Fighting Over Peace

Spoilers, Peace Agreements, and the Strategic Use of Violence

Author: Andrew G. Reiter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319401025

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 3564

This book presents post-peace agreement violence as a serious, yet predictable and manageable, political phenomenon. Negotiating an end to a civil war is extremely difficult, and many signed peace agreements subsequently unravel, ushering in renewed conflict. In response, important international actors have become increasingly involved in conflict mediation, peacekeeping, and post-conflict reconstruction around the globe. Policymakers and scholars alike have identified spoilers—violent actors who often rise up and attempt to challenge or derail the peace process—as one of the greatest threats to peace. Using a mixed-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative analyses of a newly created, global dataset of spoiling, Reiter demonstrates that this type of violence occurs in predictable circumstances and only represents a threat to peace under specific conditions. The book also shows that spoiling often serves to bring agreement flaws and implementation failures to light and in turn forces actors to recommit to an accord, thereby strengthening peace in the long term.

Rethinking Violence

States and Non-state Actors in Conflict

Author: Erica Chenoweth,Adria Lawrence

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262014203

Category: Political Science

Page: 285

View: 4033

An original argument about the causes and consequences of political violence and the range of strategies employed.

Transitional Justice in Balance

Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy

Author: Tricia D. Olsen,Leigh A. Payne,Andrew G. Reiter

Publisher: United States Inst of Peace Press

ISBN: 9781601270535

Category: Philosophy

Page: 213

View: 4537

"This volume offers new insights ans perspectives, seeking to answer the crucial questions: How does one judge or evaluate transitional justice?' The author have made an important addition to empirically grounded theory of transitioanl justice. This highly readable volume will be accessible to scholrly audiencesin diverse disciplines, as well as t ononacademic, general audiences, including journalists, policy analysts, and all those interested in foreign affaries and justice issues."---Ruti Teitel, Ernst C. stiefel Professor of Comparative Law, New York Law School In the first project of its kind to compare multiple combinations of mechanisms across regions, countries and time, Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy systematiclly analyzes the claims made in the literature using a vast array of data, which the authors have assembled in the Transitional Justice Data Base. Trials, truth commssions, amnesties, reaprations, and lustration policies--- the main focus of the literature to date---are among the 854 transitional justice mechanisms, Which were implemented in 161 countries from 1970 to 2007 and included in this database. The authors use the datavbase to explore the adoption of transitional justice and its deffectiveness in achieving its priamray goals of strengthening democracy and reducing human rights violations. This book summarizes the finding s and develops a new theoretical aproach to transitional justice, groundded in cross-national empiricical analysis.

Cascades of Violence

War, Crime and Peace-building Across South Asia

Author: John Braithwaite,Bina D'Costa

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 1760461903

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8904

As in the cascading of water, violence and nonviolence can cascade down from commanding heights of power (as in waterfalls), up from powerless peripheries, and can undulate to spread horizontally (flowing from one space to another). As with containing water, conflict cannot be contained without asking crucial questions about which variables might cause it to cascade from the top-down, bottom up and from the middle-out. The book shows how violence cascades from state to state. Empirical research has shown that nations with a neighbor at war are more likely to have a civil war themselves (Sambanis 2001). More importantly in the analysis of this book, war cascades from hot spot to hot spot within and between states (Autesserre 2010, 2014). The key to understanding cascades of hot spots is in the interaction between local and macro cleavages and alliances (Kalyvas 2006). The analysis exposes the folly of asking single-level policy questions like do the benefits and costs of a regime change in Iraq justify an invasion? We must also ask what other violence might cascade from an invasion of Iraq? The cascades concept is widespread in the physical and biological sciences with cascades in geology, particle physics and the globalization of contagion. The past two decades has seen prominent and powerful applications of the cascades idea to the social sciences (Sunstein 1997; Gladwell 2000; Sikkink 2011). In his discussion of ethnic violence, James Rosenau (1990) stressed that the image of turbulence developed by mathematicians and physicists could provide an important basis for understanding the idea of bifurcation and related ideas of complexity, chaos, and turbulence in complex systems. He classified the bifurcated systems in contemporary world politics as the multicentric system and the statecentric system. Each of these affects the others in multiple ways, at multiple levels, and in ways that make events enormously hard to predict (Rosenau 1990, 2006). He replaced the idea of events with cascades to describe the event structures that 'gather momentum, stall, reverse course, and resume anew as their repercussions spread among whole systems and subsystems' (1990: 299). Through a detailed analysis of case studies in South Asia, that built on John Braithwaite's twenty-five year project Peacebuilding Compared, and coding of conflicts in different parts of the globe, we expand Rosenau's concept of global turbulence and images of cascades. In the cascades of violence in South Asia, we demonstrate how micro-events such as localized riots, land-grabbing, pervasive militarization and attempts to assassinate political leaders are linked to large scale macro-events of global politics. We argue in order to prevent future conflicts there is a need to understand the relationships between history, structures and agency; interest, values and politics; global and local factors and alliances.

