The Political Economy of Armed Conflict

Beyond Greed and Grievance

Author: Jake Sherman,International Peace Academy

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 9781588261724

Category: Political Science

Page: 317

View: 7176

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Globalization, suggest the authors of this collection, is creating new opportunities - some legal, some illicit - for armed factions to pursue their agendas in civil war. Within this context, they analyze the key dynamics of war economies and the challenges posed for conflict resolution and sustainable peace. Thematic chapters consider key issues in the political economy of internal wars, as well as how differing types of resource dependency influence the scope, character, and duration of conflicts. Case studies of Burma, Colombia, Kosovo, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka illustrate a range of ways in which belligerents make use of global markets and the transnational flow of resources. An underlying theme is the opportunities available to the international community to alter the economic incentive structure that inadvertently supports armed conflict.

Rebel Power

Why National Movements Compete, Fight, and Win

Author: Peter Krause

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501712667

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 5936

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Many of the world's states—from Algeria to Ireland to the United States—are the result of robust national movements that achieved independence. Many other national movements have failed in their attempts to achieve statehood, including the Basques, the Kurds, and the Palestinians. In Rebel Power, Peter Krause offers a powerful new theory to explain this variation focusing on the internal balance of power among nationalist groups, who cooperate with each other to establish a new state while simultaneously competing to lead it. The most powerful groups push to achieve states while they are in position to rule them, whereas weaker groups unlikely to gain the spoils of office are likely to become spoilers, employing risky, escalatory violence to forestall victory while they improve their position in the movement hierarchy. Hegemonic movements with one dominant group are therefore more likely to achieve statehood than internally competitive, fragmented movements due to their greater pursuit of victory and lesser use of counterproductive violence. Krause conducted years of fieldwork in government and nationalist group archives in the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe, as well as more than 150 interviews with participants in the Palestinian, Zionist, Algerian, and Irish national movements. This research generated comparative longitudinal analyses of these four national movements involving 40 groups in 44 campaigns over a combined 140 years of struggle. Krause identifies new turning points in the history of these movements and provides fresh explanations for their use of violent and nonviolent strategies, as well as their numerous successes and failures. Rebel Power is essential reading for understanding not only the history of national movements but also the causes and consequences of contentious collective action today, from the Arab Spring to the civil wars and insurgencies in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and beyond.

Pathways for Peace

Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict

Author: United Nations;World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464811865

Category: Political Science

Page: 334

View: 7360

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Violent conflicts today are complex and increasingly protracted, involving more nonstate groups and regional and international actors. It is estimated that by 2030—the horizon set by the international community for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals—more than half of the world’s poor will be living in countries affected by high levels of violence. Information and communication technology, population movements, and climate change are also creating shared risks that must be managed at both national and international levels. Pathways for Peace is a joint United Nations†“World Bank Group study that originates from the conviction that the international community’s attention must urgently be refocused on prevention. A scaled-up system for preventive action would save between US$5 billion and US$70 billion per year, which could be reinvested in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of populations. The study aims to improve the way in which domestic development processes interact with security, diplomacy, mediation, and other efforts to prevent conflicts from becoming violent. It stresses the importance of grievances related to exclusion—from access to power, natural resources, security and justice, for example—that are at the root of many violent conflicts today. Based on a review of cases in which prevention has been successful, the study makes recommendations for countries facing emerging risks of violent conflict as well as for the international community. Development policies and programs must be a core part of preventive efforts; when risks are high or building up, inclusive solutions through dialogue, adapted macroeconomic policies, institutional reform, and redistributive policies are required. Inclusion is key, and preventive action needs to adopt a more people-centered approach that includes mainstreaming citizen engagement. Enhancing the participation of women and youth in decision making is fundamental to sustaining peace, as well as long-term policies to address the aspirations of women and young people.

International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on International Conflict Resolution

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309171731

Category: Political Science

Page: 644

View: 1023

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The end of the Cold War has changed the shape of organized violence in the world and the ways in which governments and others try to set its limits. Even the concept of international conflict is broadening to include ethnic conflicts and other kinds of violence within national borders that may affect international peace and security. What is not yet clear is whether or how these changes alter the way actors on the world scene should deal with conflict: Do the old methods still work? Are there new tools that could work better? How do old and new methods relate to each other? International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War critically examines evidence on the effectiveness of a dozen approaches to managing or resolving conflict in the world to develop insights for conflict resolution practitioners. It considers recent applications of familiar conflict management strategies, such as the use of threats of force, economic sanctions, and negotiation. It presents the first systematic assessments of the usefulness of some less familiar approaches to conflict resolution, including truth commissions, "engineered" electoral systems, autonomy arrangements, and regional organizations. It also opens up analysis of emerging issues, such as the dilemmas facing humanitarian organizations in complex emergencies. This book offers numerous practical insights and raises key questions for research on conflict resolution in a transforming world system.

