Groundwater Geochemistry

Fundamentals and Applications to Contamination

Author: William J. Deutsch,Randy Siegel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873713085

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 4388

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Groundwater Geochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications to Contamination examines the integral role geochemistry play s in groundwater monitoring and remediation programs, and presents it at a level understandable to a wide audience. Readers of all backgrounds can gain a better understanding of geochemical processes and how they apply to groundwater systems. The text begins with an explanation of fundamental geochemical processes, followed by a description of the methods and tools used to understand and simulate them. The book then explains how geochemistry applies to contaminant mobility, discusses remediation system design, sampling program development, and the modeling of geochemical interactions. This clearly written guide concludes with specific applications of geochemistry to contaminated sites. This is an ideal choice for readers who do not have an extensive technical background in aqueous chemistry, geochemistry, or geochemical modeling. The only prerequisite is a desire to better understand natural processes through groundwater geochemistry.

Groundwater Geochemistry

A Practical Guide to Modeling of Natural and Contaminated Aquatic Systems

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540746683

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 2931

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To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.

Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591749

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 7750

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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Arsenic in Ground Water

Geochemistry and Occurrence

Author: Alan H. Welch,Kenneth G. Stollenwerk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402073178

Category: Nature

Page: 475

View: 8490

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This book consolidates much of what is known about the geochemistry of arsenic and provides new information on relationships between high concentrations of arsenic in ground water and geochemical environments. The subject matter of this book ranges in scope from molecular-scale geochemical processes that affect the mobility of arsenic in ground water, to arsenic contaminated ground water at the national scale. Chapters were contributed by an international group of research scientists from a broad range of backgrounds.

Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry

Author: Frank Chapelle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471348528

Category: Nature

Page: 477

View: 2908

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Up-to-date coverage and a unique, multidisciplinary approach The ongoing effort to protect our valuable ground-water resources necessarily involves scientists and engineers from many disciplines. Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry, Second Edition is designed to bridge the historical lack of communication among these disciplines by detailing-in language that cuts across specialties-the impact of microorganisms and microbial processes on ground-water systems. Carefully revised to reflect the many recent discoveries that have been made in the field, the Second Edition begins with an overview of microbiology, ideal for hydrologists and others who may lack formal training in the field. These initial chapters systematically cover the kinds of microorganisms found in subsurface environments, focusing on their growth, metabolism, genetics, and ecology. The second part of the book offers a hydrologic perspective on how microbial processes affect ground-water geochemistry in pristine systems. It also introduces the different classes of ground-water systems, and gives an overview of techniques for sampling subsurface environments. Readers gain an understanding of biogeochemical cycling in ground-water systems-in coverage unique to this book-and how ground-water chemistry can be used to study microbial processes in aquifer systems. The final section of the book deals with the biodegradation of human-introduced contaminants in ground-water systems, with an up-to-date review of the physiology, biochemistry, and redox conditions that favor biodegradation processes. Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry, Second Edition is important reading for geoscientists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers, as well as for water planners and lawyers involved in environmental issues. It also serves as a compelling text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in ground-water chemistry.

The Geochemistry of Natural Waters

Surface and Groundwater Environments

Author: James I. Drever

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 4365

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An examination of both theoretical and practical approaches to the geochemistry of natural waters with a more tightly focused emphasis on fresh-water environments. The third edition focuses more on environmental issues than the previous edition, reflecting the importance on environmental geochemistry as a result of increased environmental awareness and regulatory requirements. Prepares readers to interpret the probable cause of a particular water composition and to predict the probable water chemistry in those situations where data do not exist.

Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, Second Edition

Author: C.A.J. Appelo,Dieke Postma

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439833540

Category: Science

Page: 668

View: 7198

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Building on the success of its 1993 predecessor, this second edition of Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution has been thoroughly re-written, updated and extended to provide a complete and authoritative account of modern hydrogeochemistry. Offering a quantitative approach to the study of groundwater quality and the interaction of water, minerals, gases, pollutants and microbes, this book shows how physical and chemical theory can be applied to explain observed water qualities and variations over space and time. Integral to the presentation, geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code is demonstrated, with step-by-step instructions for calculating and simulating field and laboratory data. Numerous figures and tables illustrate the theory, while worked examples including calculations and theoretical explanations assist the reader in gaining a deeper understanding of the concepts involved. A crucial read for students of hydrogeology, geochemistry and civil engineering, professionals in the water sciences will also find inspiration in the practical examples and modeling templates.

Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry

Author: Donald Langmuir

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 9001

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This book offers thorough, up-to-date coverage of controls on the chemical quality of surface and subsurface waters, both pristine and polluted, with an emphasis on problem-solving and practical applications. The text is appropriate for courses in aqueous geochemistry or aquatic chemistry. Desirable prerequisites are introductory courses or the equivalent in thermodynamics and solution chemistry, and in physical geology including mineralogy.

Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater, Vadose and Geothermal Systems

Author: Jochen Bundschuh,Michael Zilberbrand

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0415668107

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 332

View: 685

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Geochemical modeling is an important tool in environmental studies, and in the areas of subsurface and surface hydrology, pedology, water resources management, mining geology, geothermal resources, hydrocarbon geology, and related areas dealing with the exploration and extraction of natural resources. The book fills a gap in the literature through its discussion of geochemical modeling, which simulates the chemical and physical processes affecting the distribution of chemical species in liquid, gas, and solid phases. Geochemical modeling applies to a diversity of subsurface environments, from the vadose zone close to the Earth’s surface, down to deep-seated geothermal reservoirs. This book provides the fundamental thermodynamic concepts of liquid-gas-solid phase systems. It introduces the principal types of geochemical models, such as speciation, reaction-path or forward, inverse- and reactive-transport models, together with examples of the most common codes and the best-practices for constructing geochemical models. The physical laws describing homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, their kinetics, and the transport of reactive solutes are presented. The partial differential or algebraic equations representing these laws, and the principal numerical methods that allow approximate solutions of these equations that can provide useful solutions to model different geochemical processes, are discussed in detail. Case studies applying geochemical models in different scientific areas and environmental settings, conclude the book. The book is addressed to students, teachers, other professionals, and to the institutions involved in water, geothermal and hydrocarbon resources, mining, and environmental management. The book should prove useful to undergraduate and graduate students, postgraduates, professional geologists and geophysicists, engineers, environmental scientists, soil scientists, hydrochemists, and others interested in water and geochemistry.

Rare Earth Elements in Groundwater Flow Systems

Author: Karen H. Johannesson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140203234X

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 1694

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This is the first book of its kind to focus on the geochemistry of the lanthanide series elements in groundwater/aquifer environments. The contributors are leading researchers in the study of low-temperature geochemistry of rare earth elements. Individual chapters address analytical techniques, water-rock interactions, aqueous complexation, and the reactions and processes that influence these heavy metals along groundwater flow paths.

Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments

Author: O.M. Saether,P. de Caritat

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789054106463

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 3421

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Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments is a specialist book concerned with the natural processes taking place where water interacts with minerals and organic matter at the earth’s surface, in soils or within aquifers. It focuses on the all important interface between the hydrological and geochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, and is thus particularly relevant to understanding the environment. The book is intended primarily as a reference text for graduate students in Earth Sciences, Hydrology or Environmental Sciences, but will be a useful introduction to those studying Chemistry, Biology or Forestry Studies. Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments presents an overview of the current status of knowledge of catchment studies, with an outline of the challenges of future research. .

