How Institutions Evolve

The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan

Author: Kathleen Thelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521546744

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 333

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Kathleen Thelen explains the historical origins of important cross-national differences in four countries (Germany, Britain, the United States and Japan), and also provides a theory of institutional change over time. The latter is considered a frontier issue in institutionalist analysis, of which there are several varieties emerging from economics, political science, and sociology. Thelen's study contributes to the literature on the political economy of the developed democracies that focuses on different institutional arrangements defining distinctive models of capitalism.

How Institutions Evolve

The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan

Author: Kathleen Thelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139456199

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8566

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The institutional arrangements governing skill formation are widely seen as a key element in the institutional constellations defining 'varieties of capitalism' across the developed democracies. This book explores the origins and evolution of such institutions in four countries - Germany, Britain, the United States and Japan. It traces cross-national differences in contemporary training regimes back to the nineteenth century, and specifically to the character of the political settlement achieved among employers in skill-intensive industries, artisans, and early trade unions. The book also tracks evolution and change in training institutions over a century of development, uncovering important continuities through putative 'break points' in history. Crucially, it also provides insights into modes of institutional change that are incremental but cumulatively transformative. The study underscores the limits of the most prominent approaches to institutional change, and identifies the political processes through which the form and functions of institutions can be radically reconfigured over time.

Varieties of Liberalization and the New Politics of Social Solidarity

Author: Kathleen Thelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107053161

Category: Political Science

Page: 282

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This book examines contemporary changes in labor market institutions in the United States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands, focusing on developments in three arenas - industrial relations, vocational education and training, and labor market policy. While confirming a broad, shared liberalizing trend, it finds that there are in fact distinct varieties of liberalization associated with very different distributive outcomes. Most scholarship equates liberal capitalism with inequality and coordinated capitalism with higher levels of social solidarity. However, this study explains why the institutions of coordinated capitalism and egalitarian capitalism coincided and complemented one another in the "Golden Era" of postwar development in the 1950s and 1960s, and why they no longer do so. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, this study reveals that the successful defense of the institutions traditionally associated with coordinated capitalism has often been a recipe for increased inequality due to declining coverage and dualization. Conversely, it argues that some forms of labor market liberalization are perfectly compatible with continued high levels of social solidarity and indeed may be necessary to sustain it.

Beyond Continuity

Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies

Author: Wolfgang Streeck,Kathleen Ann Thelen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199280452

Category: Political Science

Page: 290

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Debates surrounding institutional change have become increasingly central to Political Science, Management Studies, and Sociology, opposing the role of globalization in bringing about a convergence of national economies and institutions on one model to theories about 'Varieties of Capitalism'. This book brings together a distinguished set of contributors from a variety to examine current theories of institutional change. The chapters highlight the limitations of these theories, finding them lacking in the analytic tools necessary to identify the changes occurring at a national level, and therefore tend to explain many changes and innovations as simply another version of previous situations. Instead a model emerges of contemporary political economies developing in incremental but cummulatively transformative processes. The contributors shoe that a wide, but not infinite, variety of models of institutional change exist which can meaniingfully distinguished and analytically compared. They offer an empirically grounded typology of modes of institutional change that offer important insights on mechanisms of social and political stability, and evolution generally. Beyond Continuity provides a more complex and fundamental understanding of institutional change, and will be important reading for academics, researchers, and advanced students of Political Science, Management Studies, Sociology and Economics.

Explaining Institutional Change

Ambiguity, Agency, and Power

Author: James Mahoney,Kathleen Thelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521118832

Category: Political Science

Page: 236

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The essays in this book contribute to emerging debates in political science and sociology on institutional change, providing a theoretical framework and empirical applications.

Varieties of Capitalism

The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage

Author: Peter A. Hall

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199247749

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 540

View: 7212

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What are the most fundamental differences among the political economies of the developed world? How do national institutional differences condition economic performance, public policy, and social well-being? Will they survive the pressures for convergence generated by globalization and technological change? These have long been central questions in comparative political economy. This book provides a new and coherent set of answers to them. Building on the new economics of organization, the authors develop an important new theory about which differences among national political economies are most significant for economic policy and performance. Drawing on a distinction between 'liberal' and 'coordinated' market economies, they argue that there is more than one path to economic success. Nations need not converge to a single Anglo-American model. They develop a new theory of 'comparative institutionaladvantage' that transforms our understanding of international trade, offersnew explanations for the response of firms and nations to the challenges of globalization, and provides a new theory of national interest to explain the conduct of nations in international relations. The analysis brings the firm back into the centre of comparative political economy. It provides new perspectives on economic and social policy-making that illuminate the role of business in the development of the welfare state and the dilemmas facing those who make economic policy in the contemporary world. Emphasizing the 'institutional complementarities' that link labour relations, corporate finance, and national legal systems, the authors bring interdisciplinary perspectives to bear on issues of strategic management, economic performance, and institutional change. This pathbreaking work sets new agendas in the study of comparative political economy. As such, it will be of value to academics and graduate students in economics, business, and political science, as well as tomany others with interests in international relations, social policy-making, and the law.