Western Intervention in the Balkans

The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict

Author: Roger D. Petersen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503308

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9338

Conflicts involve powerful experiences. The residue of these experiences is captured by the concept and language of emotion. Indiscriminate killing creates fear; targeted violence produces anger and a desire for vengeance; political status reversals spawn resentment; cultural prejudices sustain ethnic contempt. These emotions can become resources for political entrepreneurs. A broad range of Western interventions are based on a view of human nature as narrowly rational. Correspondingly, intervention policy generally aims to alter material incentives ('sticks and carrots') to influence behavior. In response, poorer and weaker actors who wish to block or change this Western implemented 'game' use emotions as resources. This book examines the strategic use of emotion in the conflicts and interventions occurring in the Western Balkans over a twenty-year period. The book concentrates on the conflicts among Albanian and Slavic populations (Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, South Serbia), along with some comparisons to Bosnia.

Monopoly of Force

The Nexus of DDR and SSR

Author: Michael Miklaucic,Melanne A Civic

Publisher: NDU Press

ISBN: 1780399154

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 2627

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) have emerged in recent years as promising though generally poorly understood mechanisms for consolidating stability and reasserting state sovereignty after conflict. Despite the considerable experience acquired by the international community, the critical interrelationship between DDR and SSR and the ability to use these mechanisms with consistent success remain less than optimally developed. The chapters in this book reflect a diversity of field experience and research in DDR and SSR, which suggest that these are complex and interrelated systems, with underlying political attributes. Successful application of DDR and SSR requires the setting aside of preconceived assumptions or formulas, and should be viewed flexibly to restore to the state the monopoly of force.

International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on International Conflict Resolution

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309171731

Category: Political Science

Page: 644

View: 2706

The end of the Cold War has changed the shape of organized violence in the world and the ways in which governments and others try to set its limits. Even the concept of international conflict is broadening to include ethnic conflicts and other kinds of violence within national borders that may affect international peace and security. What is not yet clear is whether or how these changes alter the way actors on the world scene should deal with conflict: Do the old methods still work? Are there new tools that could work better? How do old and new methods relate to each other? International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War critically examines evidence on the effectiveness of a dozen approaches to managing or resolving conflict in the world to develop insights for conflict resolution practitioners. It considers recent applications of familiar conflict management strategies, such as the use of threats of force, economic sanctions, and negotiation. It presents the first systematic assessments of the usefulness of some less familiar approaches to conflict resolution, including truth commissions, "engineered" electoral systems, autonomy arrangements, and regional organizations. It also opens up analysis of emerging issues, such as the dilemmas facing humanitarian organizations in complex emergencies. This book offers numerous practical insights and raises key questions for research on conflict resolution in a transforming world system.

Using Carrots to Bring Peace?

