Groundwater Geochemistry

Fundamentals and Applications to Contamination

Author: William J. Deutsch,Randy Siegel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873713085

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 9655

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Groundwater Geochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications to Contamination examines the integral role geochemistry play s in groundwater monitoring and remediation programs, and presents it at a level understandable to a wide audience. Readers of all backgrounds can gain a better understanding of geochemical processes and how they apply to groundwater systems. The text begins with an explanation of fundamental geochemical processes, followed by a description of the methods and tools used to understand and simulate them. The book then explains how geochemistry applies to contaminant mobility, discusses remediation system design, sampling program development, and the modeling of geochemical interactions. This clearly written guide concludes with specific applications of geochemistry to contaminated sites. This is an ideal choice for readers who do not have an extensive technical background in aqueous chemistry, geochemistry, or geochemical modeling. The only prerequisite is a desire to better understand natural processes through groundwater geochemistry.

Groundwater Geochemistry

A Practical Guide to Modeling of Natural and Contaminated Aquatic Systems

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540746683

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 5502

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To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.

Arsenic in Ground Water

Author: Alan H. Welch,Kenneth G. Stollenwerk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306479567

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 7233

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Interest in arsenic in ground water has greatly increased in the past decade because of the increased awareness of human health effects and the costs of avoidance or treatment of ground water supplies used for consumption. The goal of this book is to provide a description of the basic processes that affect arsenic occurrence and transport by providing sufficient background information on arsenic geochemistry and descriptions of hi- arsenic ground water, both affected and unaffected by human activity. An understanding of thermodynamics, adsorption, and the speciation of arsenic in solid phases, which are described in first three chapters, is needed to predict the fate of arsenic in ground water systems. Large-scale and deep movement of ground water can and has redistributed arsenic in the near surface environment, as described in the next two chapters. These large-scale systems can affect large volumes of both ground water and surface water, such as in the Yellowstone system, and can produce mineralised zones that subsequently release arsenic to ground water supplies. Regional identification of high-arsenic ground water and its consumption as described in the next three chapters clearly demonstrates a need for increased wat- quality monitoring, particularly in south and southeast Asia. Chapters 9-11 provide examples of high arsenic ground water associated with sulfide mineral oxidation and alkaline conditions. Finally, smaller scale studies of the effects of human activities that have produced high-arsenic ground water and methods for attenuation of ground water are presented.

Grundwasserchemie

Praxisorientierter Leitfaden zur numerischen Modellierung von Beschaffenheit, Kontamination und Sanierung aquatischer Systeme

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 366207611X

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 2020

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Die Autoren konzentrieren sich in ihrem Werk auf die Lösung praxisorientierter hydrogeochemischer Fragestellungen und schließen damit eine Lücke im Bereich anwendungsorientierter Lehrbücher. Ein erster Teil fasst dabei die Theorie soweit zusammen, daß es auch Neulingen im Bereich der Modellierung und Nichtchemikern leicht gemacht wird, das anspruchsvolle Thema zu erfassen. Akademikern mit hydrogeologischer oder chemischer Grundausbildung sowie Studenten höherer Semester in den relevanten Fachgebieten erlaubt das Buch, anhand der beschriebenen Beispiele und Lösungen, eine eigenständige Erarbeitung der Sachverhalte. Die beiliegende CD-ROM ermöglicht zudem eine rasche Überprüfung der Ergebnisse, bzw. das Nachvollziehen aller Aufgaben und Lösungen anhand der beigefügten PhreeC-Eingabedateien. Da das Programm PhreeC kostenfrei verfügbar ist und mit Windows-Oberfläche auf der CD-ROM vorhanden ist, kann sofort mit der Modellierung begonnen werden.