Western Intervention in the Balkans

The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict

Author: Roger D. Petersen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503308

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Conflicts involve powerful experiences. The residue of these experiences is captured by the concept and language of emotion. Indiscriminate killing creates fear; targeted violence produces anger and a desire for vengeance; political status reversals spawn resentment; cultural prejudices sustain ethnic contempt. These emotions can become resources for political entrepreneurs. A broad range of Western interventions are based on a view of human nature as narrowly rational. Correspondingly, intervention policy generally aims to alter material incentives ('sticks and carrots') to influence behavior. In response, poorer and weaker actors who wish to block or change this Western implemented 'game' use emotions as resources. This book examines the strategic use of emotion in the conflicts and interventions occurring in the Western Balkans over a twenty-year period. The book concentrates on the conflicts among Albanian and Slavic populations (Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, South Serbia), along with some comparisons to Bosnia.

Transitional Justice in Balance

Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy

Author: Tricia D. Olsen,Leigh A. Payne,Andrew G. Reiter

Publisher: United States Inst of Peace Press

ISBN: 9781601270535

Category: Philosophy

Page: 213

View: 8272

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"This volume offers new insights ans perspectives, seeking to answer the crucial questions: How does one judge or evaluate transitional justice?' The author have made an important addition to empirically grounded theory of transitioanl justice. This highly readable volume will be accessible to scholrly audiencesin diverse disciplines, as well as t ononacademic, general audiences, including journalists, policy analysts, and all those interested in foreign affaries and justice issues."---Ruti Teitel, Ernst C. stiefel Professor of Comparative Law, New York Law School In the first project of its kind to compare multiple combinations of mechanisms across regions, countries and time, Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy systematiclly analyzes the claims made in the literature using a vast array of data, which the authors have assembled in the Transitional Justice Data Base. Trials, truth commssions, amnesties, reaprations, and lustration policies--- the main focus of the literature to date---are among the 854 transitional justice mechanisms, Which were implemented in 161 countries from 1970 to 2007 and included in this database. The authors use the datavbase to explore the adoption of transitional justice and its deffectiveness in achieving its priamray goals of strengthening democracy and reducing human rights violations. This book summarizes the finding s and develops a new theoretical aproach to transitional justice, groundded in cross-national empiricical analysis.

War, Conflict and Human Rights

Theory and Practice

Author: Chandra Lekha Sriram,Olga Martin-Ortega,Johanna Herman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351999591

Category: Law

Page: 298

View: 3254

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War, Conflict and Human Rights is an innovative inter-disciplinary textbook, combining aspects of law, politics and conflict analysis to examine the relationship between human rights and armed conflict. This third edition has been fully revised and updated, and contains a completely new chapter on business, conflict and human rights. Making use of both theoretical and practical approaches, the authors: examine the tensions and complementarities between protection of human rights and resolution of conflict – the competing political demands and the challenges posed by internal armed conflict and the increasing role of nonstate actors, including corporations, in armed conflicts; explore the scope and effects of human rights violations in contemporary armed conflicts, such as in Sierra Leone, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the former Yugoslavia; assess the legal and institutional accountability mechanisms developed in the wake of armed conflict to punish violations of human rights law and international humanitarian law such as the ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, hybrid or internationalized tribunals and the International Criminal Court; discuss continuing and emergent global trends and challenges in the fields of human rights and conflict analysis. This volume will be essential reading for students of war and conflict studies, human rights and international humanitarian law, and highly recommended for students of conflict resolution, peacebuilding, international security, transitional justice and international relations generally.

Why Civil Resistance Works

The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict

Author: Erica Chenoweth,Maria J. Stephan

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231156839

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 4095

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For more than a century, from 1900 to 2006, campaigns of nonviolent resistance were more than twice as effective as their violent counterparts in achieving their stated goals. By attracting impressive support from citizens, whose activism takes the form of protests, boycotts, civil disobedience, and other forms of nonviolent noncooperation, these efforts help separate regimes from their main sources of power and produce remarkable results, even in Iran, Burma, the Philippines, and the Palestinian Territories. Combining statistical analysis with case studies of specific countries and territories, Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan detail the factors enabling such campaigns to succeed and, sometimes, causing them to fail. They find that nonviolent resistance presents fewer obstacles to moral and physical involvement and commitment, and that higher levels of participation contribute to enhanced resilience, greater opportunities for tactical innovation and civic disruption (and therefore less incentive for a regime to maintain its status quo), and shifts in loyalty among opponents' erstwhile supporters, including members of the military establishment. Chenoweth and Stephan conclude that successful nonviolent resistance ushers in more durable and internally peaceful democracies, which are less likely to regress into civil war. Presenting a rich, evidentiary argument, they originally and systematically compare violent and nonviolent outcomes in different historical periods and geographical contexts, debunking the myth that violence occurs because of structural and environmental factors and that it is necessary to achieve certain political goals. Instead, the authors discover, violent insurgency is rarely justifiable on strategic grounds.