Negotiation and Third Party Involvement

Author: Martina Klimesova

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814699128

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 5457

How can peace be brokered between warring sides in conflicts over self-determination and what roles do external third parties play? This book is the first of its kind to thoroughly explore the effectiveness of aid conditionality and other external tools that third parties — from states and regional organizations to NGOs — bring to the table in peace negotiations. Surveying the existing academic debate on incentives and peace conditionality, the author first identifies the gaps between theory and the needs of third party mediators and facilitators. Analysing in depth the negotiation processes in Sri Lanka (Eelam), Indonesia (Aceh), and the Philippines (Mindanao) as case studies, policy tools likely to be most effective are then identified and policy recommendations developed. This book is an invaluable resource for students, scholars, and practitioners alike. Contents:PrefaceForewordList of AbbreviationsAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorList of AbbreviationsIntroduction: How to Make Peace Effectively?Negotiation and Peace Incentives: OverviewNegotiation Ripeness and Third Party IncentivesSRI LANKA: Eelam Peace Process (The GoSL–LTTE Peace Negotiations, 2002–2003; 2006)INDONESIA: Aceh Peace Process (The GoI–GAM Peace Negotiations, 2002–2003; 2006)THE PHILIPPINES: Mindanao Peace Process (The GRP–MILF Peace Negotiations 2001–2008)Perils and Pitfalls of Using Carrots in Conflict Resolution: Do Carrots Bring Peace?Conclusions: Effective Tools for Forging PeaceReferences Readership: Academics, undergraduate and graduates students, professionals interested in peace negotiation and conflict resolution. Key Features:First of its kind to thoroughly describes peace and aid conditionality in the context of negotation processesCombines in a very unique way the existing negotiation theories which explain what makes a negotiation process successfulProvides practical advice to conflict resolution practitioners on tools and negotiation concepts that are likely to be most effectiveOffers a detailed account of three negotiation processes of three conflicts in Southeast AsiaKeywords:Peace Negotiation;Conflict Resolution;Peace Process;Third Party Involvement;Incentives;Mediation;Facilitation;Ripeness;Mutually Enticing Opportunity (MEO);Eelam;Mutually Hurting Stalemate (MHS);Sri Lanka;Aceh;Indonesia;The Philippines;Mindanao;Insurgent Groups;Internal Armed Conflict;Negotiation Strategies;Peace Conditionality;Leverage;Donors "Beyond ripeness and the opening of negotiations lies the possibility for negotiators to seize Mutually Enticing Opportunities and bring their encounter to fruition. This work runs with that concept and, like the negotiators, brings it to fruition, with detailed studies of cases and careful conceptual reasoning. It is a major work in the analysis of conflict management and resolution." William Zartman Distinguished Professor Emeritus Paul H Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University "This book has generated important lessons for both research and practice in conflict management and resolution. It shows that research about incentives has been somewhat neglected in the past and that this is an area where knowledge-building needs to be accelerated, for instance by means of the inclusion of more cases." Gunnar Sjöstedt Former Research Director Swedish Institute of International Affairs "Martina Klimesova has offered a valuable contribution to the understanding of third party and negotiation in conflicts. Using Carrots to Bring Peace? offers not only an expanded understanding of the theoretical aspects in this field but also a succinct overview how this has played out in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. A welcome contribution to a field in constant change." Niklas Swanström Director Institute for Security and Development Policy

Pathways for Peace

Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict

Author: United Nations;World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464811865

Category: Political Science

Page: 334

View: 2505

Violent conflicts today are complex and increasingly protracted, involving more nonstate groups and regional and international actors. It is estimated that by 2030—the horizon set by the international community for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals—more than half of the world’s poor will be living in countries affected by high levels of violence. Information and communication technology, population movements, and climate change are also creating shared risks that must be managed at both national and international levels. Pathways for Peace is a joint United Nations†“World Bank Group study that originates from the conviction that the international community’s attention must urgently be refocused on prevention. A scaled-up system for preventive action would save between US$5 billion and US$70 billion per year, which could be reinvested in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of populations. The study aims to improve the way in which domestic development processes interact with security, diplomacy, mediation, and other efforts to prevent conflicts from becoming violent. It stresses the importance of grievances related to exclusion—from access to power, natural resources, security and justice, for example—that are at the root of many violent conflicts today. Based on a review of cases in which prevention has been successful, the study makes recommendations for countries facing emerging risks of violent conflict as well as for the international community. Development policies and programs must be a core part of preventive efforts; when risks are high or building up, inclusive solutions through dialogue, adapted macroeconomic policies, institutional reform, and redistributive policies are required. Inclusion is key, and preventive action needs to adopt a more people-centered approach that includes mainstreaming citizen engagement. Enhancing the participation of women and youth in decision making is fundamental to sustaining peace, as well as long-term policies to address the aspirations of women and young people.

Understanding Obstacles to Peace

Actors, Interests, and Strategies in Africa's Great Lakes Region

Author: Mwesiga Laurent Baregu

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 9970250361

Category: Conflict management

Page: 353

View: 8291

This book describes and analyzes protracted conflicts in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In doing so, it emphasizes obstacles to peace rather than root causes of conflict. Case studies are presented from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Northern Kenya, Northern Uganda, Southern Sudan, and Zanzibar. Amongst other conclusions, the book shows that, to settle or transform protracted conflicts, distinction must be made between strategic and nonstrategic actors: the former must be able to prevail upon the latter in the negotiation and implementation of peace agreements. The theme and collection of the research presented in this book is unique in the literature. The case studies all employ methods of othick description, o process tracing (following particular actors and their interests), and in-depth personal interviews. The book will be of interest to academics, researchers, undergraduate and post-graduate students, and professionals in conflict theory, analysis and resolution, African and development studies, political science and international affairs, as well as to mediators, negotiators, and facilitators in conflict resolution

Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War

Author: Robert Muggah

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134044917

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 1439

This book provides a critical analysis of the changing discourse and practice of post-conflict security-promoting interventions since the Cold War, such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security-sector reform (SSR) Although the international aid and security sectors exhibit an expanding appetite for peace-support operations in the 21st Century, the effectiveness of such interventions are largely untested. This book aims to fill this evidentiary gap and issues a challenge to 'conventional' approaches to security promotion as currently conceived by military and peace-keeping forces, drawing on cutting-edge statistical and qualitative findings from war-torn areas including Afghanistan, Timor Leste, Sudan, Uganda, Colombia and Haiti. By focusing on specific cases where the United Nations and others have sought to contain the (presumed) sources of post-conflict violence and insecurity, it lays out a new research agenda for measuring success or failure. This book will be of much interest to students of peacebuilding, peacekeeping, conflict resolution, conflict and development and security studies in general.

United Nations Peace Operations in a Changing Global Order

Author: Cedric De Coning,Mateja Peter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331999106X

Category: Conflict management

Page: N.A

View: 8995

"This book is essential for enhancing one's understanding of international conflict and for the continued relevance of the UN as a key stakeholder and participant in world affairs." --Maj. Gen. Kristin Lund, Head of Mission and Chief of Staff, UN peacekeeping mission in the Middle East (UNTSO) "This outstanding collection is a must-read for anyone interested in the challenges of peacekeeping today." --Dr. Lise Howard, Georgetown University, USA "I would recommend this book to policy makers, peacekeepers and scholars who wish to understand and improve the effectiveness of modern peacekeeping." --Lt. Gen. Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz, former Force Commander in the UN missions in the DRC (MONUSCO) and Haiti (MINUSTAH) "This exceptional collection of analyses by experts from both the global North and South will be of interest to practitioners and scholars alike - highly recommended." --Prof. Ramesh Thakur, Australian National University This open access volume explores how UN peace operations are adapting to four trends in the changing global order: (1) the rebalancing of relations between states of the global North and the global South; (2) the rise of regional organisations as providers of peace; (3) the rise of violent extremism and fundamentalist non-state actors; and (4) increasing demands from non-state actors for greater emphasis on human security. It identifies emerging conflict and peace trends (robustness of responses, rise of non-state threats, cross-state conflicts) and puts them in the context of tectonic shifts in the global order (rise of emerging powers, North-South rebalancing, emergence of regional organisations as providers of peace). The volume stimulates a discussion between practitioners and academics, offering an analysis of how the international community collectively makes sense of the changing global order and its implications for UN peace operations. Cedric de Coning is Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Norway and Senior Advisor for the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), South Africa. Mateja Peter is Lecturer at the University of St. Andrews, UK and Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Norway.

Foreign Actors in Libya's Crisis

Author: Karim Mezran,Arturo Varvelli

Publisher: Ledizioni

ISBN: 886705645X

Category: Political Science

Page: 140

View: 950

Since 2011 the Libyan crisis has moved from being a domestic dispute to assuming increasing importance at the international level. Today it represents a crucial issue affecting global security. The intervention of external actors in the Libyan crisis was mainly driven by a desire to direct the transition towards outcomes that would best meet their own political and economic interests. Accordingly, each external player tried to support one specific faction, favoring either the Parliament in Tobruk, upheld by Khalifa Haftar, or the Presidential Council headed by Fayez al-Serraj in Tripoli, the latter being legitimized by the UN as well as by local militias in both Misrata and Tripoli. This report analyzes the troublesome re-building of Libya with a focus on the specific role played by international actors (neighboring and Gulf countries, European nations, Russia and the US) which make it more of an international rather than a domestic issue.

Why Civil Resistance Works

The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict

Author: Erica Chenoweth,Maria J. Stephan

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231156839

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 5650

For more than a century, from 1900 to 2006, campaigns of nonviolent resistance were more than twice as effective as their violent counterparts in achieving their stated goals. By attracting impressive support from citizens, whose activism takes the form of protests, boycotts, civil disobedience, and other forms of nonviolent noncooperation, these efforts help separate regimes from their main sources of power and produce remarkable results, even in Iran, Burma, the Philippines, and the Palestinian Territories. Combining statistical analysis with case studies of specific countries and territories, Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan detail the factors enabling such campaigns to succeed and, sometimes, causing them to fail. They find that nonviolent resistance presents fewer obstacles to moral and physical involvement and commitment, and that higher levels of participation contribute to enhanced resilience, greater opportunities for tactical innovation and civic disruption (and therefore less incentive for a regime to maintain its status quo), and shifts in loyalty among opponents' erstwhile supporters, including members of the military establishment. Chenoweth and Stephan conclude that successful nonviolent resistance ushers in more durable and internally peaceful democracies, which are less likely to regress into civil war. Presenting a rich, evidentiary argument, they originally and systematically compare violent and nonviolent outcomes in different historical periods and geographical contexts, debunking the myth that violence occurs because of structural and environmental factors and that it is necessary to achieve certain political goals. Instead, the authors discover, violent insurgency is rarely justifiable on strategic grounds.