Geochemistry of European Bottled Water

Author: Clemens Reimann,Manfred Birke

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783443010676

Category: Bottled water

Page: 268

View: 1106

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In Europe, ca. 1900 "mineral water" brandsare officially registered and bottled for drinking. Bottled waters isgroundwater and is in large parts of the continent rapidly developing into themain supply of drinking water for the general population.This book is the first state of the art overview of the chemistry ofgroundwaters from 40 European countries from Portugal to Russia, measured on1785 bottled water samples, equivalent to 1189 distinct bottled water brandsfrom 1247 wells in 884 locations plus an additional 500 tap water samplesacquired in 2008 by the network of EuroGeoSurveys experts all across Europe.In contrast to previously available compilations, all chemical data (containedon the enclosed CD) were measured in a single laboratory, under strict qualitycontrol with high internal and external reproducibility, affording a singlehigh quality, internally consistent dataset. More than 70 parameters weredetermined on every sample using state of the art analytical techniques withultra low detection limits (ICPMS, ICPOES, IC) at a single hydrochemical labfacility. Because of the wide geographical distributionof the water sources across 40 European countries, the bottled mineral,drinking and tap waters characterized herein may be used for obtaining a firstestimate of "ground- water geochemistry" at the scale of the EuropeanContinent, previously unavailable in this completeness, quality and coverage.The data published here allow for the first time to present a comprehensiveinternally consistent, overview of the natural distribution and variation ofthe determined chemical elements and additional state parameters of groundwaterat the European scale. Most elements show a very widerange, usually 3 to 4 but up to 7 orders of magnitude, of natural variation of their concentration. Data are interpreted in terms of their origin, considering hydrochemical parameters, such as the influence of soil, vegetation cover and mixing with deep waters, as well as other factors (bottling effects, leaching from bottles). A chapter is devoted to comparing the results from the bottled waters with those of European tap waters and previously published datasets. The authors also provide an overview of the legal framework, that any bottled water sold in the European Union must comply with. It provides a comprehensive compilation of current drinking water action levels in European countries, limiting values of the European Drinking/Mineral/Natural Mineral Water directives (1998/83/EC, 2003/40/EC, 2009/54/EC) and legislation in effect in 26 individual European Countries, and for comparison those of the FAO and in effect in the US (EPA, maximum contaminant levels [MCA]). The accompanying CD contains the extensive data sets, sample data (of 1189 different brands) and two previously published European water chemistry data sets.

Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances, Environmental Analysis of Groundwater

Author: Viatcheslav V. Tikhomirov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119160510

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 498

View: 4878

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Water is the Earth’s most precious resource. Until recent years, water was often overlooked as being overly abundant or available, but much has changed all over the world. As climate change, human encroachment on environmental areas, and deforestation become greater dangers, the study of groundwater has become more important than ever and is growing as one of the most important areas of science for the future of life on Earth. This three-volume set is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of hydrogeochemistry that is available. The first volume lays the foundation of the composition, chemistry, and testing of groundwater, while volume two covers practical applications such as mass transfer and transport. Volume three, which completes the set, is an advanced study of the environmental analysis of groundwater and its implications for the future. This third volume focuses more deeply on the analysis of groundwater and the practical applications of these analyses, which are valuable to engineers and scientists in environmental science, groundwater remediation, petroleum engineering, geology, and hydrology. Whether as a textbook or a reference work, this volume is a must-have for any library on hydrogeochemistry.

Readings from the Treatise on Geochemistry

Author: Heinrich D Holland,Karl K. Turekian

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123813923

Category: Science

Page: 680

View: 1761

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Readings from the Treatise on Geochemistry offers an interdisciplinary reference for scientists, researchers and upper undergraduate and graduate level geochemistry students that is more affordable than the full Treatise. For professionals, this volume will provide an overview of the field as a whole. For students, it will provide more in-depth introductory content than is found in broad-based geochemistry textbooks. Articles were selected from chapters across all volumes of the full Treatise, and include: The Origin and Earliest History of the Earth, Compositional Evolution of the Mantle, Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks, Soil Formation, Geochemistry of Groundwater, Geologic History of Seawater, Hydrothermal Processes, and Biogeochemistry of Primary Production in the Sea. Comprehensive, interdisciplinary and authoritative content selected by leading subject experts Robust illustrations, figures and tables Affordably priced sampling of content from the full Treatise on Geochemistry