Talking to Groups That Use Terror

Author: Nigel Quinney,A. Heather Coyne

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 1601270720

Category: Political Science

Page: 101

View: 1791

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This handbook poses and attempts to answer a series of basic, but complex, questions: Is there any advantage to the peace process in inviting or permitting the participation of proscribed armed groups (PAGs)? What kinds of PAGs are worth talking to and which are not? What form should the talks take and whom should they involve?Each of the following six chapters covers a different step in the process of talking to groups that use terror: * assess the potential for talks * design a strategy for engagement * open channels of communication * foster commitment to the process * facilitate negotiations * and protect the process from the effects of violenceThis handbook is part of the series the Peacemaker s Toolkit, which is being published by the United States Institute of Peace. For twenty-five years, the United States Institute of Peace has supported the work of mediators through research, training programs, workshops, and publications designed to discover and disseminate the keys to effective mediation.The Institute mandated by the U.S. Congress to help prevent, manage, and resolve international conflict through nonviolent means has conceived of The Peacemaker s Toolkit as a way of combining its own accumulated expertise with that of other organizations active in the field of mediation. Most publications in the series are produced jointly by the Institute and a partner organization. All publications are carefully reviewed before publication by highly experienced mediators to ensure that the final product will be a useful and reliable resource for practitioners."

Monopoly of Force

The Nexus of DDR and SSR

Author: Michael Miklaucic,Melanne A Civic

Publisher: NDU Press

ISBN: 1780399154

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 7729

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Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) have emerged in recent years as promising though generally poorly understood mechanisms for consolidating stability and reasserting state sovereignty after conflict. Despite the considerable experience acquired by the international community, the critical interrelationship between DDR and SSR and the ability to use these mechanisms with consistent success remain less than optimally developed. The chapters in this book reflect a diversity of field experience and research in DDR and SSR, which suggest that these are complex and interrelated systems, with underlying political attributes. Successful application of DDR and SSR requires the setting aside of preconceived assumptions or formulas, and should be viewed flexibly to restore to the state the monopoly of force.

Life After Violence

A People's Story of Burundi

Author: Peter Uvin

Publisher: Zed Books

ISBN: 9781848131804

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 2383

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Burundi recently emerged from twelve years of civil war. In this book, ordinary Burundians, farmers, artisans, traders, mothers, soldiers and students talk about the past and the future, war and peace, their hopes for a better life and their relationships with each other and the state. Young men, in particular, often seen as the cause of violence, talk about the difficulties of living up to standards of masculinity in an impoverished and war-torn society. Weaving a rich tapestry, Peter Uvin pitches the ideas and aspirations of people on the ground against the assumptions often made by the international development and peace-building agencies. This groundbreaking book on conflict and society in Africa will have profound repercussions for development across the world.

The Frailty of Authority

Borders, Non-State Actors and Power Vacuums in a Changing Middle East

Author: Lorenzo Kamel

Publisher: Edizioni Nuova Cultura

ISBN: 8868128284

Category: Political Science

Page: 162

View: 2726

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Governance failures, combined with 21st-century social, economic, environmental and demographic conditions, have all contributed to paving the way for the rise of highly heterogeneous non-state and quasi-state actors in the Middle East. Has the state, then, been irremediably undermined, or will the current transition lead to the emergence of new state entities? How can the crumbling of states and the redrawing of borders be reconciled with the exacerbation of traditional inter-state competition, including through proxy wars? How can a new potential regional order be framed and imagined? This volume provides a historical background and policy answers to these and a number of other related questions, analysing developments in the region from the standpoint of the interplay between disintegration and polarization.

Contemporary Peacemaking

Conflict, Peace Processes and Post-war Reconstruction

Author: J. Darby,Roger Mac Ginty

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230584551

Category: Political Science

Page: 401

View: 3716

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Contemporary Peacemaking draws on recent experience to identify and explore the essential components of peace processes. The book is organized around five key themes in peacemaking: planning for peace; negotiations; violence on peace processes; peace accords; and peace accord implementation and post-war reconstruction.