Grundwasserchemie

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540874690

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 6580

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Der praxisorientierte Leitfaden bietet einen schnellen Einstieg in die thermodynamische Modellierung. Aufbauend auf einem minimalen theoretischen Hintergrund liegt der Fokus auf praktischen Beispielen unter Anwendung des Computerprogramms PHREEQC. In der Neuauflage sind zusätzlich die Möglichkeiten des CD-MUSIC-Konzepts zur Oberflächenmodellierung erläutert. Detaillierte Beschreibungen helfen dem Nutzer, schrittweise zu immer komplexeren Modellierungen zu gelangen. Alle Programme sowie die Lösungen zu den Aufgaben befinden sich auf der CD zum Buch.

Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591749

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 5157

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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry

Author: Frank Chapelle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471348528

Category: Nature

Page: 477

View: 4530

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Up-to-date coverage and a unique, multidisciplinary approach The ongoing effort to protect our valuable ground-water resources necessarily involves scientists and engineers from many disciplines. Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry, Second Edition is designed to bridge the historical lack of communication among these disciplines by detailing-in language that cuts across specialties-the impact of microorganisms and microbial processes on ground-water systems. Carefully revised to reflect the many recent discoveries that have been made in the field, the Second Edition begins with an overview of microbiology, ideal for hydrologists and others who may lack formal training in the field. These initial chapters systematically cover the kinds of microorganisms found in subsurface environments, focusing on their growth, metabolism, genetics, and ecology. The second part of the book offers a hydrologic perspective on how microbial processes affect ground-water geochemistry in pristine systems. It also introduces the different classes of ground-water systems, and gives an overview of techniques for sampling subsurface environments. Readers gain an understanding of biogeochemical cycling in ground-water systems-in coverage unique to this book-and how ground-water chemistry can be used to study microbial processes in aquifer systems. The final section of the book deals with the biodegradation of human-introduced contaminants in ground-water systems, with an up-to-date review of the physiology, biochemistry, and redox conditions that favor biodegradation processes. Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry, Second Edition is important reading for geoscientists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers, as well as for water planners and lawyers involved in environmental issues. It also serves as a compelling text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in ground-water chemistry.

Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution

Author: C.A.J. Appelo,Dieke Postma

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439833544

Category: Science

Page: 668

View: 5101

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Building on the success of its 1993 predecessor, this second edition of Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution has been thoroughly re-written, updated and extended to provide a complete and authoritative account of modern hydrogeochemistry. Offering a quantitative approach to the study of groundwater quality and the interaction of water, minerals, gases, pollutants and microbes, this book shows how physical and chemical theory can be applied to explain observed water qualities and variations over space and time. Integral to the presentation, geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code is demonstrated, with step-by-step instructions for calculating and simulating field and laboratory data. Numerous figures and tables illustrate the theory, while worked examples including calculations and theoretical explanations assist the reader in gaining a deeper understanding of the concepts involved. A crucial read for students of hydrogeology, geochemistry and civil engineering, professionals in the water sciences will also find inspiration in the practical examples and modeling templates.

Surface and Ground Water, Weathering, and Soils

Treatise on Geochemistry, Second Edition

Author: J.I. Drever

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080547596

Category: Science

Page: 644

View: 9984

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Volume 5 has several objectives. The first is to present an overview of the composition of surface and ground waters on the continents and the mechanisms that control the compositions. The second is to present summaries of the tools and methodologies used in modern studies of the geochemistry of surface and ground waters. The third is to present information on the role of weathering and soil formation in geochemical cycles: weathering affects the chemistry of the atmosphere through uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen, and paleosols (preserved soils in the rock record) provide information on the composition of the atmosphere in the geological past. Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry (10 Volume Set, ISBN 0-08-043751-6, published in 2003). Present an overview of the composition of surface and ground waters on the continents and the mechanisms that control the compositions Provides summaries of the tools and methodologies used in modern studies of the geochemistry of surface and ground waters Features information on the role of weathering and soil formation in geochemical cycles Contains information on the composition of the atmosphere in the geological past Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry, 10 volume set