Talking to Groups That Use Terror

Author: Nigel Quinney,A. Heather Coyne

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 1601270720

Category: Political Science

Page: 101

View: 4591

This handbook poses and attempts to answer a series of basic, but complex, questions: Is there any advantage to the peace process in inviting or permitting the participation of proscribed armed groups (PAGs)? What kinds of PAGs are worth talking to and which are not? What form should the talks take and whom should they involve?Each of the following six chapters covers a different step in the process of talking to groups that use terror: * assess the potential for talks * design a strategy for engagement * open channels of communication * foster commitment to the process * facilitate negotiations * and protect the process from the effects of violenceThis handbook is part of the series the Peacemaker s Toolkit, which is being published by the United States Institute of Peace. For twenty-five years, the United States Institute of Peace has supported the work of mediators through research, training programs, workshops, and publications designed to discover and disseminate the keys to effective mediation.The Institute mandated by the U.S. Congress to help prevent, manage, and resolve international conflict through nonviolent means has conceived of The Peacemaker s Toolkit as a way of combining its own accumulated expertise with that of other organizations active in the field of mediation. Most publications in the series are produced jointly by the Institute and a partner organization. All publications are carefully reviewed before publication by highly experienced mediators to ensure that the final product will be a useful and reliable resource for practitioners."

Peace Processes

A Sociological Approach

Author: John D. Brewer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745659233

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 5475

Peace processes are mostly very fragile. This engagingly written book takes a bold new approach to the topic by beginning from the premise that sociology can identify those factors that help to stabilize them. The book draws a distinction between the political and social dimensions of peace processes, arguing that each is dependent on the other. Consideration of the social peace process, neglected in conventional treatments of the subject, is made central to this volume. While complementing current approaches that emphasize institutional reform in politics, law and economics, it pays due attention to sociological factors such as gender, civil society, religion, the deconstruction of violent masculinities, restorative justice, emotions, hope, forgiveness, truth recovery, social memory and public victimhood. These important themes are fully illustrated with examples and in-depth case studies from across the globe. The book locates itself within the growing debate about the positive impact of global civil society on peace and identifies the new forms of peace work engendered by globalization. It will be essential reading for students and scholars of peace studies in politics, international relations and sociology departments.

Volatility and friction in the age of disintermediation

Author: Tim Sweijs,Stephan De Spiegeleire ,Sijbren de Jong,Willem Oosterveld ,Hannes Roos,Frank Bekkers ,Artur Usanov,Robert de Rave,Karlijn Jans

Publisher: The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies

ISBN: 9492102463


Page: 256

View: 7461

Events unfolded once again at a swirling pace in 2016. Terrorists hit Europe’s capital in March. The British population voted for Brexit in June. Turkish armed forces failed to topple Erdoğan in July. A resurgent Russia flexed its military muscles again in the Middle East and actively interfered in American elections, in which the American population elected Trump, in November. We are worried but certainly not surprised by the volatility of contemporary international relations. In previous editions of our contribution to the Dutch government’s Strategic Monitor, we already observed a surge in assertive behavior, noted a dangerous uptick in crises, and warned for the contagiousness of political violence. The current volatility is not a coincidence, but rather the result of fundamental disturbances of the global order that are greatly amplified by rapid technological developments. Most mainstream explanations of recent turbulence focus on power transitions (the decline of the West and the rise of the rest), the concomitant return to more aggressive forms of power politics, and a backlash against globalization. What strikes us is that many of the explanations ignore what we consider one of the most striking mega trends that is reshaping the dynamics of power: the ongoing process of disintermediation. The StratMon 2016-2017 analyzes global trends in confrontation, cooperation and conflict based on different datasets. This year the report also contains case studies on Turkey, Moldova and The rise and fall of ISIS. Chapters analyzing the many faces of political violence and 'the other side of the security coin' are also included.

The Post-Conflict Environment

Investigation and Critique

Author: Daniel Bertrand Monk,Jacob Mundy

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472052233

Category: Political Science

Page: 237

View: 9985

A critique of the technocratic neoliberal paradigm of peacebuilding