Foreign Actors in Libya's Crisis

Author: Karim Mezran,Arturo Varvelli

Publisher: Ledizioni

ISBN: 886705645X

Category: Political Science

Page: 140

View: 309

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Since 2011 the Libyan crisis has moved from being a domestic dispute to assuming increasing importance at the international level. Today it represents a crucial issue affecting global security. The intervention of external actors in the Libyan crisis was mainly driven by a desire to direct the transition towards outcomes that would best meet their own political and economic interests. Accordingly, each external player tried to support one specific faction, favoring either the Parliament in Tobruk, upheld by Khalifa Haftar, or the Presidential Council headed by Fayez al-Serraj in Tripoli, the latter being legitimized by the UN as well as by local militias in both Misrata and Tripoli. This report analyzes the troublesome re-building of Libya with a focus on the specific role played by international actors (neighboring and Gulf countries, European nations, Russia and the US) which make it more of an international rather than a domestic issue.

The Fabric of Peace in Africa

Looking beyond the State

Author: Pamela Aall,Chester A. Crocker

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 1928096417

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Africa has experienced dozens of conflicts over a variety of issues during the past two decades. Responding to these conflicts requires concerted action to manage the crises – the violence, the political discord, and the humanitarian consequences of prolonged fighting. It is also necessary to address the long-term social and economic impacts of conflict, to rebuild communities, societies and states that have been torn apart. To accomplish this requires the involvement of institutions and groups rarely considered in formal official African conflict management activities: schools, universities, religious institutions, media, commercial enterprises, legal institutions, civil society groups, youth, women and migrants. These groups and organizations have an important role to play in building a sense of identity, fairness, shared norms and cohesion between state and society – all critical components of the fabric of peace and security in Africa. This volume brings together leading experts from Africa, Europe and North America to examine these critical social institutions and groups, and consider how they can either improve or impede peaceful conflict resolution. The overarching questions that are explored by the authors are: What constitutes social cohesion and resilience in the face of conflict? What are the threats to cohesion and resilience? And how can the positive elements be fostered and by whom? The second of two volumes on African conflict management capacity by the editors, The Fabric of Peace in Africa: Looking beyond the State opens new doors of understanding for students, scholars and practitioners focused on strengthening peace in Africa; the first volume, Minding the Gap: African Conflict Management in a Time of change, focused on the role of mediation and peacekeeping in managing violence and political crises.

Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War

Author: Robert Muggah

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134044917

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 8175

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This book provides a critical analysis of the changing discourse and practice of post-conflict security-promoting interventions since the Cold War, such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security-sector reform (SSR) Although the international aid and security sectors exhibit an expanding appetite for peace-support operations in the 21st Century, the effectiveness of such interventions are largely untested. This book aims to fill this evidentiary gap and issues a challenge to 'conventional' approaches to security promotion as currently conceived by military and peace-keeping forces, drawing on cutting-edge statistical and qualitative findings from war-torn areas including Afghanistan, Timor Leste, Sudan, Uganda, Colombia and Haiti. By focusing on specific cases where the United Nations and others have sought to contain the (presumed) sources of post-conflict violence and insecurity, it lays out a new research agenda for measuring success or failure. This book will be of much interest to students of peacebuilding, peacekeeping, conflict resolution, conflict and development and security studies in general.

Demilitarizing Politics

Elections on the Uncertain Road to Peace

Author: Terrence Lyons

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub

ISBN: 9781588263933

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 7918

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?Terrence Lyons cuts through the reams of policy advice on how to end civil wars successfully with a simple, elegant strategy about what must be done before elections in a peacebuilding process. This is the most important contribution to the topic in a decade.??Susan L. Woodward, City University of New YorkWith the increasing use of elections as a tool for peacebuilding after civil war, the question of why some postconflict elections succeed and others fail is a crucial one. Tackling this question, Terrence Lyons finds the answer in the internal political dynamics that occur between the cease-fire and the voting. Lyons shows that the promise of elections can provide the incentive for the demilitarization of politics?the transformation of institutions made powerful by war into those capable of sustaining peace?so that warring parties will in fact choose to change their strategies and adapt to peaceful electoral competition. It is this process of demilitarization that is in turn key to meaningful elections; elections alone, as has been seen repeatedly, are not enough to advance the dual goals of peace and democracy.Incorporating evidence from a range of recent cases, Demilitarizing Politics offers a concrete strategy for peaceful change that can be implemented, and that can make a difference.Terrence Lyons is assistant professor in the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution at George Mason University. He is author of Voting for Peace: Postconflict Elections in Liberia and coeditor of African Foreign Policies: Power and Process.Contents: Demilitarizing Politics and Building Peace. The Institutions of War. The Legacy of Fear and Voting for Peace. Building New Political Institutions. Demobilization and Security Sector Reform. Sustaining Peace and Democracy. Encouraging the Demilitarization of Politics.