Forging Industrial Policy

The United States, Britain, and France in the Railway Age

Author: Frank Dobbin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521629904

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 262

View: 2398

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This book explores 19th-century railroad policies in the United States, France, and Britain to identify the roots of nations' modern industrial policy styles.

The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism

Germany and Japan in Comparison

Author: Wolfgang Streeck,Kōzō Yamamura

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801439179

Category: Political Science

Page: 261

View: 2938

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Why was the rise of capitalism in Germany and Japan associated not with liberal institutions and democratic politics, but rather with statist controls and authoritarian rule? A stellar group of international scholars addresses this classic issue in political development. In The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism, German sociologists and American and Japanese political scientists draw extensively on the work of economists and historians from their home countries, as well as from the United Kingdom and France. The contributors discuss the potential disappearance, evolution, and reconstitution of nonliberal capitalism in Germany and Japan by analyzing its historical origins from two perspectives: the emergence and survival of nonliberal capitalism, and the causes of differences between the systems of Germany and Japan. They also outline the requirements for internally coherent national models of an embedded capitalist economy. The histories of German and Japanese capitalism demonstrate that capitalism's structural forms and functional relations evolve by means of different processes with different goals.

From the Ballot to the Blackboard

The Redistributive Political Economy of Education

Author: Ben W. Ansell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521190185

Category: Education

Page: 248

View: 908

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Provides the first comprehensive account of the political economy of education spending across the developed and developing world.

University Adaptation in Difficult Economic Times

Author: Paola Mattei

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199989419

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 8933

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Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges confronting Europe's universities today. Despite the fact that universities are at the centre of knowledge creation and development, which itself is seen as one of the main engines of economic growth, public funding of higher education in most countries is not increasing or at least not increasing enough in real terms. "Democratisation of higher education" has led to the fact that the higher education budgets per student are relatively low in most European countries compared to Europe's competitors. Despite declarations of intent to increase spending on higher education and research, it is not very likely that public expenditure will grow significantly on average in Europe and therefore be able to keep up with rapidly inflating costs in the years to come. One of the reasons for this is that higher education and research have to compete with other priorities in public budgets (e.g., security, health, etc.). Furthermore, the recent economic downturn has contributed to the decision in many European countries to decrease the levels of investment in higher education and research. Such trends are particularly worrisome for universities across Europe, whose continuing dependence on public funding puts their future sustainability under pressure. New funding schemes and incentives have been discussed and introduced in many European higher education systems, including competitive funding schemes for research under the name of "excellence" policies. Despite the different national institutional configurations in Europe, higher education systems face similar demands of promoting sustainable funding models, maintaining high academic standards, and equality. Thus, financial sustainability is not an end in itself; it aims to ensure that the public university's goals are reached by guaranteeing that the institution produces sufficient income to enable it to invest in high quality education and produce equitable outcomes. For these reasons, this book analyses funding reforms from a multidimensional approach.

Egypt after Mubarak

Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World

Author: Bruce K. Rutherford

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400846145

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

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Which way will Egypt go now that Husni Mubarak's authoritarian regime has been swept from power? Will it become an Islamic theocracy similar to Iran? Will it embrace Western-style liberalism and democracy? Egypt after Mubarak reveals that Egypt's secularists and Islamists may yet navigate a middle path that results in a uniquely Islamic form of liberalism and, perhaps, democracy. Bruce Rutherford draws on in-depth interviews with Egyptian judges, lawyers, Islamic activists, politicians, and businesspeople. He utilizes major court rulings, political documents of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the writings of Egypt's leading contemporary Islamic thinkers. Rutherford demonstrates that, in post-Mubarak Egypt, progress toward liberalism and democracy is likely to be slow. Essential reading on a subject of global importance, this edition includes a new introduction by Rutherford that takes stock of the Arab Spring and the Muslim Brotherhood's victories in the 2011-2012 elections.

Introduction to Comparative Politics

Author: Mark Kesselman,Joel Krieger,William Joseph

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1111831823

Category: Political Science

Page: 736

View: 4408

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Updated to reflect today’s political climate, the Sixth Edition of INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS offers a country-by-country approach that allows students to fully examine similarities and differences among countries and within and between political systems. Each chapter offers an analysis of political challenges and changing agendas within countries and provides detailed descriptions and analyses of the politics of individual countries. The Sixth Edition offers a condensed narrative and student-friendly pedagogy such as marginal key terms and focus questions that will help students make meaningful connections and comparisons about the countries presented. INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS, Sixth Edition, consists of 13 country case studies, selected for their significance in terms of the comparative themes and because they provide an interesting sample of types of political regimes, levels of economic development, and geographic regions. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Accountability without Democracy

Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China

Author: Lily L. Tsai

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139466488

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Examines the fundamental issue of how citizens get government officials to provide them with the roads, schools, and other public services they need by studying communities in rural China. In authoritarian and transitional systems, formal institutions for holding government officials accountable are often weak. The state often lacks sufficient resources to monitor its officials closely, and citizens are limited in their power to elect officials they believe will perform well and to remove them when they do not. The answer, Lily L. Tsai found, lies in a community's social institutions. Even when formal democratic and bureaucratic institutions of accountability are weak, government officials can still be subject to informal rules and norms created by community solidary groups that have earned high moral standing in the community.

Social Capital in Developing Democracies

Nicaragua and Argentina Compared

Author: Leslie E. Anderson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521192749

Category: Political Science

Page: 309

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Explores the contribution of social capital to the process of democratization and the limits of that contribution.

Commissions of Inquiry and Policy Change

A Comparative Analysis

Author: Gregory J. Inwood,Carolyn M. Johns

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442668873

Category: Law

Page: 352

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Commissions of inquiry are a vital and ubiquitous part of the Canadian policy landscape. Established to answer the tough questions, they have been charged with examining almost every aspect of public life. This collection brings together leading Canadian scholars working in political science, public policy, and law to explore fundamental questions about the relationship between commissions of inquiry and public policy for the first time: What role do commissions play in policy change? Would policy change have happened without them? Why do some commissions result in policy changes while others do not? In search of answers, Commissions of Inquiry and Policy Change analyses ten landmark inquiries ranging across a variety of political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, and legal issues. Filling a significant gap in the literature, this volume will be a valuable resource for scholars and students of Canadian political science, public policy, law, and history, as well as a broader audience of readers interested in commissions of inquiry and their role in Canadian policymaking.

Capitalism without Democracy

The Private Sector in Contemporary China

Author: Kellee S. Tsai

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801462355

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 8230

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Over the past three decades, China has undergone a historic transformation. Once illegal, its private business sector now comprises 30 million businesses employing more than 200 million people and accounting for half of China's Gross Domestic Product. Yet despite the optimistic predictions of political observers and global business leaders, the triumph of capitalism has not led to substantial democratic reforms. In Capitalism without Democracy, Kellee S. Tsai focuses on the activities and aspirations of the private entrepreneurs who are driving China's economic growth. The famous images from 1989 of China's new capitalists supporting the students in Tiananmen Square are, Tsai finds, outdated and misleading. Chinese entrepreneurs are not agitating for democracy. Most are working eighteen-hour days to stay in business, while others are saving for their one child's education or planning to leave the country. Many are Communist Party members. "Remarkably," Tsai writes, "most entrepreneurs feel that the system generally works for them." Tsai regards the quotidian activities of Chinese entrepreneurs as subtler and possibly more effective than voting, lobbying, and protesting in the streets. Indeed, major reforms in China's formal institutions have enhanced the private sector's legitimacy and security in the absence of mobilization by business owners. In discreet collaboration with local officials, entrepreneurs have created a range of adaptive informal institutions, which in turn, have fundamentally altered China's political and regulatory landscape. Based on years of research, hundreds of field interviews, and a sweeping nationwide survey of private entrepreneurs funded by the National Science Foundation, Capitalism without Democracy explodes the conventional wisdom about the relationship between economic liberalism and political freedom.

The end of diversity?

prospects for German and Japanese capitalism

Author: Wolfgang Streeck

Publisher: Cornell Univ Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 401

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Institutionalizing Intersectionality

The Changing Nature of European Equality Regimes

Author: A. Krizsan,H. Skjeie,J. Squires

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137031069

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

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An exploration of the ways that multiple inequalities are being addressed in Europe. Using country-based and region-specific case studies it provides an innovative comparative analysis of the multidimensional equality regimes that are emerging in Europe, and reveals the potential that these have for institutionalizing intersectionality.

Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis

Author: James Mahoney,Kathleen Thelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107110025

Category: Political Science

Page: 322

View: 8886

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Situates comparative-historical analysis within contemporary debates in political science and explores the latest theoretical and conceptual advances.